Botany 3: Algae

Algae: main ideas…KEY!
Describe both ecological and economic roles of algae.
Identify and briefly describe the five divisions of algae and phytoplankton addressed in lecture.
Identify the characteristics that place algae in the Kingdom Protista rather than in the Kingdom Plantae.
Identify and describe the various morphological types of algae.
Explain how the various algal pigments “equip” the various types to extend to certain water depths.
Identify the organism that is responsible for more oxygen production than any other single organism on earth; explain why this is possible given its small size.
Explain the relationship between algal blooms, red tide, and bioluminescence.

Ecological Importance
Base of aquatic food chains
Kelp forests provide habitat
Only a few places in the world have the necessary conditions for kelp to grow
southern tips of Africa, Australia, and New Zealand,
west coasts of South America and North America
lush growth off the coast of California and Northern Baja California in Mexico.

algae, sea urchin, sea otter…
CRAZY…Dr. Williams husband!
rise and fall of one species affects the rest

Darwin and Kelp Forests
Charles Darwin wrote about the kelp forests he saw in California “If in any country a forest was destroyed, I do not believe so many species of animals would perish as here from the destruction of kelp.”

Red Tide…may be toxic
microscopic algae
population explosion

more on red tide
Dinoflagellates cause red tide
Not all red tides are harmful
Some harmful blooms are colorless
Many dinoflagellates are bioluminescent

kelp harvesting
Algin from kelp is used in
ice cream and other dairy products
processed foods, beverages, medicines.
paper, cosmetics, ceramics, paint, and insecticides
What does it do?
a thickener (makes substances less watery),
stabilizer (prevents rotting)
emulsifier (prevent separation)

Economic Importance
Kelp harvesting
Diatoms: Diatomaceous earth (pest control, filtration, insulation, abrasives…rips insides apart!)

more Economic Importance
Red algae – food high in protein (Asia)
Biodiesel from algae?
More effective at photosynthesis than plants
Vast ocean or desert regions could be used
Entirely renewable
No lignin in cell walls

Algae (considered protists and not plants)
Possibly coenocytic (mult. nucleii in same cell…common in fungi too)
No enclosed reproductive structures…in water…no transport needed
No vascular tissue
Require water at all times
Many different pigments…diff wavelengths
Do photosynthesis (like plants)

Algal morphology
colonial: volvox
single cell: diatoms
parenchymatous…pretty large!

Algal Taxonomy (chosen phyla)
Chlorophyta (Green algae)
Rhodophyta (Red algae)
Bacillariophyta (Diatoms and brown algae)
Dinozoa (Dinoflagellates)

reflect and absorb diff wavelengths of light

where do the algae live?
red shallowest
violet deepest
shorter wavelengths/more energy/penetrate deeper
deepest depths: blue absorbed and red reflected…

coastal vs open ocean profiles…
coastal is warmer, more turbulent, more sediment/pollution

Green Algae (Chrolophyta)
Second largest group
Both marine and freshwater
Types (Single celled, Colonial, Filamentous, Thallus)

Red Algae (Rhodophyta)
Presence of the pigment phycoerythrin; (light reflected, light absorbed?)
Floridean starch (actually more like glycogen)
Source of agar (Gelidium)
Hard or soft? red is soft, pink/white are hard
wingnut vs cylindrical

Diatoms (Bachillariophyta)
100,000 species (largest group!)
Many are unicellular
Up to 25% of total primary productivity on earth…INDIVIDUAL CELLS!

Brown Algae
Laminarin (not starch is stored)
Largest algae known (up to 60 meters and 300 kilograms)
Source of mucilaginous algin (improved flexibility, toughness, and resistance to drying)

Brown Algae anatomy
holdfast, stipe, blade, air bladders (pneumatocysts)

kelp and growth rates
up to 2 feet a day!

kelp reproduction
same familiar reproductive landmarks

Dinoflagellates (dinozoa)
Most are unicellular biflagellates
Flagella beat within two grooves (spin)
Only half are photosynthetic
20% produce toxic compounds
Some are bioluminescent when disturbed

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What are vegetative organs in plants? Root, stem and leaf – these are essential for maintaining the life of the plant. What is the root system represented by in Gymnosperms (confirs, etc) and dicots? Taproot or principal root and lateral …

What is the name given to the types of organisms that can use photosynthesis to produce glucose? In addition, provide THREE specific examples. Organisms that use photosynthesis to produce glucose are called photoautotrophs. Algae such as Kelp(algae), euglena(protist)and cyanobacteria are …

Are euglena uni or multicellular? uni What kingdom to euglena belong to? Protista WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write my sample What organelle of the euglena carries or photosynthesis? …

Class 1: Pollution Sensitive … Mayfly (Life Cycle) Adults: Life only a few days – don’t eat. Nymphs (Naiads): Female adults deposit eggs on top of water where they drift to water; some also deposit eggs underwater on submerged objects; …

The organisms that can use photosynthesis to produce glucose are autotrophs. These are organisms which produces complex organic compounds from simple inorganic molecules by utilizing the light from the environment (main source is the sun) or other inorganic chemical reactions …

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