“Calamansi (Citrofortunella microcarpa) Fruit Extract As an Effective Cockroach (Periplaneta Americana) killer”

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“In partial fulfillment of the requirements in Science and Technology Grade 7”

“Calamansi (Citrofortunella microcarpa) Fruit Extract
As an Effective Cockroach (Periplaneta Americana) killer”

Submitted to:

Sir Ronel Lenard Antonio
Grade 7 Science teacher

 Submitted by Group IV, 7-12

Members:

  • Juwan Miguel K. Ilagan
  • Enzo Roxas Macaso
  • Austin Manahan
  • Evan Nelle
  • Nadine Yap

Dedication

As proud Bedans,
We hereby dedicate this Investigatory Project to our community and our environment to help lessen the problem of pollution.
We also dedicate this project to our parents and our teachers who serve as our inspirations to make this project successful. Lastly, we dedicate this Project to God who gave us all the blessings for us to strive for excellence and make this learning experience fruitful.

Acknowledgement

The researchers would like to express the deepest gratitude to the following people. Without their support, this Project will not be possible.

First, to the parents of Researchers, Mr. and Mrs. Ilagan, Mr. and Mrs. Nelle, Mr. and Mrs. Yap, Mr. and Ms. Manahan, and Mr. and Mrs. Macaso.

Second, to Sir Ronel Lenard Antonio, our beloved Teacher who has been there with us providing us with his guidance to finish this Project.

Lastly, our friends and classmates, especially Ivan Joven, Jeanina Camacho, and Sherill Japitana who showed their unselfish support to full extent in making this Project successful.

Chapter I Introduction

We all know that our environment is everything that makes up our surroundings and affects our living condition on Earth——–the air we breathe, the water that covers most of the earth’s surface, the flora and fauna around us, and much more. But do we know what can possibly happen if this environment where we live in will be destroyed in the near future? Majority of the people are not aware on what they are doing. They are not aware what can possibly happen in the future if they keep on continuing destructive ways to our own environment. This problem may lead to the extinction of humanity and all the living things on this planet.

One of the major causes of environmental degradation is the use of what we know as the “synthetic Insecticides or Artificial Insecticides”. These Synthetic Insecticides are the main source of pollution due to their chemical content. This can be sources of pollution in air, in water, and land. Sadly, people these days rely more on artificially made insecticides more than the organic ones. The former do not just harm our Mother Nature but also affect our health in various negative ways. Richard Baker once said that “Our Health is our Wealth.” That’s why we need to nurture our environment and our health to continue living healthy and safe. But is there really a way we can prevent the use of these synthetic insecticides? What alternative can we utilize?

The answer to these questions is positive for there is something we can use other than the artificial ones. This is dubbed as the organic insecticides which are extracted from an animal or vegetable matter. They are more preferable to use than synthetic because they are eco-friendly because they have no chemicals, and are more affordable. In this study, our main objective is to find out whether the juice extracts of Calamansi (Citrofortunella Microcarpa) fruit is an effective ingredient to make an insecticide.

Background of the study

Cockroach is one of the most commonly noted pests here in Philippines. There are more than 3,000 species living in tropical regions. They are abundant in and dwell in high temperature areas. Cockroaches are also considered as the toughest insects on the planet because they can live for a month without eating anything. One of our biggest problems about cockroaches is that they are scavengers and will eat anything organic. They prefer food sources such as starches, sweets, grease, and meat products but others may include cheese, beer, leather, glue, hair, and flakes. They destroy our food sources and inflict it with carry disease-causing bacteria and fungi that contaminate our food. The bacteria and fungi that cockroaches have, carry diseases such as Dysentery, plague, e-coli, salmonella, typhoid and 25 other diseases that can poison our body and what even worse is such diseases can kill us.

The proteins in cockroach saliva and waste can also cause allergies and aggravate asthma. Some cockroaches can also destroy crops and plants.  We all know that rice is our staple food and the most important of all food. It connotes survival and the absence of it would mean starvation. The insects such as cockroaches will destroy it continuously; time may come that we will experience the scarcity of rice. Moreover, these pests also affect the fruits and vegetables crops from which we get the nutrients that are needed by our body and from which many people get their income. We need to produce an effective and eco-friendly insecticide that will kill such insects.

As concerned students and citizens, the researchers investigated and researched a solution to this problem – the extract from Calamansi (Citrofortunella microcarpa) fruit. This study focuses on the capabilities given by the extracts of Calamansi as an insecticide to the cockroaches, which can contribute in the attainment of health and wellness of our environment by making a natural produce insecticide. With the pollution and lifestyle changes, people need to equip themselves with eco-friendly mindset by going natural to counteract the radical effect of modern day living. Facts were gathered from books and the internet as references in order to get the significant and needed information for this study.

It is just very simple to make. We can do it in a short matter of time, less expenses, and lesser work but with great assurance that it is effective, though we cannot say that this is totally safe and has no harmful effects. However, with proper use and carefulness, this will be a big help for us all. This study aimed to know and prove that the extract from the Calamansi is effective as an insecticide to the cockroaches and has the potential to replace the artificially made insecticides we now have. This study also wants to find out if the said herbal solution will really be as effective as the proven artificial insecticides usually used by the people. This study is advantageous because it is eco-friendly. It cannot harm us and our Mother Earth as long as we use it properly.

Conceptual Framework

Experts Recommend Organic Insecticide than those Synthetic Insecticides for the reason that it harms our nature and our health. Many people mistakenly believe that the only way to launch an effective defense against the pest population is through the use of pesticides. This certainly is not true. All it requires is a bit of research on your part to discover several viable options for getting rid of the most common pests. Natural pesticides are often as close as your cabinets. You can have some remarkable success ridding your yard of ants with products from your kitchen or bathroom cabinets. In our country, insecticides that are artificially made are popular among the Filipinos.

Synthetic insecticides commonly made from chemicals are the most bought insecticide in the market. Based on these assumptions, the people believe that the only thing that they need to prioritize is the effectiveness of the product that’s why they use synthetic insecticides. However, Insecticides is not just about the effectiveness. We also need to consider variables such as its health effects, affordability, energy consumed etc. A good insecticide must possess these properties to make them necessary to be used. This Research focused on the capability of Calamondin Extract as an insecticidal agent that can be utilized in making an effective, affordable, healthy, and eco-friendly organic insecticide. The concept below generalizes the entire plan for this research.

Statement of the Problem

At the end of this study, the Researchers will be able to answer the following questions: General Problem: Is this study had proven the possibility of using Calamansi extract as an effective Cockroach killer?

Sub Problems:

  1. What components in Calamansi extract that could kill a cockroach?
  2. Does the concentration affect the effectivity of the Calamansi Extract against the American Cockroaches?
  3. What certain amount of concentration of calamansi extract is the most effective against the American cockroaches?

Hypotheses:

  1. The Calamansi Extract had not proven the possibility as an effective insecticide against cockroaches.
  2. The concentration does not affect the effectivity of the Calamansi Extract against the American cockroaches.
  3. There is no certain amount of concentration of Calamansi extract that is effective against the American cockroaches.

Significance of the study

All people around the world will surely benefit from this study not only because it is cheaper than the artificial insecticides but also it has medical values. Big production of these products will enable more Filipinos to lessen their expenses with regards to chemical insecticide products. This study will provide information that may lead to a new discovery of new organic insecticides. If this study is proven, this would help all people around the world especially to the tropical countries that have a lot of cockroaches. It will help the community lessen the number of cockroaches in their houses. This can kill cockroaches that cause food poisoning and allergies to the people without buying expensive commercial insecticides. Compared to commercialized products, this product don’t affect one’s health and can be apply to the cockroaches even without using masks for respiratory protection. The materials needed for this project can be easily found at home or even in the surroundings.

Scope and Limitations

This project focused only on making the extracts of Calamansi as an insecticide to the Cockroaches. This project also study some extracts to enhance the effectiveness of the said insecticide. Tests were conducted using the Calamansi Extract to prove the ability of this setup as an effective cockroach killer. There are only 2 limitations which are: Only cockroaches were used to prove this product as an insecticide and not yet tested to the other insects. This will not concern or answer if it is safe to our health.

Definition of Terms

Aggravate. Is to render less tolerable or less excusable.

Calamondin or “Calamansi”. Is a fruit tree in the family Rutaceae native to the Philippine Islands and has been dubbed the calamondin, golden lime, panama orange, chinese orange, acid orange, calamonding, or calamandarin in English.

Cockroaches. Are insects of the order Blattaria or Blattodea, of which about 30 species out of 4,500 totals are associated with human habitats.

Degradation. Is the process of deterioration.

Feasibility. Is an evaluation and analysis of the potential of the proposed project which is based on extensive investigation and research to give full comfort to the decisions makers.

Insecticide. Is a pesticide used against insects. They include ovicides
and larvicides used against the eggs and larvae of insects respectively. Insecticides are used in agriculture, medicine, industry and the household.

Organic. Is a matter that has come from a once-living organism, is capable of decay or the product of decay, or is composed of organic compound.

Synthetic. Is the combination of two or more parts, whether by design or by natural processes. Furthermore, it may simply being prepared or made artificially, in contrast to naturally.

References

  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Insecticide. accessed 30 December 2012
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calamondin. accessed 30 December 2012
  • “Kalamansi”. Philippine Medicinal Plants. Retrieved on 2011-05-31. Accessed 30 December 2012
  • “Lyles, Michelle” July 7, 2009 http://www.examiner.com/article/calamansi-a-great-citrus-fruit-to-know-and-grow . Accessed 30 December 2012
  • http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Calamansi. Accessed 30 December 2012
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cockroach. Accessed 31 December 2012
  • http://www.uri.edu/ce/factsheets/sheets/cockroaches.html. Accessed 31 December 2012
  • Rommel, Bellen 2009 http://som.adzu.edu.ph/research/pdf/2008-06-25-134948bellen,r..pdf. Accessed 31 December 2012
  • Rummel, Dietmar. 2005. Useful plants of the Philippines. Vol.1 A Scientific Guide to Modern Botanical Medicine Phytopharmacology/ Phytotheraphy/
    Economic Botany. Accessed 31 December 2012
  • Gibb, Heather. 2002. Gender Dimensions of Intellectual Property and Traditional Knowledge. Accessed 31 December 2012 Retrieved, January, 2008, Plant Images. http://www.swsbm.com/homepage/nameindex. Accessed 31 December 2012
  • Premier Manufacterer of Philippine Calamansi and Dalandan Juice concentrate http://squeeze-c.com/about-us/benefits-of-calamansi/. Accessed 31 December 2012

Review of Related Literature

Foreign Literature

Calamondin or Kalamansi (Citrofortunella microcarpa) is a fruit tree in the family Rutaceae. It is an acid citrus fruit originating from China, which was introduced to the U.S as an “acid orange” about 1900.The fruit of the Calamansi is a small, round lime, a little bigger than the size of a thumbnail, about 30mm in diameter. The peel is thin and smooth, yellow to yellow-orange and easily separable. Calamondins can be grown as a dooryard tree as an ornamental and will do very well as a tub or container plant in colder regions that commonly do not grow citrus. It is moderately drough-tolerant. Similar to other citrus fruits, the Calamansi is high in Vitamin C, and the juice can be an excellent vitamin basis. The lively ingredient D-limonene destroys the wax coating of the insects’ respiratory system. As soon as applied directly, the insect suffocates.

Calamansi is a smooth and slightly spiny plant, growing to a height of 3 to 5 meters. Leaflets are elliptic to oblong-elliptic, 4 to 8 cm long. Petioles are narrowly and scarcely winged about a cm long. Flowers are axillary, solitary, rarely in pairs, white, and short-stalked. Fruit is yellow when ripe, nearly spherical, 2 to 3.5 cm diameter, 6 to 7 celled and thin skinned. The skin or peel is green to yellowish green or yellow, loosely adhering to the flesh. The flesh contains a few light orange seeds. A forum from beemaster.com shows that Calamansi juice can kill varroa mite. Varroa mites are external parasites of bees. The mites, which are about the size of a pinhead, use specialized mouthparts to attack developing bee larvae. The Varroa mite is a parasitic mite that can cause serious trouble to beakeepers and their bees alike.

Local Literature

Kalamansi belongs to the same group of citrus fruits as lemon. It is believed to be native to China and thought to have been taken in early times to Indonesia and the Philippines. It became one of the most important Citrus juice sources in the Philippine and is widely grown in India and throughout southern Asia and Malaysia. The fruit is only 2-3 cm in diameter, and is green or green-yellow. Small and round with slightly flattened ends, they can be picked green or ripe but the juice stays sourish. Kalamansi is usually halved and placed alongside dishes of mixed fried noodles and similar one-dish meals in Malaysia and Singapore, and squeezed over individual servings for a piquant flavour. In the Polynesian islands, the fruit is added to bland fruits such as papayas to make jam. In the Philippines the juice is squeezed from the fruit and used in a cordial concentrate which is diluted to make a refreshing cold drink.

References:

  • Charmaine Yabsley. Naturally Beautiful. London: Duncan Baird Publishers, 2004. Accessed 4 February 2013
  • Desmond Tate. Tropical Fruit. Singapore: Archipelago Press, 1999. Accessed 4 February 2013
  • Charmaine Solomon. Encyclopedia of Asian Food. Australia: New Holland Publishers (Australia) Pty Ltd., 1998. February 04, 2013. Accessed 4 February 2013
  • Morton, J. 1987. Calamondin. p. 176–178. In: Fruits of warm climates. Julia F. Morton, Miami, FL. . Accessed 4 February 2013

American Cockroach (Periplaneta Americana)

Foreign Literature

The American cockroach, Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus), is the largest of the common peridomestic cockroaches measuring on average 4 cm in length. It occurs in buildings throughout Florida especially in commercial buildings. In the northern United States the cockroach is mainly found in steam heat tunnels or large institutional buildings. The American cockroach is second only to the German cockroach in abundance.

Forty-seven species are included in the genus Periplaneta, none of which are endemic to the U.S. (Bell and Adiyodi 1981). The American cockroach, P. americana, was introduced to the United States from Africa as early as 1625 (Bell and Adiyodi 1981). The American cockroach has spread throughout the world by commerce. The cockroach is often found residing indoors as well as outdoors. It is found mainly in basements, sewers, steam tunnels, and drainage systems (Rust et. al. 1991). This cockroach is readily found in commercial and large buildings such as restaurants, grocery stores, bakeries, and where food is prepared and stored. The American cockroach is rarely found in houses, however after heavy rain infestations of the cockroach can occur in homes. They can develop to enormous numbers, greater than 5,000 sometimes being found in individual sewer manholes (Rust et. al. 1991). American cockroaches are found in moist shady areas outdoors, in yards, hollow trees, wood piles, and mulch.

They are occasionally found under roof shingles and in attics. The cockroaches dwell outside but will wander indoors for food and water or during extremes in weather conditions. In Florida, areas such as trees, woodpiles, garbage facilities, and accumulations of organic debris around homes provide adequate food, water, and harborages for peridomestic cockroaches such as the American cockroach (Hagenbuch et al. 1988). Mass migrations of the American cockroaches are common (Ebeling 1975). They migrate by crawling or flying into structures often entering houses and apartments from sewers via the plumbing, by trees and shrubs located alongside buildings or trees with branches overhanging roofs facilitate the entry of cockroaches into the home. During the day the American cockroach, which responds negatively to light, rests in harborages close to water pipes, sinks, baths, and toilets, for example, where the microclimate is suitable for survival (Bell and Adiyodi 1981).

Description and Behavior

The American cockroach is the largest of the species common to Pennsylvania. Adults are approximately 1-1/2 inches long and reddish brown, with fully developed wings that cover the entire length of the abdomen (Fig. 1). Both male and female are fully winged.

The wings of the male extend slightly beyond the tip of the abdomen, while those of the female are about the same length as the abdomen. Nymphs are similar in appearance but are smaller and do not have wings. American cockroaches are capable of flying but rarely do in northern areas of the United States. The American cockroach can be identified by its large size and reddish brown color with faded yellow edges on the thorax. When indoors, the nymphs and adults are usually found in dark, warm and moist areas of basements and crawl spaces, and in and around bathtubs, clothes hampers, floor drains, pipe chases, and sewers. They are also common around the manholes of sewers, and on the undersides of metal covers over large sump pumps.

In the north, this cockroach is often associated with steam heat tunnels. Where steam heat tunnels are not found, the American cockroach is restricted primarily to large institutional buildings. It has also been observed migrating from one building to another during warm months in the north. Occasionally, the cockroaches infest sanitary landfills and can survive Pennsylvania winters because of the warmth generated within the piles of trash. American cockroaches feed on a variety of foods, with an apparent preference for decaying organic matter. The adults can survive two or three months without food but only about a month without water. Egg: Females of the American cockroach lay their eggs in a hardened, purse-shaped egg case called an ootheca. About one week after mating the female produce an ootheca and at the peak of her reproductive period, she may form about two ootheca per week (Bell and Adiyodi 1981).

The females on average produce an egg case about once a month for ten months laying 16 eggs per egg case. The female deposits the ootheca near a source of food by either simply dropping it or gluing it to a surface with a secretion from her mouth. The deposited ootheca contains water sufficient for the eggs to develop without receiving additional water from the substrate (Bell and Adiyodi 1981). The egg case is brown when deposited and turns black in a day or two. A typical egg case contains about 14 to 16 eggs. It is about 8 mm long and 5 mm high. Larva or Nymph: The nymphal stage begins when the egg hatches and ends with the emergence of the adult. The number of times an American cockroach molts varies from six to 14 (Bell and Adiyodi 1981).

The first instar American cockroach is white immediately after hatching then becomes a grayish brown. After molting instars of the cockroach nymphs are white and then become a uniformly reddish-brown with the posterior margins of the thoracic and abdominal segments being a darker color. Wings are not present in the nymphal stages and wig pads become noticeable in the third or fourth instar. Complete development from egg to adult is about 600 days. The nymphs as well as the adults actively forage for food and water. Adult: The adult American cockroach is reddish brown in appearance with a pale-brown or yellow band around the edge of the pronotum. The males are longer than the females because their wings extend 4 to 8 mm beyond the tip of the abdomen. Males and females have a pair of slender, jointed cerci at the tip of the abdomen. The male cockroaches have cerci with 18 to 19 segments while the female has 13 to 14 segments. The male American cockroaches have a pair of styli between the cerci while the females do not.

Diet

The American cockroach is an omnivorous and opportunistic feeder. It consumes decaying organic matter but since the cockroach is a scavenger it will eat most anything. It prefers sweets and has been observed eating paper, boots, hair, bread, fruit, book bindings, fish, peanuts, old rice, putrid sake, the soft part on the inside of animal hides, cloth and dead insects (Bell and Adiyodi 1981).

Medical and Economic Significance

American cockroaches can become a public health problem due to their association with human waste and disease, and their ability to move from sewers into homes and commercial establishments. In the United States during the summer, alleyways and yards maybe overrun by these cockroaches. The cockroach is found in caves, mines, privies, latrines, cesspools, sewers, sewerage treatment plants, and dumps (Bell and Adiyodi 1981). Their presence in these habitats is of epidemiological significance. At least 22 species of pathogenic human bacteria, virus, fungi, and protozoans, as well as five species of helminthic worms, have been isolated from field collected American cockroaches (Rust et. al. 1991). Cockroaches are also aesthetically displeasing because they can soil items with their excrement and regurgitation.

Management

Several hymenopteran natural enemies of the American cockroach have been found (Suiter et. al. 1998). These parasitic wasps deposit their eggs in the cockroach ootheca preventing the emergence of cockroach nymphs. Caulking of penetrations through ground level walls, removal of rotting leaves, and limiting the moist areas in and around a structure can help in reducing areas that are attractive to these cockroaches. Other means of management are insecticides that can be applied to basement walls, wood scraps, and other infested locations. Residual sprays can be applied inside and around the perimeter of an infested structure. When insecticides and sprays are used to manage cockroach populations they may ultimately kill off the parasitic wasps. Injury / Damage

American cockroaches feed upon a great variety of materials such as cheese, beer, leather, bakery products, starch in book bindings, manuscripts, glue, hair, flakes of dried skin, dead animals, plant materials, soiled clothing, and glossy paper with starch sizing. The most important aspect of cockroach damage derives from the insects’ habit of feeding and harboring in damp and unsanitary places such as sewers, garbage disposals, kitchens, bathrooms, and indoor storage indoors. Filth from these sources is spread by cockroaches to food supplies, food preparation surfaces, dishes, utensils, and other surfaces. Cockroaches contaminate far more food than they are able to eat. From various points in their bodies American cockroaches and cockroaches in general, produce odorous secretions that can affect the flavor of various foods.

When populations are high, these secretions may result in a characteristic odor in the general region of the infestation. Disease-producing organisms such as bacteria, protozoa, and viruses have been found in cockroach bodies. Different forms of gastroenteritis (food poisoning, dysentery, diarrhea, etc.) appear to be the principal diseases transmitted by these cockroaches. These disease-causing organisms are carried on the legs and bodies of cockroaches, and are deposited on food and utensils as cockroaches forage. Cockroach excrement and cast skins also contain a number of allergens, to which many people exhibit allergic responses such as skin rashes, watery eyes, congestion of nasal passages,
asthma, and sneezing.

References:

  • http://www.pestid.msu.edu/InsectsArthropods/Americancockroaches/tabid/236/Default.aspx. Accessed 4 February 2013
  • Cassidy, Frederic Gomes; Hall, Joan Houston (2002).Dictionary of American Regional English (illustrated ed.).Harvard University Press. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-674-00884-7. Accessed 4 February 2013
  • Bell, W.J.; Adiyodi, K.G. (1981). The American Cockroach. London: Chapman and Hall. ISBN 978-0412161407. Accessed 4 February 2013
  • Barbara, Kathryn A. (2008). “American cockroach – Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus)”. Retrieved 2008-07-. Accessed 4 February 2013 IV. Definition of Terms

Larva. The newly hatched, wingless, often wormlike form of many insects before metamorphosis.

Peridomestic. Is pertaining to living in and around human habitations.

Hymenopteran. Any of various insects of the order Hymenoptera, having two pairs of wings and a characteristic thin constriction that separates the abdomen from the thorax.

Odorous. Having a distinctive odor.

Pathogenic. able to cause or produce disease.

Infestation. to inhabit or overrun in numbers or quantities large enough to be harmful, threatening, or obnoxious.

Aesthetically. Relating to the philosophy or theories of aesthetics.

Methodology

Research Design

This study is a descriptive research, designed to determine whether Calamansi extract is really an effective natural insecticide against American cockroaches (Periplaneta Americana)

Materials

To determine the effectiveness of Calamansi extract on terminating Cockroaches, 50 mL of Calamansi extract is needed for the making of the insecticide Getting the extracts are possible by using the following materials listed: Kitchen knife as the slicer of the Calamansi, chopping board, glass containers and beakers to serve as the container for mixing and storage, sprayer to apply the insecticide to the cockroaches, measuring cup for measuring, funnel for the transfer of storage, jar for the container and salt for preservative. Knife and Chopping Board Strainer Measuring Cup Beakers Glass container Glass funnel Calamansi

Procedures

The researchers first planned the experiment. They decided to compare 3 different amount of concentration. The researchers then gathered the materials needed in the experiment listed above. The researchers bought the following: 1 pack of Calamansi which is approximately equal to 100 mL, 3 spray bottles to serve as the container of three different concentrations of Calamansi. Three glass jars for the container of the cockroaches. The funnel and salt are provided by one researcher while the glass containers, measuring cups, beakers and other containers were aided by the Science laboratory. After gathering all the materials needed for the experiment, the researchers decided to catch the cockroaches which will be the experimental species in this research. 3

American cockroaches were caught in the dump site of San Beda Rizal. The three cockroaches were immediately contained in the three jars provided. The researchers immediately proceeded to the science laboratory for the experimentation after catching the cockroaches. The researchers then checked the materials if it is all complete. After checking, they brought out all the Calamansi along with the chopping board and sliced it up each into halves. After slicing, they put the strainer at the top of the spray bottle and squeezed all the calamansi fruit to produce 100mL amount of extract. After producing 100mL of Calamansi Extract, the researchers transferred 30mL of Calamansi Extract to each of the two other spray bottles. To change the concentration of the first spray bottle, the researchers added 15 mL of water to make it 50 percent concentrated with Calamansi extract.

The same with the second spray bottle, the researchers added 7.5 mL of water to make it 75 percent concentrated with Calamansi extract. After adding water to the 2 spray bottles, the researchers now had the one-hundred percent concentrated, seventy-five percent concentrated, and fifty percent concentrated. Then they brought out the cockroach and tried the 100% concentrated Calamondin and sprayed 8 times against the first cockroach. The first cockroach was killed. Next is they tried the 75% concentrated calamansi extract to the second cockroach. The researchers have sprayed it numerous times but it didn’t work. Lastly they tried the 50% concentrated calamansi extract to the last cockroach in the jar. The researchers have sprayed the 50 % Calamansi extract for many times but it didn’t work as well. After experimenting, the researchers recorded the necessary information and data.

Variables and Groups

  • Constant Variables
  • Independent Variable
  • Experimental Group
  • Controlled Group
  • Dependent Variable
  • Amount of Time
  • Amount of Concentration
  • Jar A (w/ cockroach)
  • Jar B (w/ cockroach)
  • Jar C (w/ cockroach)

To observe which concentration is the most effective among the cockroaches in Jar A, B, and C No. of sprays

To observe if the effectivity of the insecticide depends on the amount of concentration No. of cockroaches

This chapter shows the results of the study entitled “Calamansi Extract as an effective cockroach killer” in a tabular form.

Concentration

Analysis and Interpretation

As shown in the tabular representation, Calamansi extract whose concentration level is 100% is the most effective as a Cockroach killer compared to the other 2 concentrations. The three constant variables in the table are the following: Time, No. of sprays, and No. of Cockroaches per jar. The No. of sprays has a huge effect in the result of this experiment. The independent Variable is the amount of concentration. The dependent variable is to observe which is the most effective as a cockroach killer among the three concentrations. The experimental group is the cockroaches tested. Only the concentration with 100% is the only proven and effective as cockroach killer while the 75% and 50% are not effective as a cockroach kill

Conclusion

Therefore, the researchers conclude that upon the given results of their research, 100% concentrated calamansi extract is the most effective in killing American cockroaches. The 75% and 50% were not effective against the American cockroachers.This is because of the limonene found in the Calamansi which destroys the respiratory system of the cockroach. Upon using the insecticide, the researchers can assure you that it will be beneficial not just for you but also for our Mother Nature. Using the calamansi as an insecticide is environmental friendly. This kind of insecticide is natural, that is why there is no need for Consumers to buy on the markets in order for them to grow their Calamansi.

Recommendation

Since the researchers used the Calamansi for the experiment, they recommend using this natural insecticide to other insects. This insecticide might also be effective on any other insects. The researchers also recommend conducting other research on what are the others possible uses of Calamansi. Calamansi may also have some other uses not just as insecticides. Aside from a Cockroach killer, there can still be other insects that Calamansi can kill. Lastly, it would have been better if they added an extra D-Limonene. It would work best if they have put another variable like the extract of the onion. It could possibly kill the cockroach with the citrus of the calamansi and the strong scent of the onion.

Bibliography

  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Insecticide. accessed 30 December 2012
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calamondin. accessed 30 December 2012
  • “Kalamansi”. Philippine Medicinal Plants. Retrieved on 2011-05-31. Accessed 30 December 2012
  • “Lyles, Michelle” July 7, 2009 http://www.examiner.com/article/calamansi-a-great-citrus-fruit-to-know-and-grow . Accessed 30 December 2012
  • http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Calamansi. Accessed 30 December 2012
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cockroach. Accessed 31 December 2012
  • http://www.uri.edu/ce/factsheets/sheets/cockroaches.html. Accessed 31 December 2012
  • Rommel, Bellen 2009 http://som.adzu.edu.ph/research/pdf/2008-06-25-134948bellen,r..pdf. Accessed 31 December 2012
  • Charmaine Yabsley. Naturally Beautiful. London: Duncan Baird Publishers, 2004. Accessed 4 February 2013 Desmond Tate. Tropical Fruit. Singapore: Archipelago Press, 1999. Accessed 4 February 2013 Charmaine Solomon.
  • Encyclopedia of Asian Food. Australia: New Holland Publishers (Australia) Pty Ltd., 1998. February 04, 2013. Accessed 4 February 2013 Morton, J. 1987. Calamondin. p. 176–178. In: Fruits of warm climates. Julia F. Morton, Miami, FL. . Accessed 4 February 2013

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