Bio227 ch22 short answers

105) The partial pressure gradient for oxygen (in the body) is much steeper than that for carbon dioxide. Explain how equal amounts of these two gases can be exchanged (in a given time interval) in the lungs and at the tissues.
Equal amounts of O2 and CO2 can be exchanged in the lungs and at the tissues because CO2 solubility in plasma and alveolar fluid is 20 times greater than that of O2.

106) Type II alveolar cells secrete ________.
surfactant

107) ________ law is called the law of partial pressure.
Dalton’s

108) ________ law would apply to the amount of CO2 you could dissolve in a Pepsi.
Henry’s

109) Oxygen unloading in a RBC due to declining pH is called the ________.
Bohr effect

110) The ________ regulates smoothing of transitions from inspiration to expiration.
pontine respiratory group (PRG)

111) ________ is the most common lethal genetic disease in the United States.
Cystic fibrosis

112) The cartilaginous flap that closes the trachea during swallowing is called the ________.
epiglottis

113) The archway in the back of the throat is called the ________.
fauces

114) The trachea is lined with ________ epithelium.
ciliated pseudostratified columnar

115) Terminal bronchioles are lined with ________ epithelium.
cuboidal

116) How is alveolar gas exchange affected by emphysema and pneumonia?
With emphysema, the lungs become progressively less elastic and more fibrous, which hinders both inspiration and expiration. Gas exchange remains adequate initially, but muscular activity must be enlisted to expire. Additionally, a symptom of emphysema is fusion of alveoli, resulting in less surface area for gas exchange.

With pneumonia, if the lungs become edematous, the thickness of the exchange membrane may increase dramatically, restricting gas exchange, and body tissues begin to suffer from hypoxia.

117) Briefly differentiate between atmospheric pressure, intrapulmonary pressure, and intrapleural pressure. Which of these is always negative in a healthy individual during normal breathing? What happens if intrapleural pressure becomes equal to atmospheric pressure?
Atmospheric pressure is the pressure exerted by gases of the atmosphere.
Intrapulmonary pressure is the pressure within the alveoli of the lungs. Intrapleural pressure is the pressure within the intrapleural space. Intrapleural pressure is negative relative to the other two during normal inspiration/expiration.
Equalization of the intrapleural pressure with atmospheric pressure or intrapulmonary pressure immediately causes lung collapse.

118) The contraction of the diaphragm and the external intercostal muscles begins inspiration. Explain exactly what happens, in terms of volume and pressure changes in the lungs, when these muscles contract.
With contraction of the diaphragm, the height of the thoracic cavity increases. Contraction of the intercostal muscles expands the diameter of the thorax. With an increase in volume of the thorax, the intrapulmonary volume increases, causing a drop in pressure relative to atmospheric pressure. Air rushes into the lungs along this pressure gradient until intrapulmonary and atmospheric pressures are equal.

119) What is the chloride shift and why does it occur?
The chloride shift is an ionic exchange process whereby chloride ions move from the plasma into the erythrocytes to counterbalance the net positive charge left within the erythrocytes by the rapid outrush of negative bicarbonate ions.

120) If a baby is born at 28 weeks’ gestation, what major problem will the doctors look for?
The type II alveolar cells may not have fully developed; therefore, there is the possibility of lung collapse, resulting in severe breathing difficulties.

121) How is it possible to change the pitch of our voice from high to low?
Usually, the tenser the vocal folds, the faster they vibrate and the higher the pitch. To produce deep tones, the glottis widens, and to produce high-pitched tones, the glottis becomes a slit. Intrinsic laryngeal muscles control the true vocal folds and the size of the glottis.

122) The partial pressure gradient for oxygen (in the body) is much steeper than that for carbon dioxide. Explain how equal amounts of these two gases can be exchanged (in a given time interval) in the lungs and at the tissues.
Equal amounts of O2 and CO2 can be exchanged in the lungs and at the tissues because CO2 solubility in plasma and alveolar fluid is 20 times greater than that of O2.

123) Define anatomical dead space. What is the relationship between anatomical and alveolar dead space? Which value is likely to increase during lung pathology?
Anatomical dead space is the space in the conducting respiratory passageways. Alveolar dead space is the space in nonfunctional alveoli. Anatomical dead space and alveolar dead space together make up the total dead space. Alveolar dead space will increase during lung pathology.

124) Distinguish among anemic, ischemic, histotoxic, and hypoxemic hypoxia.
Anemic hypoxia reflects poor oxygen delivery resulting from too few RBCs or RBCs that contain abnormal or too little Hb. Ischemic hypoxia results when blood circulation is impaired or blocked. Histotoxic hypoxia occurs when body cells are unable to use O2 even though adequate amounts are delivered. Hypoxemia hypoxia is indicated by reduced arterial PO2.

No exchange of gases occurs here Segmental bronchi Secrete a fluid containing surfactant. Type II cells WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write my sample Where the respiratory zone of …

How is alveolar gas exchange affected by emphysema and pneumonia? Pneumonia can cause fluid in the lungs, which will cause the thickness of the exchange membrane to increase. This will restrict gas exchange and tissues will suffer from hypoxia. In …

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The ________ of the lungs is an indication of their expandability, how easily the lungs expand and contract. compliance Internal respiration refers to exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the blood and the tissues and interstitial fluid WE WILL …

The gas laws in respiratory therapy A good knowledge of the basic principles on which respiratory therapy works is essential as the subset of critical medical care cannot be overemphasized. The type of care that respiratory therapists give requires a …

Trace the air flow through the respiratory system starting with the external nares. 1. external nares 2. nasal cavity 3. internal nares 4. nasopharynx 5. oropharynx 6. laryngopharynx 7. larynx 8. trachea 9. primary bronchus 10. secondary bronchus 11. tertiary …

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