Small masses of neuron cell bodies located outside the CNS are called
ganglia

The substance released at axonal endings to propagate a nervous impulse is called a
neurotransmitter

Neuroglia that are positioned between neurons and capillaries to form part of the blood-brain barrier are the
astrocytes

The autonomic nervous system is divided into
sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems

Synaptic vesicles store
neurotransmitter

The site of communication between two neurons is called a
synapse

Neurons that have one main dendrite and one axon are called
bipolar neurons

Gaps in the myelin sheath are called
Nodes of Ranvier

White matter of the nervous system is composed of
aggregations of myelinated axons

Ion channels open and close due to the presence of
gates

The plasma membrane of a neuron is more permeable to potassium ions than to sodium ions because the membrane has
more potassium leakage channels

Afferent nerves conduct nerve impulses from
receptors to the central nervous system

The branch of a neuron that carries a nerve impulse away from the cell body is the
axon

What would normally be found within the central canal of the spinal cord?
cerebrospinal fluid

What would normally be found immediately surrounding central canal of the spinal cord?
gray matter

In the adult, the spinal cord extends from the medulla to the
upper border of vertebra L2

To do a lumbar puncture, the needle is inserted into the
subarachnoid space

The nerve that stimulates the diaphragm to contract arises from the
cervical plexus

The nerve that stimulates the diaphragm to contract is the
phrenic nerve

The endoneurium is the
connective tissue surrounding an individual axon

The spinal cord is suspended in the middle of its dural sheath by
denticulate ligaments

The innermost layer of the meninges is the
pia mater

The spinal cord is continuous with the
medulla oblongata

The cavities within the brain are called
ventricles

Fine control of body coordination and balance is a function of the
cerebellum

The type of neuroglia that wrap around capillaries in the blood-brain barrier are the
astrocytes

The brain stem is made up of the
medulla oblongata, pons, and midbrain

Which of the following is NOT TRUE for cerebrospinal fluid?
It acts as a neurotransmitter in the brain

Superior to the hypothalamus and between the halves of the thalamus is the
third ventricle

The function of a choroid plexus is to
produce cerebrospinal fluid

The function of arachnoid villi is to
reabsorb cerebrospinal fluid

White fibers that transmit impulses between corresponding gyri in opposite cerebral hemispheres are called
commissural fibers

The reason hydrocephalus is so dangerous is that
Excess cerebrospinal fluid puts pressure on neurons, damaging them

Between the foramen magnum and the pons is the
medulla oblongata

The left side of the cerebrum controls skeletal muscles on the right side of the body because motor neurons cross from left to right in the
medulla oblongata

The primary motor area of the cerebral cortex is located in the
precentral gyrus

The primary visual area and visual association area of the cerebral cortex are both located in the
occipital lobe

Converting thoughts to spoken words is a complex activity that are located in the
Broca’s area

Light is an appropriate stimulus for
photoreceptors

The conscious awareness and interpretation of sensations is called
perception

Sensory endings located in muscles, tendons, joints, and the inner ear are called
proprioceptors

ALL of the following are considered general senses EXCEPT
smell

Which of the following is NOT considered a special sense?
pain

Neurons that transmit impulses from the receptors to the central nervous system are called
sensory neurons

Free nerve endings are
bare dendrites

ALL of the following would be sensed by mechanoreceptors EXCEPT
light

Nociceptors are receptors for
pain

The primary somatosensory area of the cerebral cortex is located in the
postcentral gyrus

To say that most organs served by the ANS have “dual innervation” means that
the organs are innervated by both sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons

Which of the following is an example of an effector for a visceral efferent neuron?
smooth muscle in the wall of the small intestine

The second neuron in the autonomic motor pathway is called
postganglionic neuron

Autonomic plexuses include the
cardiac, pulmonary, celiac, renal plexus

The sites of olfactory transduction are the olfactory hairs, which are
cilia projecting from the dendrites of first-order neurons

Olfactory sensations reach the brain via
cranial nerve I

The receptors on the tip of the tongue are most sensitive to
None of these; the concept of the tongue map is outdated

In order for a substance to be tasted, it must be
dissolved in saliva

Fungiform papillae contain
gustatory cells

The lacrimal apparatus produces
tears

Lacrimal fluid contains a protective bacterial enzyme called
lysozyme

Venous sinus (Canal of Schlemm) exits the eye through an opening in the
sclera

“Bloodshot eyes” are the result of dilation of blood vessels in the
conjunctiva

The function of the ciliary processes is to
produce aqueous humor

The lens is held in place by the
suspensory ligaments

Intraocular pressure is produced mainly by
aqueous humor

Nutrients are provided to the posterior surface of the retina by blood vessels in the darkly pigmented portion of the vascular tunic known as the
choroid

The retina is held in place by the
vitreous body

Photoreceptors are located in the
retina

The blind spot of the retina is so-called because
there are no rods or cones there

The central fovea is
the area of highest visual acuity on the retina

In the process of forming an image on the retina, convergence occurs to allow
three-dimensional image formation

Which of the following occurs when trying to focus on a close object?
contraction of the ciliary muscle to make the lens more convex

The four refracting media of the eye, listed in the sequence in which they refract light, are
1. vitreous body.
2. lens.
3. aqueous humor.
4. cornea.
4, 3, 2, and 1

Which of the following lists the route of impulse transmission in the correct order?
photoreceptors, bipolar cells, ganglion cells, optic nerve, optic chiasm, optic tract

The auditory (Eustachian) tube connects the
middle ear and nasopharynx

The ossicles are the major structures of the
middle ear

The middle ear is normally filled with
air

The role of the stapedius muscle is to
limit vibration of the stapes

Receptor potentials are produced when
stereocilia bend against the tectorial membrane

The primary function of the utricle and saccule is to
monitor static equilibrium

Which one of the following sequences correctly traces the sound wave across the middle ear?
1. tympanic membrane
2. malleus
3. incus
4. stapes
5. oval window
1, 2, 3, 4, 5

The endolymph filled_____lies between the perilymph filled _____and the _____separated by the _____and ____membranes respectively.
cochlear duct, scala vestibuli, scala tympani, basilar, vestibular

The buffy coat of centrifuged blood consists mainly of
white blood cells and platelets

The most abundant of the plasma proteins are the
albumins

The total blood volume in an average adult is about
5 liters

ALL of the following are important functions of plasma proteins EXCEPT
transportation of oxygen.

The percentage of total blood volume occupied by RBCs is called the
hematocrit

Pluripotent stem cells produce
neutrophils, basophils, thrombocytes, lymphocytes.

“5 million per microliter” is a value falling within the normal adult range for the number of
erythrocytes

Erythropoietin is synthesized by the
kidneys

Oxygen is transported by red blood cells by binding to
the iron ion in the heme portion of hemoglobin

The primary organs whose macrophages are responsible for phagocytizing worn-out red blood cells are the
spleen and liver

Agranular leukocytes that are phagocytic are the
monocytes

The most abundant of the leukocytes are the
neutrophils

The formed elements that are fragments of larger cells called megakaryocytes are
thrombocytes

When red blood cells wear out, the iron is saved and most of the remainder of the hemoglobin is
also saved

A clot in an unbroken vessel is called
thrombosis

So-called natural killer cells are a form of
lymphocyte

Type A blood has an isoantibody called
agglutinin B

Which of the following indicates a normal differential count in a healthy adult?
65% neutrophils, 25% lymphocytes, 6% monocytes, 3% eosinophils, 1% basophils

Type O is considered the theoretical universal
donor because there are no A or B isoantigens on RBCs

The father is Rh- and the mother is Rh+. They have had three children without adverse problems due to the Rh factor. The mother is pregnant again. In terms of Rh factor, the risk to the fetus now within the uterus
never was a problem

MHC antigens are
proteins encoded by genes present in nucleated cells that must be matched for successful tissue transplantation

The space between the parietal and visceral layers of the pericardium is normally filled with
serous fluid

The layer of the heart wall responsible for its pumping action is the
myocardium

Blood flows from the superior vena cava into the
right atrium

The fossa ovalis is a prominent depression seen in the
interventricular septum

The myocardium is made of
cardiac muscle

Blood flows from the pulmonary veins into the
left atrium

The bicuspid valve is located between the
left atrium and the left ventricle

There is a semilunar valve between the
right ventricle and the pulmonary trunk

Blood flows into the coronary arteries from the
ascending aorta

The function of the chordae tendineae is to
prevent eversion of the AV valves during ventricular systole

The atrioventricular valves open when
ventricular pressure falls below atrial pressure

All deoxygenated blood returning from the systemic circulation flows into the
right atrium

Which of the following represents the correct sequence of parts through which blood moves in passing from the vena cava to the lungs?
1. right atrium
2. tricuspid valve
3. right ventricle
4. pulmonary valve
5. pulmonary artery
1, 2, 3, 4, 5

The left ventricle wall of the heart is thicker than the right wall in order to
pump blood with greater pressure

A blockage in the marginal branch of the coronary circulation would most affect the
right ventricle

The function of intercalated discs is to
provide a mechanism for rapid conduction of action potentials among myofibers

Which of the following lists the elements of the heart’s conduction system in the correct order?
SA node, AV node, AV bundle, bundle branches, conduction myofibers

The initiation of the heart beat is the responsibility of the
SA node

The tunica interna of a blood vessel is made of
endothelium

The layer of a blood vessel wall that determines the diameter of the lumen is the
tunica media

Valves are present in
veins

Vasoconstriction decreases the lumen of a vessel which will:
Increase the pressure of the fluid inside

The connection between the pulmonary artery and the aorta in fetal circulation is called
ductus arteriosus

The hepatic portal vein is formed by the union of the superior mesenteric vein and the
splenic vein

The internal jugular veins receive blood from the
sigmoid sinuses

The primary arteries of the pelvis are the
internal iliac arteries

If the inferior vena cava or hepatic portal vein becomes obstructed, blood can be returned from the lower body to the superior vena cava via the
azygos vein

Which of the following flows directly into the inferior vena cava?
hepatic vein

Blood passes from the fetus to the placenta via the
umbilical artery

A superficial vein in the leg that is frequently used for prolonged administration of IV fluids is the
great saphenous

Vessels that are part of the cerebral arterial circle include the
internal carotid arteries

The composition of lymph is most similar to
interstitial fluid

The thoracic duct empties lymph into the
left subclavian vein

The cisterna chyli is
a dilation at the beginning of the thoracic duct

People who are confined to bed for long period of time often develop edema because
without skeletal muscle contraction to force lymph through lymphatic vessels, fluid tends to accumulate in interstitial spaces

Which of the following correctly lists the structures according to the sequence of fluid flow?
blood capillaries, interstitial spaces, lymphatic capillaries, lymphatic vessels, lymphatic ducts, subclavian veins

Which of the following lists the structures in the correct order of lymph flow through a lymph node?
afferent lymphatic vessels, subcapsular sinus, trabecular sinus, medullary sinuses, efferent lymphatic vessels

Specialized lymphatic capillaries called lacteals are found in
small Intestine

T cells and B cells are
lymphocytes

B cells proliferate and differentiate into plasma cells in the
germinal centers of lymph nodes

Which of the following is NOT a function of the spleen?
site of stem cell maturation into T and B cells

Lysozyme is
an enzyme found in body fluids that flow over epithelial surfaces that destroys certain bacteria

Which of the following would most likely increase a person’s risk of invasion by pathogenic microbes?
loss of epidermal tissue

The swelling associated with inflammation is caused by
movement of fluid out of capillaries due to increased capillary permeability

After phagocytosis, which cellular organelle attaches to the phagosome and digests it?
lysosome

Antibody-mediated immunity is most effective against
antigens in body fluids

The success of an organ or tissue transplant depends on
histocompatibility

Presentation of an endogenous antigen bound to an MHC-I molecule signals that
a cell has been infected

The immunoglobulin important for providing passively acquired immunity to the fetus in utero is
IgG

Which of the following is NOT considered a function of the respiratory system?
production of red blood cells

Which of the following is NOT a function of the nose?
gas exchange

Which of the following lists the structures in the correct order of air flow?
nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx, larynx, trachea

Air pressure in the middle ear is equalized via the auditory tube, which opens into the
nasopharynx

The vocal folds are part of the
larynx

The function of the epiglottis is to
close off the larynx during swallowing

C-shaped cartilage rings support the
trachea

What is the anatomic name of the structure known as the Adam’s apple?
thyroid cartilage

Place the following structures of the respiratory tree in order, considering how air enters the tree:
1. secondary bronchi
2. bronchioles
3. alveolar ducts
4. primary bronchi
5. respiratory bronchioles
6. alveoli
7. terminal bronchioles
4, 1, 2, 7, 5, 3, 6

What is normally found between the visceral and parietal layers of the pleura?
serous fluid

A function of type II alveolar cells is to
produce surfactant

The respiratory membrane through which gases diffuse includes ALL of the following EXCEPT
a layer of smooth muscle

Which of the following muscles helps increase the size of the thoracic cavity during forced inspiration?
external intercostals

Surface tension exists in alveoli because
polar water molecules are more strongly attracted to each other than to gas molecules in the air

When the diaphragm contracts,
the size of the chest cavity increases, the lungs expand to fill the extra space in the chest cavity, air from outside rushes into the lungs,
intrathoracic pressure decreases

The normal resting minute volume is
6 liters/minute

The residual volume is the amount of air
remaining in the lungs after forced expiration

The tidal volume is the
volume of air moved in and out of the lungs in a single quiet breath

Where would you expect to find the highest partial pressure of carbon dioxide?
in the intracellular fluid

Most oxygen is transported in blood by
the heme portion of hemoglobin

Most carbon dioxide is transported in blood by
conversion to bicarbonate ion

Returns oxygenated blood from placenta
Umbilical vein

Opening in the septum of the atria
Foramen ovale

Becomes the ligamentum venosus after birth
Ductus venosus

Connects pulmonary trunk to aorta
Ductus arteriosus

The father is RH- and the mother is Rh+. They have three children without adverse problems due to the Rh factor. The mother is pregnant again. In terms of Rh factor, the risk to the fetsus now within the uterus …

Patient has appendicitis, what would be the health teaching? inflammation helps your body produce the right antibodies to fight infection When a person has a knife wound inflicted, what immunity is compromised? innate immunity WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY …

Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) can be caused by: a. septic shock. b. prolonged tissue hypoxia. c. uncontrolled systemic inflammation. d. all of the above. d. all of the above. A person is unresponsive to verbal stimuli, has a heart …

A 1-year old female is diagnosed with croup. When the parents asks what caused this, what is the nurse’s best response? The most likely cause of this disease is: Viral Infection WHile planning care, a nurse recalls respiratory distress and …

A hormone is a ______ and the target cell is __________. A. protein that stimulates other cells; the source of hormone secretions B. regulatory molecule that controls secretions of other cells; a cell that synthesizes hormones C. molecule that has …

the inflammation of a lymph vessel is called lymphangitis The right lymphatic duct and the thoracic duct each carry about 50% of the lymph back to the blood False WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY …

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