Biological causes of depression – Neurotransmitters

Which low levels of neurotransmitters called monoamines have been linked to depression?

What are these neurotransmitters involved in?
They are associated with punishment and reward. They help regulate the hypothalamus which is involved in sleep, appetite, sex drive and physical movement.

What does Kety’s Permissive Amine Theory state?
An imbalance of serotonin affects noradrenaline levels which can lead to depressive symptoms. Serotonin controls levels of noradrenaline. When serotonin is low, noradrenaline fluctuates. Low levels of noradrenaline lead to depression, high levels lead to mania.

What did Kety find to support his Permissive Anime Theory?
High levels of noradrenaline were found on the urine of manic people.

What did Teuting et al find to support Permissive Anime Theory?
Low levels of noradrenaline and serotonin were found in the urine of depressives.

What have post-mortems found to support Permissive Amine Theory?
People who had committed suicide had abnormally low levels of serotonin, suggesting it may have caused depression.

What did Thase found that criticised PAT?
Depressed patients had increased levels of serotonin.

Why is it difficult to suggest that low levels of serotonin are a cause of depression?
They could be a result of depression rather than a cause. It’s difficult to establish cause and effect. Does depression cause low levels of serotonin or does low levels of serotonin cause depression?

Does the use of antidepressants back up neurotransmitters as a cause of depression?
❌Anti-depressants do not just target the monamine neurotransmitters.
❌Drugs have an immediate effect on NT but can take weeks to have an effect on mood.
❌New antidepressants work on different ways and not be increasing neurotransmitter availability.

Etiology How the disorder is caused Biological Factors Genes: Wender et al. (1986) Nurnberger and Gershon (1982) [Twins studies] Duenwald (2003) Neurotransmitters: Burns (2003) [Brain serotonin] Rampello et al. (2000) [Neurotransmitter Imbalance] Hormone: Another biological theory of depression is the …

Several theories have been advanced to try and explain the basis for criminal behavior. Some of these theories fall under the category of biological theories.

Light Therapy, Electroconvulsive therapy (both have limited efficacy and need to be repeated to work) Name the nondrug therapies for Depression SADAFACES (Sleep, Appetite, Depressed mood, Anhedonia, Fatigue, Agitation or Retardation, Concentration, Esteem issues, Suicidal thoughts) What are the diagnostic …

Drug therapy is the main treatment for mental disorders and is based on the assumption that chemical imbalance is at the root of the problem. One type of drug is anti-anxiety drugs (e. g. , minor tranquillizers called BZs such …

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Depression is a mood disorder; leading cause of disability in the US. Depression can be comorbid with anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, substance abuse, eating disorders and personality disorders WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU …

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