Blood and its Components

Granulocytes are types of white blood cells that assists the body in the prevention of sepsis from invading foreign microorganisms and materials (“Blood and its Components”, 2006). It is also made in the bone marrow (“Blood and its Components”, 2006). The body normally makes colony stimulating factors (CSFs) to signal that there is not enough WBCs circulating in the blood (“Blood and its Components”, 2006). This leads for the bone marrow to make more granulocytes. (“Blood and its Components”, 2006)

Granulocytes can also be separated from whole blood if to be used for transfusion through a process called leukopheresis (“Blood and its Components”, 2006). The availability of artificial colony stimulating factors and the invention of better antibiotics made granulocyte transfusions rarely practiced (“Blood and its Components”, 2006). Our body needs nutrients and vitamins to have a healthy blood. The health status of the blood also dictates the emotional and social state we have (“Blood Nutrients”, 2007).

The vitamins are important organic compounds which are found in small amounts from diets naturally supplied for better metabolism (“Blood Nutrients”, 2007). The only source of energy we get comes from the foods we take in. The nutrients that provide energy are carbohydrate, proteins, and fats. Different nutrients give different amounts of energy (“Nutrition and Digestive System”, 2003) In carbohydrates, each gram of carbohydrates yields 4 Kcal. Carbohydrate includes simple carbohydrates and complex carbohydrates. Simple carbohydrates are simple and are small molecules, such as sugar.

Complex carbohydrates are combinations of simple sugars linked together to form large molecules, such as starch. The carbohydrates-rich foods include pasta, bread, and rice, among others. The foods with complex carbohydrates stay in our stomach longer than foods containing simple carbohydrates, because it takes longer to digest complex carbohydrates, which must be broken down to simpler chemicals first. In proteins, each gram of proteins yields four kilocalories. Proteins are known as the building blocks of the body and a good source of energy too (“Nutrition and Digestive System”, 2003).

In fats, each gram of fat yields nine kilocalories. Fats or lipids give more calories than either carbohydrates or proteins. Some forms of fats are important in our body such as cholesterol which is a vital part of cell membranes (“Nutrition and Digestive System”, 2003). But the body only needed fats in small amounts (“Nutrition and Digestive System”, 2003). Some fats are not healthy to the body as they may clog the blood vessels that may progress to cardiac diseases (“Nutrition and Digestive System”, 2003). However, many of us eat more than we need or more than is good for our health, because fats-rich foods often taste good.

Another necessary nutrients in the maintenance of healthy blood chemistry are vitamins (“Nutrition and Digestive System”, 2003). These nutrients are not sources of energy but are important for cells survival, growth, and function (“Nutrition and Digestive System”, 2003). Most of the vitamins must be supplied from the diet as the body does not readily synthesize them (“Nutrition and Digestive System”, 2003). Another vital contributors in our blood chemistry are sodium, potassium, chloride and other important elements.

Sodium is an unstable alkali metal element found in compound with other elements in nature like the common salt and albite (“Sodium”, 2007). Its characteristic is soft, waxy, light, and very malleable (“Sodium”, 2007). It is easily oxidized and produces a yellow flame when burned (“Sodium”, 2007). It can combine with water violently (“Sodium”, 2007). Petroleum and similar liquid can be used to preserve it (“Sodium”, 2007). A significant role of sodium is it helps to regulate blood pressure and fluid balance in the body.

Potassium is one of the serum electrolytes. It is the only natural alkali metal seen as a compound with other elements (“Gastrointestinal Complications (PDQ®) Patient Version”, 2006; , “Potassium”, 2007). Its characteristic is the usual soft, silver-white metal element (“Gastrointestinal Complications (PDQ®) Patient Version”, 2006; , “Potassium”, 2007). It is obtained by electrolysis forming hydroxide, oxidizes rapidly in air, and reacts violently with water. It is also used in glass making, soap making, in fertilizer, and in many drugs and chemicals.

There are also other body chemicals measured at the present century that have been essential in detection of other diseases. The measurement of uptake of T3 (triiodothyroxine) gives us an information of the available thyroxine binding globulin (TBG) in the blood (“Blood Chemistry in the 21st Century”, 2006). The TBG are protein carriers that transport T3 and T4 in the bloodstream (“Blood Chemistry in the 21st Century”, 2006). These hormones that are bounded are the reserved thyroid hormones of the body (“Blood Chemistry in the 21st Century”, 2006).

The detected amount of unbound thyroid hormones provides data if there is excess thyroid hormones in the body that may lead to hyperthyroidism (“Blood Chemistry in the 21st Century”, 2006). The thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) that are released from pituitary gland for stimulation of more thyroid hormones production can also indicate problems related to thyroid gland (“Blood Chemistry in the 21st Century”, 2006). A critical body chemical studied is cholesterol. Cholesterol is a greasy substance formed in the liver and can also be supplied from the diet (“Blood Chemistry in the 21st Century”, 2006).

The lipoproteins are the protein carriers of cholesterol in the blood that was made possible because it is soluble to serum (“Blood Chemistry in the 21st Century”, 2006). This substance is also a vital composition of cell membranes (“Blood Chemistry in the 21st Century”, 2006). It is also the precursor material of steroid hormones, Vitamin D, and bile salts (“Blood Chemistry in the 21st Century”, 2006). The excess cholesterol in the blood is not healthy because it forms plugs that may narrow the arteries and can lead to slower blood circulation (“Blood Chemistry in the 21st Century”, 2006).

This pathologic condition is called atherosclerosis that usually happens in coronary arteries which are the blood supply of the heart (“Blood Chemistry in the 21st Century”, 2006). Triglyceride is a compound of three fatty acid chains attached to a single glycerol (“Blood Chemistry in the 21st Century”, 2006). These fatty acids are the bulk source of energy for cell function (“Blood Chemistry in the 21st Century”, 2006). Triglycerides can be produced in liver when there is a scarce supply from the diet (“Blood Chemistry in the 21st Century”, 2006).

There is no verification yet of the possible risk that may occur with increased triglycerides in the blood but it is always associated in other primary threat causes (“Blood Chemistry in the 21st Century”, 2006). Also it was observed that if triglycerides are increased, there is a consequential decrease in HDL (high-density lipoproteins) which are considered as good cholesterol (“Blood Chemistry in the 21st Century”, 2006). Hemocysteine is the amino acid that when it is increased in the blood causes reaction to endothelial cells leading to atherosclerosis (“Blood Chemistry in the 21st Century”, 2006).

This amino acid is significant in metabolism and production of other amino acids (“Blood Chemistry in the 21st Century”, 2006). It has the ability to compound with blood proteins and blood cells for more rapid blood clotting than usual and transform cholesterol to a more harmful form (“Blood Chemistry in the 21st Century”, 2006). The intake of folic acid, and vitamins B6 and B12 can aid in the lowering of Hemocysteine levels (“Blood Chemistry in the 21st Century”, 2006). Lipoprotein in elevated levels can significantly lead to cardiovascular diseases (“Blood Chemistry in the 21st Century”, 2006).

The level of lipoprotein can be identified genetically (“Blood Chemistry in the 21st Century”, 2006). Treatment approaches done already are estrogen replacement therapy in post menopausal women and niacin supplementation to reduce lipoprotein levels (“Blood Chemistry in the 21st Century”, 2006). This is also a good indicator of acute and chronic bacterial infections (“Blood Chemistry in the 21st Century”, 2006). Carbon dioxide (CO2) is important in our body because its role is to do the formation of hydrochloric acid in the gastric acid. CO2 is inorganic gas composed of carbon and oxygen produced during composting.

Alkaline phosphate is a hydrolase enzyme responsible for removing phosphate groups from many types of molecules, including nucleotides, proteins, and alkaloids. AST (SGOT) is abbreviation for aspirate aminotransferase. The chemistry of blood has been under researched for years. The knowledge on blood chemistry helped medical professionals for the past years to detect problems in tissues that is provided limitedly in tissue analysis. The knowledge that the tissues are dipped in this very complex tissue, gave us the idea that the food and wastes that comes from these tissues may indicate the status of important tissues in the body.

The knowledge on the waste products of our tissues and their effects on the chemical characteristic of the blood like acidity and alkalinity had also governed the approaches made today on how to deal with them and treat them. The many chemicals people take in like alcohol and cigarettes, plus the countless pharmacological products like medicines, and vitamin and mineral supplements affects the equilibrium in the blood (Gellens, Gottheil, Arayate, & Alterman, 1976; Lavy et al. , 1994). As it passes to every tissue, it also affects the chemical status and characteristic of each tissue.

Though there is a vast knowledge available about the blood chemistry of human, many blood chemicals are there to be unveiled. In the long run, their uses and indications will be studied to further establish the knowledge related to it. At present, many researches are done also on the most efficient way to collect blood samples and at the same time, how these blood samples are to be read depending on the targeted blood component to be studied. Conclusion Blood is an important entity of our existence.

What we take in affects our blood chemistry that regulates the equilibrium in our body, thus, affects each body part function. Testing blood chemistry had been done for centuries as early as 17th century in Britain and France because they provide information of our body’s health status even before a disease occurs. This also proves that our body through the special and critical responsibility of blood defends our systems until it can and if not anymore, it reflects as a disease. Blood chemistry is an indicator of an existing disease or a disease under development like cancer.

The blood chemistry provides us an insight of our vital organs status like renal function, liver function, electrolyte levels, hormonal health status, coronary risk factors, blood cell types levels, blood sugar levels, and other chemical profiles in our blood necessary in disease and health recognition. It is also important to be aware how do other nutrients and vitamins help our body systems maintain a healthy blood, and what foods should we need to eat to get the right amount of nutrients that we will be needed.

In cases of alcoholism and smoking, blood chemistry indicates what organ is affected and if it is alcohol or cigarette that deteriorates the patient’s health or beforehand, the body is at risk already (Gellens, Gottheil, Arayate, & Alterman, 1976; Lavy et al. , 1994).


Ali, M. (2001). Oxygen, Ozone, & Hydrogen Peroxide [Electronic Version]. Oxygen. Retrieved 18 June 2007 from http://www. alternativehealth. co. nz/cancer/oxygen/peroxide. htm. Blood and its Components [Electronic (2006). Version]. Retrieved 18 June 2007 from http://www. cancer. org/docroot/ETO/content/ETO_1_4X_Blood_And_Its_Components.

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