Brady Emergency Care 12th Edition Chapter 8 Airway Management

airway
the passageway by which air enters or leaves the body.

bronchoconstriction
the contraction of smooth muscle the lines the bronchial passages that results in a decreased internal diameter of the airway and increased resistance to air flow

gag reflex
vomiting or retching that results when something is places in the back of the pharynx

head-tilt chin-lift maneuver
a means of correcting blockage of the airway by the tongue by lifting the head back and lifting the chin.

Used when no trauma, or injury, is suspected.

Jaw-Thrust Maneuver
a means of correcting blockage of the airway by moving the jaw forward without tilting the head or neck.

Used when trauma, or injury, is suspected to open the airway without causing further injury to the spinal cord in the neck.

Nasopharynegal Airway
a flexible breathing tube inserted through the patient’s nostril into the pharynx to help maintain an open airway

Oropharynegeal Airway
a curved device inserted through the patient’s mouth into the pharynx to help maintain an open airway

patent airway
an airway that is open and clear and will remain open and clear, without interference to the passage of air into and out of the body.

Stridor
high pitched sound from partial obstruction in the upper airway

Suctioning
use of a vacuum device to remove blood, vomitus, and other secretions of foreign materials from the airway

Oropharynx
Nasopharynx
Laryngopharynx
The Pharynx is divided into 3 regions. What are the 3 regions?

Oropharynx
the region of the pharynx where the oral cavity joins the pharynx

Nasopharynx
the region of the pharynx where the nasal passages empty into the pharynx

Laryngopharynx
the region of the pharynx where these structures surround the entrance to the trachea, designed to provide structure to and protection of the trachea opening

the glottic opening
the entry point into the larynx

cricoid ring
a complete circle of cartilage, forms the lower aspect of the larynx and provides structure to the proximal trachea

16 rings of cartilage
The number of rings of cartilage the trachea is protected by.

carina
The trachea branches at the ______ and form two mainstem bronchi

alveoli
tiny sacs that occur in grape-like bunches at the end of the airway

intact muscle tone
a patent airway requires control of the muscles that form the airway. This is referred to as ____________.

asthma
bronchoconstriction or bronchospasm is common in disease like _______.

retractions above the clavicles and between and below the ribs

nasal flaring

2 signs of inadequate breathing in infants and children

nasal flaring
widening of the nostrils with respirations

retractions
pulling in of the muscles when breathing

hoarseness
sound made when voice changes, raspy voice, airway swelling around vocal cords (like after a burn)

snoring
sound made when soft tissue of upper airway is partially obstructed

gurgling
sound made when fluid obstructs the airway, this sound tells you suctioning is necessary

airway and breathing
Protection of the spine is important in a trauma patient but this takes priority over that.

mechanism of injury can cause it (like a car crash)

any injury above the shoulders

someone tells you there is a spinal injury

what are 3 indications that an injury has occurred to the spine?

patient exhibits a gag reflex
what is the contraindication to using a oropharyngeal airway?

too big – directs air into the stomach

too small – won’t displace the tongue forward to open airway

if an oropharyngeal airway is not the right size, what can happen to the patient?

petroleum jelly or any non-water based lubricant

because of damage to nasal tissue lining and pharynx and risk of infection

when lubricating a nasopharyngeal airway what lubricant should you NOT use and why?

pull the tube out and try the other nostril
your inserting the nasopharyngeal airway and it’s having trouble advancing down the nose, what should you do?

evidence of a basilar skull fracture

Battle’s sign,
raccoon eyes
cerebrospinal fluid/blood from ears

what is the contraindication to using a nasopharyngeal airway?

endotracheal tube
this tube ensures an open airway to the level of the lungs but is is an advanced life support technique not done by EMTs

yankauer
AKA
tonsil sucker
tonsil-tip
the most type popular suction tip is the pharyngeal tip also called this.

vomitus, materials, or foreign bodies in the mouth
you would not ventilate a patient if these were found in the patient’s mouth

recovery postion
Suctioning is best delivered with a patient in this position

hypopharynx
another name for laryngopharynx

the bronchial passages or alveoli
A lower airway obstruction is most likely taking place in this area.

open the airway.

(then clear the mouth & give O2)

This is the very first step to aid a patient who is not breathing

using a finger sweep with a gloved finger
If large particles (teeth and solid particles) are found in the mouth, how should you remove them?

yankauer
this suctioning tip is a rigid device with a larger bore than most catheters, not used with responsive patient’s, but it is possible.

immediately remove the airway and prepare to suction.
As you are inserting an oropharyngeal airway, your patient begins to gag. You should do this

suction the patient immediately.
If a gurgling sound is heard during artificial ventilation, you should this

cerebrospinal fluid
An NPA shouldn’t be used if this has been found in the patient’s nose.

a tongue depressor
The preferred method of inserting an OPA in a child is by using this

the tongue sliding into the airway.
Most airway problems in adults are caused by this

head-tilt, chin-lift maneuver (non-trauma)
which maneuver provides for the maximum opening of the airway?

The head-tilt chin-lift or the jaw thrust?

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