This principle refers to the relevance of the choice of exercise to the activity to be improved, which is javelin in this case. The exercises should be specific so that after the 6-week training period, I will be able to compete at a higher standard. This also includes which type of muscle fibres will be worked and that the same energy systems are used in training that are used in javelin throwing. Intensity Overload is the term used to describe training activities that are harder, more intense, and/or lengthier than normal physical activity undertaken by an individual (Physical Education and The Study Of Sport, Davis, Bull, Roscoe, Roscoe).
Overloading a human places certain parts of their body under particular amounts of stress, because of this the human biological system responds by becoming capable of withstanding this stress. Therefore the training should gradually show an increase in intensity as the program progresses, be it either an increase in sets or repetitions, or an increase in weight. Duration This must be taken into consideration so that the program is strenuous enough to work myself each session, and not be relatively easy but on the other hand not put my health at risk and trying to do more than my body can cope with.
Recuperation It is vital that after each training session I have sufficient time to recover before another session. This is because if I have not fully recovered my muscles may be tight or sore and therefore stressing those muscles at that point could risk my health. Warm Up / Cool Down The purpose of a warm up is that it prepares you for maximal levels of subsequent performance and reduces the risk of injury occurring within the performance (www. scrum. com). These should be carried out before every training session and last roughly 30 minutes. There are three steps of a warm up:
1. Light jogging to increase the pulse rate, increase oxygen movement within the body and warm the muscles up gradually 2. Light and gentle stretching of all the major joints and muscles. Each stretch should be held for at least 10 – 15 seconds and slowly stretched 3. Drills relating to the activity. In this case I slowly carry out the throwing action without the javelin or rotate my hips relevant to the throwing action slowly and under control. This improves my flexibility and kinaesthetic awareness. Not only does a warm up help you physiologically, it also gives you a mental edge.
This is because whilst warming up it gives me a chance to familiarise myself with the environment. Also a cool down is necessary after every session. This helps to minimise the onset of muscle soreness (therefore helping you to recover more quickly), allow your body to return to its normal resting state at a more gradual rate and help to prevent future injury. Cool downs should involve a continually decreasing exercise intensity (i. e. easy jog to brisk walk) for approximately 5 minutes, and a period of stretching. Stretching is very important at this stage, and each stretch should be held for approximately 20 seconds.
Weight Training Weight training is designed to increase strength. Many activities, such as javelin, require some form of strength. Free standing weights are weights that can be fixed on to long or short bars. These are usually preferred because weights can be added and taken away whereas some machine only carry a certain amount of weight. If these are used you must make sure you are not alone due to the risks involved in lifting weights. Isotonic training is where the amount of weight moved, or lifted remains constant throughout the movement. This is important as it relates to the way the muscles contract when they are exercised.
Isokinetic training is where specialist equipment is necessary because you need the weights to vary the effort as you work at a constant speed. These ‘variable resistance’ machines are expensive because they adjust the load so that the muscles are worked evenly throughout the movement. The value of these machines is that they can duplicate movements such as throwing and kicking. Isometric training is where a contraction is held at a particular point, this is useful for a gymnast because you are required to hold the position therefore in training you would hold the muscle in the required position for about five seconds and then repeat.
For my program I will include free standing weights because they are easily accessible and most weight exercises can be done with them. I also believe that I shall incorporate isotonic training into my program because it is the only one I can benefit from. Although the use of isokinetic machines would be extremely useful and beneficial the facilities available to me prohibit the use of such technology. Isometric training is unnecessary for javelin because muscles are not held in one place for very long at all.
Safety Aspects To ensure maximum safety when implementing my training programme it is vital that I consider all the safety aspects. Firstly, it is essential that any equipment is set-up and checked thoroughly before using it. This includes checking the collars on the freestanding weights are tight and not loose. This could cause very serious injury if the weights were to fall off whilst lifting. It is also necessary to make sure the environment around where I will be training is safe and clear of any hazards.
These include things such as bags and weights not being used, these should all be moved out of the way. Before carrying out any of the weight exercises I should seek advice from a professional such as a teacher or trained weights instructor. This is because it is vital the technique is correct from the start to not allow any bad habits. Simply reading how to do a particular exercise is not good enough because I cannot see myself whilst lifting and therefore need someone to watch. When using the weight machines I must ensure that I read the instructions and follow them fully.
Overtraining can be extremely dangerous if it is not controlled. I must not attempt to lift any weight that I am unsure of and start by trying a lighter weight and gradually progressing if they are too light. Simply putting the weight up dramatically can cause serious injury to the body. The Training Sessions I shall carry out 1 session a week for the first 3 weeks of the schedule. This is because I am new to weight training and do not want to push my body to an extent that will cause injury.
After 3 weeks I will then add another session each week to progress my training. I shall carry out the first session for 3 weeks on a Monday. I’ve chosen this day because it does not interfere with my club training and is the best day for me to get to the gym. Then after 3 weeks the second session during the week will be on a Thursday. This is due again to the fact that it is possible for me to get to the gym on this day and also gives me plenty of time between each session. Thus giving me ample of time to recover and feel my best for the next session.