Block 8 – Unit 1: Air Force Emergency Management Program

Air Force Emergency Management (EM) program
the single, integrated Air Force program to coordinate and ogranize efforts to prepare for, prevent, respond to, recover from, and mitigate the direct and indirect consequences of an emergency or attack.

Air Force EM Structure
– Homeland Security Presidential Directive (HSPD) – 5
– National Incident Management System
– National Response Plan

Primary Missions of the Air Force EM Program
*(1)* Save lives
*(2)* Minimize the loss or degredation of resources
*(3)* Continue, sustain, and restore combat and combate support operational capability in an “all-hazards” physical threat environment at Air Force installations worldwide.

Ancillary missions of the Air Force EM Program
*(1)* Support homeland defense and emergency preparedness

*(2)* Provide support to civil and host-nation authorities in accordance with DOD directives and through the appropriate Combatant Command.

National Incident Management Systems (NIMS)
provides a national template that enables Federal, State, local, tribal governments, private sector, and nongovernmental organizations (NGO) to work together effectively and efficiently to prevent, prepare for, respond to, and recover from domestic incidents regardless of cause, size, or complexity.

Air Force Inciden Management System (AFIMS)
designed to incorporate the requirements of HSPD-5, NIMS, NRF, and OSD guidance while preserving the unique military requirements of the expeditionary Air Force.

AFIMS: Incident Command System
Incident Commander
– Finance
– Logistics
– Operations (BE)
– Planning

AF Emergency Management Program
– A strategic planning and management staff to maintain an EM program.

– A tactical response structure to manage or conduct contingency response operations.

Strategic Element – Planning and Management
Emergency Management Working Group (EMWG) which a BEE Officer would attend the quarterly meetings.

Tactical Element – Disaster Response Force (DRF)
*(1)* Incident Commanders – First Responders – Emergency Responders
*(2)* Emergency Operations Center – Emergency Support Functions
*(3)* Unit Control Centers
*(4)* Specialized Teams

Unit Control Center (UCC)
provides mission support to the Incident Commander as directed by the EOC and to the installation Commander as directed by the ICC.

Provide a focal point within an organization to maintain unit command and communications, relay information to and from unit personnel, provide expertise to the EOC or IC, and leverage unit resources to respond to and mitigate the incident.

BE is part of the MCC – medical group’s UCC.

Incident Commanders (IC)
the person in charge at the incident and who must be fully qualified to manage the response. BE may assume IC for recovery operations where HRAs are the main concern.

First Responders
deploy immediately to a disaster scene to provide initial C2, to save lives, and to suppress and control hazards.

– Firefighters
– law enforcement security personnel
– key medical personnel
provide the initial, immediate response to a CBRNE Incident.

First responders are not assigned as augmenters or assigned to additional duties that will conflict with their emergency duties.

Emergency Responders
deploy to an accident scene after the first responders to expand C2 and perform support functions.

Include follow-on elements:
– firefighters
– law enforcement personnel
– security personnel
– emergency medical technicians
– CE Readiness personnel
– EOD personnel
– physicians
– nurses
– Public Health officers
– BE
– mortuary affairs personnel

Emergency Operations Center (EOC)
the command and communications (C2) support element that directs, monitors, and supports the installation’s actions before, during, and after an incident. Activated and recalled as necessary by the IC.

Emergency Support Functions (ESF)
groupings of capabilities that provide the support, resources, program implementation, and services that are most likely to be needed during emergency response.

Serves as the primary operational-level mechanism that provides support during an incident.

modified from the NIMS/NRP construct to implement AFIMS.

BE may augment a number of ESF:
*ESF 5:* Emergency Management
*ESF 8:* Public Health and Medical Services
*ESF 10*: Oil and Hazardous Materials Response

Specialized Teams
formed from the existing installation and unit personnel resources to support emergency response operations.

such as Readiness Support Team (RST), Shelter Management Team (SMT), Contamination Control Team (CCT), and Post-attack Reconnaissance (PAR) Teams.

Five Phases of Incident Management
*(1)* Prevention
*(2)* Preparedness
*(3)* Response
*(4)* Recovery
*(5)* Mitigation

Incident Management: Prevention
includes broad categories of activities such as intelligence collection and analysis, active defense, proliferation prevention, fire prevention, disease prevention, and contamination prevention. Also includes specific tasks such as safety mishap investigations that contribute information to prevent future mishaps.

Incident Management: Preparedness
includes actions such as emergency response planning, Air Force EM training, and the AF EM exercise and evaluation.

also includes specific tasks such as identifying augmentation manpower needs or reviewing Expeditionary Support Plans (ESPs)

Incident Management: Response
Includes deploying the DRF, executing the Comprehensive Emergency Management Plan (CEMP) 10-2 and notification and warning.

Incident Management: Recovery
Includes operations such as implementing casualty treatment, unexploded ordnance (UXO) staffing, Contamination Control Area (CCA) processing, airfield damage repair and facility restoration.

Recovery planning and actions begin as soon as possible to ensure sustainment of crucial missions and restoration of normal operations.

Incident Management: Mitigation
Includes general measures and all activities designed to reduce or eliminate risks to persons or property or to lessen the actual or potential effects or consequences of an incident.

An ongoing process and is considered, to some degree, a part of every phase of incident management.

Types of Emergency Response Incidents
*(1)* Major Accidents
*(2)* Terrorist Use of CBRN Materials
*(3)* Natural Disasters
*(4)* Conventional Attack

ER Incidents: Major Accidents
*(1)* Aircraft accident
*(2)* Vehicle crash involving hazardous materials
*(3)* Munitions accident

ER Incidents: Terrorist Use of CBRN
*(1)* Chemical – chemical wafare agents, toxic industrial chemicals/toxic industrial materials (TIC/TIM)
*(2)* Biological – anthrax, ricin, botulinum toxin
*(3)* Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD)
*(4)* Nuclear

ER Incidents: Natural Disasters
– Hurricane
– Tornado
– Flood
– Tidal Wave/Tsunami
– Earthquake
– Volcanic eruption
– Landslide/Mudslide
– Snowstorm

ER Incidents: Conventional Attack (including those using high-yield explosives)
– Vehicle-borne improvised explosive device (VBIED) parked adjacent to a hospital.
– An explosive device placed strategically on an aircraft
– An improvised explosive device (IED) placed alongside a well-traveled road.

Niosh Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards
provides a multitude of information for response operations.

– Ionization potential
– Chemical formula
– Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH) concentration
– Exposure limits
– Molecular Weight
– Boiling point
– Lower explosive limit

Emergency Response Guidebook (ERG)
guidebook for first responders during the initial phase of a dangerous goods/hazardous materials transportation incident. Also provides BE with information that can be useful during emergency response operations.

*(1)* Potential Hazards
*(2)* Public Safety
*-* Cordon sizes
– Large spill vs. Small spill
– Night vs. Day
– Fire involved
*-* Protective clothing
*(3)* First Aid

Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs)
developed as guidelines to assist in the control of health hazards.

*(1)* Exposure Limits
*(2)* Molecular Weight
*(3)* Notations
– Carcinogenicity
– Sensitization
– Skin

Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGL)
developed primarily to provide guidance in situations where there could be a rare, typically accidental, exposure to a particular chemical that could involve the general public. Based primarily on acute toxicology data and not sub-chronic or chronic data.

Designed to protect the general population including the elderly and children.

BE uses this to find out different exposure limits and effects based upon exposure concentration and exposure times.

– AEGL-1
– AEGL-2
– AEGL-3
– Odor Threshold
– Lower Explosive Limit

AEGL-1
the airborne concentration (expressed as ppm or mg/m3) of a substance above which it is predicted that the general population, including susceptible individuals, could experience notable discomfort, irritation, or certain asymptomatic non-sensory effects, However, the effects are not disabling, are transient, and are reversible upon cessation of exposure.

AEGL-2
the airborne concentration (expressed as ppm/mg3) of a substance above which it is predicted that the general population, including susceptible individuals, could experience irreversible or other serious, long-lasting adverse health effects or an impaired ablity to escape.

AEGL-3
airborne concentration (expressed as ppm or mg/m3) of a substance above which it is predicted that the general population, including susceptible individuals, could experience life-threatening health effects or death.

Medical Management of Biological Casualties Handbook
referred to as the “blue book,” was created to provide concise supplemental reading material to assist health-care providers in the management of biological casualties.

*(1)* Bacterial/Viral/Toxins
– Signs and symptoms
– Treatment
– Isolation and decontamination
– Medical Management
– Prophylaxis
*(2)* Emerging and future biological weapons
*(3)* Detection, protection, and decontamination

Medical Management of Radiological Casualties Handbook
designed to be supplemental material for management in uncontrolled exposure to ionizing radiation.
– Acute high-dose radiation
– Management protocol for Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS)
– Blast and thermal biological effects
– Contamination
– Biological Dosimetry

Medical Management of Chemical Casualties Handbook
to provide medical personnel in the field a concise, pocket-sized reference source for medical management of chemical casualties.
– Signs and symptoms
– Detection
– Decontamination
– Timeline of Effects

Vulnerability Assessments (VA)
defined as a DOD, command, or unit-level evaluation to determine the vulnerability to terrorist attack of an installation, unit, exercise, port, ship, residence, facility, or other site.

BE is involved in water vulnerability assessments and TIC/TIM vulnerability assessments.

Previous After Action Reports (AAR)
can identify issues with a location and lessons learned during past deployments. Provide information regarding industry types and problems identified. Can provide pertinent information about certain situations that may not be common place.

US Army Public Health Command (USAPHC)
has specific information for industrial bases that may be near deployed force locations, to include types of industry and hazard assessments.

US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
compiled information regarding major industries and the typical chemicals used, materials produced as waste, and most common emissions.

Department of Energy (DOE)
responsible for tracking all radiological material use across the United States and has direct contact with foreign countries. Can be helpful if the response involves an area with known radioactive material.

Intelligence Sources (Medical, Counter Proliferation, Facilities, and Regional)
provide excellent, actionable information for an occupation and environmental health site assessment (OEHSA), primarily used prior to deployments and for establishing baselines.

National Center for Medical Intelligence (NCMI)
Defense Intelligence Agency provides medical intelligence through this.
Produces finished, all-source, medical intelligence in support of the DOD and its components, national policy officials, and other federal agencies.

Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA)
also provides other pertinent operational intelligence to include counterproliferation, facilities, and regional information.

Provides chemicals, biological, radiological, and nuclear-related current and emerging threat information and regional politics.

National Ground Intelligence Center
will provide a better understanding of ground and operational threats.

Also provides information on protective and defensive measures specific to countries of interest.

Airfield Surveys
can provide orientation to the site location and help identify areas of concern, geographic features, hazards, and other pertinent information.

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