Biological Anthropology

Human development is a process of growing to maturity. In biological terms, this involved progress from a one-celled zygote to a fully matured human being. It is said that human beings are the result of nature and nurture. Their progress is governed by the action of both heredity and environment. They mature and grow over a period of time known as maturation (Gaerlan et al.).

Human life undergoes different phases of development. It includes pre-conception, fetal life, breast dependence, pre-school age, school age, and adolescence, age of production and reproduction, and senescence, therefore development is describe as the changes happening to human, from conception to death (Wagner).

Development begins with fertilization wherein the sperm cell of a male human unite with the egg cell produce by the female human in order to produce or give rise to a zygote (Browder and Iten). This zygote will undergo a process that will lead to the development of an embryo. From the second week to the second month, it is the period of an embryo to develop.

During this time, there is a rapid change that takes place in their sizes. The embryo has an internal and external appearance of a human by the end of the second month of the embryonic period. Fetal period comes after the embryonic period to birth. Still, there is a continuous change that happens and some of the system like nervous system and other parts are just about to mature (Gaerlan et al.).

When the mother gave birth, the child is entirely dependent for its survival on the care and feeding provided by the mother. Here, the child’s audition and vision are not fully mature. Their vision is not yet clear because the retina of their eyes is not yet fully developed. It takes a year before they can eventually see things clearly; however, they begin to respond to what they hear after several weeks only.

Their muscles are still weak enough to move any part of their body. Even turning their heads is still supported by their mothers (Gaerlan et al.). Even though they cannot speak to express how they feel, they have the ability to communicate with their guardians especially when they are hungry, hurt or they want to show how happy they are.

They cry when they are hungry or in pain and sometimes when they are longing for their mother. They know if their mother is not the one whose they are holding on. Sometimes if the mother is working at night, the father uses the things that the mother has been using.

The father put the things beside the child so that the child will think that his or her mother is just beside him or her in order for the child not to cry and have a good sleep during the whole night. They also show how happy they are if they feel that they are being taken care of by their parents.

During the first month, the only thing that the child can do is to chin up when he is lying down the floor and together with chest when the child become a two months old. At three months, the child can now reach things and miss it when someone gives some stuff for the child to hold on. By four months, the child at this point can sit but with the support from the guardians.

He or she can now grasp objects together with those that are dangling objects when he reaches the five and six months. During this months also, the child can sit now on the lap and on high chairs even though there is no support from his guardians. But when he reaches seven months, the child can now sit by his own. On eight months, the child has the strength to stand with the help of the other people. Through this, the child learns to stand by his own when he is left to stand holding on furniture by nine months.

They learn to creep by ten months and have the ability to walk together by holding on to someone when they reach the age of eleven months. At twelve months, the child can now stand by his own through puling his body with the use of the furniture. The child will use all what he learned from the very beginning up to what he had learned in order to for him to climb to stair steps, walk and stand alone and to explore the outside world (Gaerlan et al.)

The period between two and six years is called the pre-school age child because this is the time where the child is starting to learn (Gaerlan et al.). Many questions are raised and curiosity is high. Even small things had to be questioned just to fulfill the desire to know things. Because of many questions that are being raised, there is this strong relationship that develops between mother and child.

That helps the child to express his or her feelings towards their parents, brothers and sisters, and to other people (Gaerlan et al.). Also, children in this period learn to know if their act has done something good or bad to someone and learn to say sorry if they hurt other people and know the importance of the values that has been teach to them.

Moreover, it is noticeable that the physical growth rate of a child decreases compared to the growth rate it shows when he is stills a baby. And the intellectual, social and emotional development is at fast rate.

A lot have been said about how hereditary and environmental factors influence the individuality of each person.

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