Basic Pharmacology – Test 1

Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act
1938

Drug Amendment of 1962 addressed…
effectiveness and safety (Kefauver Harris Act)

Dietary Supplement and Health Education Act
1994

Federal Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act
1970 (assigned to one of five schedules)

Pharmacodynamics
Study of the action of drugs on living tissue

Pharmacokinetics
Study of the processes of drug absorption, distributions, metabolism, and excretion

Pharmatherapeutics
the study of how drugs are used to treat disease

Schedule I
Drugs with high abuse potential and accepted medical used. e.g. heroin, hallucinogens, marijuana

Schedule II
Drugs with high abuse potential and accepted medical use. e.g. narcotics (morphine, pure codeine) cocaine, short act barbiturates

Schedule III
Drugs with moderate abuse potential and accepted medical use. e.g. moderate-inter barbiturates, anabolic steroids, prep incl codeine, drugs requiring 5 x 6 mos prescription

Schedule IV
Drugs with low abuse potential and accepted medical use. e.g. phenobarbital, chloral hydrate, ambien, antianxiety 5 x 6 mos prescription

Schedule V
drugs with limited abuse potential and accepted medical use. e.g. narcotic drugs used in limited qty’s, antitussive, antidiarrheal; drugs can be sold by registered pharmacist; buyer must be 18 yrs or older

generic drug name
nonproprietary name of drug

trade drug name
patented proprietary name of a drug sold by a specific drug manufacturer; also referred to as the brand name

chemical drug name
name that defines the chemical composition of a drug – chemical structure name

drug metabolizes in what organ
liver

drug excretion in what organ
renal (urine), GI (feces), and respiratory (exhaled gases)

penicillin allergy
can cause ALL 4 type of hypersensitivity: IgE, IgG; anti-penicilloyl antibodies formed when given first IM then IV (type II); no antibodies if only given IV – body makes antibodies and the body attacks

Idiosyncrasy
An individual reaction to a drug with an unusual or unexpected response

Adult body weight
Basic calculation is 150 lbs. drug dose may be adjusted due to individuals weight

Age effects of drugs
Infants, children, and elderly are more sensitive to the actions of drugs; general state of health, nutritional status, presence of chronic disease, and alteration in the pharmacodynamic response to specific drugs.

Receptor site
specific cellular location where drug binds to for a drug-receptor complex. MOST IMPORTANT SITE OF ACTION

Agonist
drug that binds to a specific receptor to produce an effect

Antagonist
drug that binds to a specific receptor to block the action of a chemical body substance or agonist drug from receptor binding

What organs receive the highest percentages of blood flow
liver, kidneys, and brain

Six Patient Rights Drug Act
Right – dose, patient, dose, route, time, and documentation

Who can write prescriptions
M.D.; D.O.; )CRNP, and interns on a limited basis)

Drug orders over the phone
Refills for controlled substances cannot be made over the phone. For certain medications in emergency cases only!

Site of action
location within the body where a drug exerts its therapeutic effect, often a specific drug receptor

onset of action
within two hours and 2.5 mg (analgesic 1-10 mg))

loading dose (initial)
initial drug dose administered to rapidly achieve therapeutic drug concentrations

maintenance dose
dose administered to maintain drug blood levels in the therapeutic range

duration of action
the length of time that a drug continues to produce its effect

onset of action
the time from drug administration to the first observable effect – 1st 2 hrs of 12 hr range

termination of action
when the plasma drug concentration falls below the therapeutic range – last 3 hours of 12 hr range

therapeutic range
drugs in this range are sufficient to produce the pharmacodynamic or pharmacologic effect; do not want gaps in between rises

Peak level
highest concentration before declining (before toxic level)

minimal effective concentrate
2.5 mg range (1-10 mg) within 12 hour period

cholinergic (muscarinic) receptor
receptor located on internal organs and glands that respond to acetylcholine

acetylcholonie (ACH)
neurotransmitter of parasympathetic (cholinergic) nerves; stimulated the cholinergic receptor

fight or flight reaction
response of the body to intense stress; caused by activation of the sympathetic division of the ANS

parasympathetic
refers to nerves of the ANS that originate in the brain and sacral portion of the spinal ford; they are active when the body is at rest or trying to restore body energy and function

sympathetic
refers to nerves of the ANS that originate from the thoracolumbar portion of the spinal cord; they are active when the body is under stress or when it is exerting energy

beta-1 adrenergic receptor
receptor located on the heart that increases heart rate and force of contraction

beta-2 adrenergic receptor
receptor located on smooth muscle that replaces smooth muscle when stimulated

selective beta-1 adrenergic blocker
drug that blocks only beta-1 receptors

selective beta-2 adrenergic blocker
drug that stimulates only beta-2 receptors at therapeutic doses

sympatholytic
refers to the action of an adrenergic blocking drug or an action that decreases sympathetic activity

sympathomimetric
refers to the action of an adrenergic drug or an action that increases sympathetic activity

cholinergic
refers to the nerves and receptors of the parasympathetic nervous system; also refers to the drugs that stimulate this system

parasympatholytic
refers to drugs (anticholinergic) that decrease activity of the parasympathetic nervous system

parasympathomimetic
refers to drugs (cholinergic) that mimic stimulation of the parasympathetic nervous system

Adverse effects General term for undesirable and potentially harmful drug effect Agonist Drug that binds to a receptor and activates a physiological response or drug action WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR …

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Absorption refers to the movement of drug into the bloodstream, with the rate dependent on the physical characteristics of the drug and its formation. Refers to the passage of drug molecules from the site of administration into the circulation. Active …

Dose response curve shows the relationship between the drug response and the dose Free drug compared to drugs that are protein bound, molecules that can produce a pharmacologic effect WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY …

Absorption Process by which a drug enters the circulatory system (blood). Intravenous (IV) & Intra-Arterial Administration/Dosage routs that do not require absorption. WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write my …

EC50 the drug concentration giving 50% maximal effect (not binding affinity – the magnitude of a drug effect is not proportional to the proportion of receptors occupied by that drug) a drug with a lower EC50 is more potent (half …

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