Behavioral Pharmacology

Monoamine
-inactivated by monoamine oxidase (MAO) and reuptake
-midbrain, hypothalamus, limbic system
-includes catecholamines and indoleamines

catecholamines
norepinephrine/epinephrine
dopamine
-made from tyrosine and phenylalanine

norepinephrine/epinephrine
from hydroxylation of dopamine
-associated with depression and mania

dopamine
from L-dopa in presynaptic vesicles

dopamine agonists
stereotypic behavior
amphetamines, apomorphine, methylphenidate

dopamine antagonists
behavioral quieting, depression, extrapyramidal symptoms
-phenothiazines, antipsychotics

indoleamines
serotonin and melatonin
made from tryptophan

serotonin
sleep-wake cycle, mood, emotion, suppression of impulsive behavior

serotonin antagonists
increased irritabilty, hostility, impulsiveness

serotonin agonists
confidence, calmness, flexibility, resilience

acetylcholine
most common NT
excitatory
muscarinic and nicotinic receptors

amino acids (as a NT)
can be excitatory or inhibitory
both are widely distributed in CNS

excitatory amino acids
suppressed by barbiturates and progesterone
-high levels sometimes found with aggression, impulses, schizophrenia

inhibitory amino acids
made from glutamate
agonists are benzodiazepines and barbiturates

Endogenous Opioid peptides
morphine-like activity

Lipids (as NTs)
self-administered by people
ex – THC (tetrahyrdocannabinal)
-marijuanna, cannabis

three dimensions of temperament
harm avoidance
novelty seeking
reward dependence

harm avoidance
anxious, pessimistic vs. outgoing, optimistic
serotonin

novelty seeking
impulsive, quick-tempered vs rigid, slow tempered
dopamine

reward dependence
warm, approval seeking vs cold, aloof
norepinephrine

Hormones
steroid or peptide

Steroid hormones
gluccocorticoid receptors, mineral corticoid receptors, androgen receptors, estrogen receptors, progesterone receptors
(grouped based on receptor type)

peptide hormones
neuromodulators – released from neurones and travel farther and are more dispersed than NTs

6 classes of psychiatric drugs
anxiolytics, azaprione, antipsychotics/neuroleptics/tranquilizers, CNS stimulants, narcotic antagonists/agonists, antidepressants

anxiolytics
benzodiaxepine

antipsychotics/neuroleptics/tranquilizers
phenotiazines
butyrophenone

CNS stimulants
methylphenidate
dextroamphetamine

Narcotic antagonists/agonists
naltrexone, hydrocodone

antidepressants
tricyclic antidepressants (TCA)
selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI)
-prozac, reconcile, paxil, zoloft
monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAO)

when to use behavior modifying drugs
-unable to resolve problem without them
-expediate progress
-last resort

dopaminergic neurons- pathway arise in the ventral tegmental area (VTA, in the midbrain) and project to cortical and limbic areas as well as the nucleus accumbens norepinephrine pathway norepinephrine neurons arise in the locus ceruleus (in the brainstem) and project …

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