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1. Define Anatomy
The science of the structure of the body and its relationships.
2. Define Physiology
Study of the physical and chemical processes involved in the functioning of the human body.
3. Define Metabolism. Describe the two metabolic pathways? Set of chemical reactions that occurs in living cells to maintain life. Catabolism is cellular respiration and anabolism is the construction of proteins. Complete set of chemical reactions that occur in living cells. Basis of life Anabolism catabolism.

4. Define Homeostasis
The maintenance of a stable equilibrium in a biological system that opposes external or internal disturbances.

5. Define the two feedback mechanisms and give examples of each mechanism Negative feedback reduces or suppresses a change (like blood glucose levels/ a thermometer); Positive feedback promotes instability (like labor/childbirth). They are not opposite.

6. Define Incidence
The number of new cases of an infectious disease that occur within a defined population.

7. Define Opportunistic Pathogens
Microorganisms that are capable of producing an infectious disease when the health and immunity of the host has been severely weakened by illness, famine, or medical therapy. Any microorganism that produces infection when the health and immunity of the host is severely weakened.

8. Define Normal Micro flora
The bacteria that inhabit the external and internal exposed surfaces of the human body that are normal and harmless. Bacteria that normally and harmlessly inhabit the human body.

9. Define Prokaryotes
unicellular organisms without a nucleus (i.e. bacteria)

10. Describe HIV Type 2
Endemic in West Africa
Endemic in West Africa – rarer in other parts of the world.

11. Describe Neutrophils
The white blood cell that has the greatest rate of increase during a bacterial infection

12. Describe what Macrophages do
They capture and process antigens and present them to lymphocytes.

13. Describe make up of the Immune System
The red bone marrow, thymus gland, lymphoid organs, spleen, and T and B lymphocytes.

14. Examples of ectoparasites
Mites, lice, and fleas. They live on and not in the body.
They live on (not in) the body, thus fleas and lice are examples.

15. Examples of Diseases caused by exotoxins
Diphtheria is an example. Also botulisms, tetanus,
An exotoxin is a toxin ex

16. Examples of Active Immunity
exposure to a pathogenic agent
cause by a response

17. Examples of non-specific defenses
Tears, skin, stomach, saliva, inflammation, fever, phagocytes, and mucus membranes. Not antigen

18. Symptoms of the acute primary infection and primary phase of HIV A mononucleosis-like syndrome with fever, myalgia’s, malaise, sore throat, nausea, lethargy, photophobia, lymphadenopathy, and etcetera.

19. Symptoms at the point in which immune system is compromised by HIV Malignancies, opportunistic infections, and dormant infections surface, and ect.

20. Define Nosocomial Infections
Infections acquired during hospitalization and are secondary to original condition.

21. Define Prodromal Stage
When early symptoms first appear.

22. Define Broad Spectrum Antibiotics.
Antibiotics that are active against a wide variety of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.

23. Define what Macrophages are.
“Big Eaters” They engulf and digest foreign particles (an early immune response).

24. Define Cytokines.
Intercellular protein that regulates movement, proliferation, and differentiation of immune and other cells.

25. Define Chemotaxis
Attraction of leukocytes to an injurious agent.

26. Define Major Histocompatibility Complex Molecules.
Self-components that the immune system uses to determine self vs. non-self

27. Define Opportunistic infections
Opportunistic Infections involve common organisms that normally do not produce infection unless there is impaired immune function.

28. Describe the acute phase response during an inflammation Increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate, fever, skeletal muscle catabolism increase (not leukopenia).

29. Describe AIDS dementia complex
Memory loss, difficulty concentrating, euphoria, and lethargy.

30. Describe the “window phase” of HIV infection
The time after infection and before detectable antibody levels 31. List the four major components of a negative feedback mechanism Stimulus, sensor, integrator, and effector.

32. Principle of Complementarity of structure and function
The structure of an organ determines its function.

33. Vectors of infectious disease
Ticks, mosquitoes, biting flies – not confined parasites such as roundworms

34. Gram Staining is used on
Bacteria

35. Fungi that reproduce by budding
Yeast.

36. Common symptoms of infectious disease
Fever, myalgia (muscular pain), headache, lethargy, and fatigue

37. Class I Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) location. All nucleated cells in the body (mature red blood cells have no nucleus)

38. Immunoglobulins are produced by
B cells

39. Inflammatory Mediators that contribute to swelling, redness, heat, and pain Prostaglandins

40. A positive antibody test in an infant indicates
A prenatally exposed infant with maternal antibodies.

41. Most common respiratory opportunistic disease in persons who die with AIDS Pneumocystis carinii (pneumonia)

42. Ways HIV is [not] transmitted
Insect vectors

43. Infections agents of HIV
Blood, semen, vaginal secretions, breast milk.

44. How does HIV infect a cell
It attaches a surface protein on the viral surface to special receptors on the CD4+T helper cell.

45. Most accurate and inexpensive method to Test for HIV
Screening with an immunoassory (EIA or ELISA), followed by a western blot if assay is positive.

46. Polymerase Chain Reaction is used to detect The presence of viral DNA.

47. Function of Penicillin Inhibits synthesis of bacteria cell wall.

48. Function of Lymph Nodes Removal of foreign material from lymph channels before proliferation, centers of proliferation and response of immune cells.

49. Specific immune mechanisms include protection afforded by cell-mediated immunity.

50. The most abundant Immunoglobulin IgG.

51. Immunoglobulins that is involved in allergic and hypersensitivity responses IgE.

53. Differentiation of T lymphocytes In the thymus.

54. Lymphocyte involved in humoral immunity through the production of antibodies B lymphocytes (humoral) (Not T)

55. Define Clusters of Differentiation (CD)
Surface proteins that act as markers for various T and B cells

56. Presence of local heat during the inflammatory response is due to Increased local blood flow

57. AIDS is caused by HIV

58. How is HlV spread Blood, sexual contact, maternal-placental circulation, and breast milk

59. HlV virus directly infects  CD4+ lymphocytes – the “master switch” cells

60. List the levels of structural organization in increasing order Chemical,
cellular, tissue, organ, organ system, organism.

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