Basic Pharmacology Review

List the 6 “Rights” of medication Administration? (Hint: My Dad Picks Real Tomatoes Daily)
Right: medication, dose, patient, route, time, and documentation

When and how many times do you check the medication before administration?
1) When taking it from storage container (match to MAR)
2) When being prepared
3) Before closing the storage container or just before admin. to the patient

List the 3 guidelines for Verbal orders.
1) Write it
2) Read it
3) Confirm it

What is the nursing process? (hint: ADPIE)
Assessment, Diagnosis, Planning, Implementation, Evaluation

The study of medicine is called?
pharmacology

The practice of taking too many meds at one time?
polypharmacy

The study of what happens to a drug once it enters the body, absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination?
pharmacokinetics

What is Enteral?
the oral route (absorbed through the GI tract)

The stomach is _________ where the small intestine is __________.
acidic; alkaline

If something is long-term it is considered _____________. If something is short-term it is considered _________.
Chronic; acute

Medications for the end of life are called?
palliative

Preventative immunizations are referred to as ______________.
prophylactic

Name the drug level of extremely, high abused medications that must be approved protocol only?
Schedule 1

Name the drug level that has high potential for abuse, need a written script?
Schedule 2

Name the drug level that intermediate potential for abuse, these drugs can be called out to the pharmacy?
schedule 3

Less abuse potential?
schedule 4

Written scripts or OTC?
schedule 5

What are the guidelines for safe narcotic administration?
Drugs should be locked and secure, frequent counts, report discrepancies, special inventory, document administration and waste appropriately.

Define trade name and give an example?
AKA: Brand name. The manufactured name is trademarked for the name of medication. These names are easy to pronounce, spell and remember. Example: Tylenol

Generic Name is AKA the ___________ name. Name an example.
official; acetaminophen

A type of med order given immediately and only once (emergent)?
STAT

A type of order for med to be given only once @ a specified time?
Single/ one time

Type of med order that is carried out until the prescriber cancels it by another order or a prescribed number of days elapse?
Standing order

Type of order used when a patient needs meds quickly but not STAT. Not emergent. and the nurse has 90 minutes to administer the med (only once)?
Now order

Which role is when certain individuals write med order on form, in a patient’s medical record, in an order book, or on a legal prescription pad, or will give a verbal or telephone order?
Prescriber’s role

Responsible for filling prescriptions accurately and being sure that prescriptions are valid. Dispense correct meds, in proper dosage and amount, with accurate label, and provides info about medication side effects, toxicity, interactions, and incompatibilities?
Pharmacist’s role

Requires knowledge and a set of skills to make sure correct med, education, and evaluation?
Nurse’s Role

What is the patient’s role?
To Know their rights

Name the essential parts of a drug order?
Full name of client, date and time the order was written, medication name, dosage of the drug, route of administration, time and frequency, and signature of person writing the order.

Prescriptions should include?
Description info on client, date written, med name, med dose, strength, route, dispensing instruction for pharmacist, directions of admin to be given to the client, refill or special label, and prescriber’s signature

The most common system of measurement in the healthcare system is _________.
the metric system

Base unit examples include:
Weight = _______
Volume = _________
Length = __________
grams, liters, meters

The apothecary system uses _________ _________, unless a fraction.
roman numerals

When you compare patient’s previously taken meds with currant medications, this is called?
medication reconciliation

Name and explain the steps in med reconciliation.
Verify
Clarify
Reconcile
Transmit

The most common form of solid oral medications that can be scored, be given sublingual or buccal, some can be crushed or chewed, and some are made to dissolve to drink?
tablets

These are similar to tablets, but oval shaped, and special coating that makes them easy to swallow?
caplets

These consist of medicine, usually liquid, in gelatin shells that are not designed to be opened. Do NOT CRUSH or OPeN these?
Gelcaps

These are a type of tablet that has a coating that dissolves only in an alkaline environment like the small intestine, and prevents damage to the stomach lining.
Enteric Coated; An example: EC ASA

These are special capsules that contain granules of med. with different coatings that delay release of some of the medication. Do Not CRUSH or Dissolve granules. They can be gently mixed with soft food.
spansules

Oval shaped gelatin shells that contain meds in a powder or granule form. Usually 2 pieces that fit together. Sometimes can be separated to remove med when patient cannot swallow pill?
capsules

List some meds that you DO NOT CRUSH.
CR, SR, ER, EC, and tab with a hard shell or coating, any tab with speckles of different colors, tabs for sublingual or Buccal use, or capsules with a seal.

List some examples of liquid medications.
Elixirs, suspensions, or syrups

If you reconstitute a medication what should you write on the container?
Date, time, initials, and strength it was reconstituted to

Always check ________ before administering medication.
allergies

What does MAR stand for?
Medication Administration Record

Before a medication is prescribed a _______ _______ is determined.
therapy goal

Name 4 common medication errors?
Inaccurate prescribing, administration of the wrong med, giving the med using wrong route or time, or administering an extra dose or missing a dose

Name the things that need to be listed on an incident report.
Patient ID and info, location and time of incident, accurate and factual description of what was done, signature of nurse involved, and remember NOT Part of a MEDICAL RECORD

After a medication error occurs, what is the first priority?
Assess the patient’s condition. Patient’s safety and well-being are always first!

When a medication error occurs, what is done after the patient is taken care of?
Notify the doctor, report incident to manager, and prepare occurrence or incident report within 24 hours of the error.

A term used to classify similar medications used to treat a specific condition or disease?
Therapeutic classification
Examples: antipyretics

A term used to describe how the body uses a drug at the cellular level?
pharmacological class
Example: salicylates

List the different pharmaceutic dosage forms?
enteral, parenteral, topical

Amount of drug/dosage unit = _________
dosage strength

Science of drugs including composition and its effects are called _________.
Pharmacology

This science explains how a drug moves through the body?
pharmacokinetics

This is the process in which a drug is moved from the site of administration to the bloodstream, depends on the drug dose, form, and route?
pharmacology

Measure of the extent of drug absorption for given drug and route is called the _____________.
bioavailability

When the liver metabolizes some of the drug this is called __________.
First pass effect (drugs that bypass the GI tract also bypass the first pass effect)

Changes that may occur in Enteral Route are:
Factors that change absorption:
Acid change in stomach (time and day and amount of food)
Absorption change in the intestines
Presence of absence of food and fluid
Patient history in abdominal surgery
Changes in blood flow to GI (stomach/small intestine highly vascular-emergency situation)

Under the tongue is called ________. Between the cheek is called __________.
Sublingual, Buccal

List 7 parenteral routes.
intradermal, subcutaneous, intravenous, intraarterial, intramuscular, epidural, intraosseous

Which route is described as : direct circulation, absorbed the fastest, and bypasses the stomach and first pass effect?
intravenous

Name 5 examples of topical routes.
eye drops, rectal, vaginal, inhaler, transdermal patches

When a med is inhaled, explain the route
lungs > air sacs

This is the process that moves the drug form the blood stream to other body compartments?
distribution

This is where the drug produces its desired effect?
target site

Where the drug goes depends on the _________ nature of the drug.
chemical

The area with the greatest blood supply gets the drug first, for example:
Heart, liver, brain, kidney

During distribution, it helps if the patient has good circulation, the drugs bind to ________ __________.
plasma proteins

What is the most common plasma protein?
albumin

Must monitor albumin levels because _________ or free drug can cause toxicity.
unbound

_______ _______ = stay in the blood.
________ ________ = attract to tissue.
water soluble; fat soluble

A process that chemically changes the drug in the body is called?
biotransformation or metabolism

Liver most responsible for metabolism, so delayed drug metabolism = ____________ ______ _________.
patient at risk

The process in which the drug leaves the body is called _________. The main route is __________. Other routes include: ?
elimination; urine; and air; sweat; feces; breast milk; other secretions

When a medication of chemical acts as an antigen, triggering the release of antibodies in the body?
Drug allergy

Life threatening reaction, characterized by sudden constrictions of bronchiolar muscles, edema by pharynx and larynx, severe wheezing and SOB?
Anaphylactic reaction

When med sometimes causes unpredictable effects. A patient overreacts or under reacts to the med. (Example: kid gets hyper on benadryl)
idiosyncratic

When two meds work together better than by themselves?
synergistic

These are unintended, indesirable, and often unpredictable severe responses to medication. (sometimes immediate and some takes weeks to show up)
adverse reaction

The time it takes for excretion process to lower the amount of unchanged medication by half. Based on this, some drugs are given more frequent and some less.
drug half-life

It takes ______ half-lives to remove 97% of the drug from your body.
9 1/2

Complication of med?
iatrogenic disease

Changes with mother to baby?
Teratogenic drugs

Poor organ function can cause…
drug toxicity

A state in which exposure to a drug induces changes that result in a diminution of one or more effects of the drug over time is called?
drug tolerance

A pharmacological result, either desirable or not, of drugs interacting with other drugs, chemicals, diet, or chemicals used in diagnostic testing is called?
drug interaction

The time it takes after medication is administered for it to produce a response (when you see the effect)?
onset

The time it takes for med to reach the highest level of concentration?
peak

The lowest level of blood serum concentration of med, just before next dose is called?
trough

The length of time for therapeutic effect?
duration

When the concentration is maintained?
plateau

The amount of drug to be given at a single time is the?
desired dose (D)

This is the vehicle or the quantity of solid/liquid in which the dose is supplied?
dosage unit (Q)

The amount of drug contained in each dosage unit?
dosage on hand (H)

How much you give. Contains the desired dose?
Amount to administer (A)

The amount of each capsule?
dosage strength (H/Q)

List 4 different measuring devices for liquid meds?
medicine cup, dropper, calibrated spoon, oral syringes

What is the abbreviation for right eye?
OD

What is the abbreviation for left eye?
OS

What is the abbreviation for both eyes
OU

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