Identify and briefly describe the five divisions of algae and phytoplankton addressed in lecture.
Identify the characteristics that place algae in the Kingdom Protista rather than in the Kingdom Plantae.
Identify and describe the various morphological types of algae.
Explain how the various algal pigments “equip” the various types to extend to certain water depths.
Identify the organism that is responsible for more oxygen production than any other single organism on earth; explain why this is possible given its small size.
Explain the relationship between algal blooms, red tide, and bioluminescence.
Kelp forests provide habitat
Only a few places in the world have the necessary conditions for kelp to grow
southern tips of Africa, Australia, and New Zealand,
west coasts of South America and North America
lush growth off the coast of California and Northern Baja California in Mexico.
rise and fall of one species affects the rest
Not all red tides are harmful
Some harmful blooms are colorless
Many dinoflagellates are bioluminescent
ice cream and other dairy products
processed foods, beverages, medicines.
paper, cosmetics, ceramics, paint, and insecticides
What does it do?
a thickener (makes substances less watery),
stabilizer (prevents rotting)
emulsifier (prevent separation)
Diatoms: Diatomaceous earth (pest control, filtration, insulation, abrasives…rips insides apart!)
Biodiesel from algae?
More effective at photosynthesis than plants
Vast ocean or desert regions could be used
No lignin in cell walls
No enclosed reproductive structures…in water…no transport needed
No vascular tissue
Require water at all times
Many different pigments…diff wavelengths
Do photosynthesis (like plants)
single cell: diatoms
Rhodophyta (Red algae)
Bacillariophyta (Diatoms and brown algae)
shorter wavelengths/more energy/penetrate deeper
deepest depths: blue absorbed and red reflected…
Both marine and freshwater
Types (Single celled, Colonial, Filamentous, Thallus)
Floridean starch (actually more like glycogen)
Source of agar (Gelidium)
Hard or soft? red is soft, pink/white are hard
wingnut vs cylindrical
Many are unicellular
Up to 25% of total primary productivity on earth…INDIVIDUAL CELLS!
Largest algae known (up to 60 meters and 300 kilograms)
Source of mucilaginous algin (improved flexibility, toughness, and resistance to drying)
Flagella beat within two grooves (spin)
Only half are photosynthetic
20% produce toxic compounds
Some are bioluminescent when disturbed