how do bacteria cause disease?
– adherence and colinization factors
– factors that prevent activation of complement
– Factors that enable escape from phagocytosis by white blood cells
– Factors that prevent destruction within phagocytes
– factors that suppress the host immune system (factors that cause immunosuppression)
– endotoxin (cell wall of gram negative bacteria)
– production of exotoxins (cytotoxins, enterotoxins, neurotoxins)
– production of necrotic and other types of destructive enzymes

bacterial pneumonias
-inflammation of the lungs accompanied by fluid-filled alveoli and bronchioles
– can be described by the affected region or the organism causing the disease

lobar pneumonia involves
entire lobes of the lungs

bacterial pneumonias most serious and most frequent in

pneumococcal pneumonia: signs and symptoms
Fever, chills, congestion, cough, chest pain, and short, rapid breathing

pneumococcal pneumonia: pathogen
caused by streptococcus pneumoniae

pneumococcal pneumonia: virulence factors
adhesins, capsules, pneumolysins

penumococcal pneumonia: pathogenesis and epidemiology
Infection occurs by inhalation of bacteria
bacterial replication causes damage to the lungs

pneumococcal pneumonia: diagnosis and treatment
Penicillin is the drug of choice for treatment

pneumococcal pneumonia: prevention
Vaccination is method of prevention

primary atypical (mycoplasmal) pneumonia: signs and symptoms
symptoms include fever, malaise, sorethroat, excessive sweating

primary atypical (mycoplasmal) pneumonia: pathogen
mycoplasma pneumoniae

primary atypical (mycoplasmal) pneumonia: virulence factors
Virulence factors include an adhesion protein

primary atypical (mycoplasmal) pneumonia: epidemiology
nasal secretions among individuals in close contact spread the bacteria

primary atypical (mycoplasmal) pneumonia: diagnosis and treatment
treated with tetracycline and erythromycin

primary atypical (mycoplasmal) pneumonia: prevention
difficult because individuals can be infective despite lack of symptoms

Legionnaires disease: signs and symptoms
typical pneumonia symptoms and possible complications of the GI tract, CNS, liver, and kidneys

Legionnaires disease: pathogen
Legionella pneumophila

Legionnaires disease: pathogenesis
L. pneumophila kills human cells, causing tissue damage and inflammation

Legionnaires disease: epidemiology
The elderly, smokers, and immunocompromised
individuals are at increased risk for infection

Legionnaires disease: diagnosis and treatment
Quinolones or macrolides are the drugs of choice for treatment

Legionaires disease: prevention
reduction of bacterial presence in water is successful control measure

Tuberculosis: pathogensis
M. tuberculosis can remain viable for long periods in
aerosol drops

three types of tuberculosis
primary TB, secondary TB, disseminated TB

Primary tuberculosis
initial case of tuberculosis disease, involves formation of tubercles

secondary tuberculosis
reestablished tuberculosis

disseminated tuberculosis
tuberculosis involving multiple systems

tuberculosis: epidemiology
immunocompromised individuals are most at risk

leading killer of HIV+ individuals

Bacterial food poisoning (intoxication): signs and symptoms
nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, cramping

Bacterial food poisoning (intoxication): pathogen
caused by staphylococcus aureus

Bacterial food poisoning (intoxication): virulence factors
five enterotoxins

Bacterial food poisoning (intoxication): pathogenesis and epidemiology
Outbreaks associated with social functions

Bacterial food poisoning (intoxication): diagnosis and treatment
diagnosis based on signs and symptoms, treatment based on fluid and electrolytes replacement

Bacterial food poisoning (intoxication): prevention
proper hygiene can reduce incidence

Bacterial Gastroenteritis
inflammation of the stomach or intestines due to the presence of bacteria
associated with contaminated foods or water and poor living conditions

Bacterial Gastroenteritis: general features
similar manifestations despite different causative agents

Bacterial Gastroenteritis: symptoms
nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and cramps

a severe gastroenteritis, produces loose, frequent stool containing mucus and blood

travelers diarrhea: pathogen and virulence factors
bacterial gastroenteritis
caused by e coli
virulence factors include adhesins, fimbriae, toxins
including the shiga-like toxin

travelers diarrhea: pathogensis and epidemiology
diarrhea mediated by enterotoxins

travelers diarrhea: diagnosis, treatment and prevention
Diagnosis based on signs and symptoms
Treatment based on fluid and electrolytes replacement

campylobacter diarrhea: pathogen and virulence factors
caused by campylobacter jejuni
virulence factors include adhesins, cytotoxins, endotoxin

campylobacter diarrhea: pathogenesis and epidemiology
virulence factors produce bleeding lesions and trigger inflammation

campylobacter diarrhea: diagnosis, treatment and prevention
diagnosis based on signs and symptoms
most cases resolve without treatment
proper hygiene after handling raw poultry

shigellosis: pathogen and virulence factors
caused by shigella dysenteriae, s. flexneri, s. boydii and S. sonnei
virulence factors include enterotoxins such as shiga toxin

shigellosis: pathogenesis and epidemiology
pathogen colonizes cells of the small, then large intestine

shigellosis: diagnosis, treatment and prevention
diagnosis based on symptoms and presence of shigella in stool
supportive treatment and administration of antimicrobials

salmonellosis caused by
Salmonella Bareilly

types of syphilis
primary syphilis, secondary syphilis, latent syphilis. tertiary syphilis

primary syphilis
presence of chancre (painless, hard lesion)

secondary syphilis
Widespread rash, sore throat, headache, mild fever, malaise, myalgia

latent syphilis
no clinical signs

tertiary syphilis
gummas, dementia, blindness, paralysis, heart failure

chlamydial infection: sign and symptoms of males
painful urination, pus discharge from the penis

chlamydial infection: sign and symptoms of females
most are asymptomatic

Lymphogranuloma venereum
severe form of chlamydia characterized by a transient genital lesion and a bubo in the groin

chlamydial infection: pathogen
Chlamydia trachomatis

Chlamydia trachomatis developmental cycle
elementary bodies then reticulate bodies

elementary bodies
inactive form

reticulate bodies
reproductive form

chlamydial infection: pathogenesis
enter body through abrasions or lacerations and infect cells of the conjunctiva or cells lining various mucous membranes

chlamydial infection: adolescence
associated with increased risk of cervical cancer

most common reportable STD in the US
chlamydia, more common in women

chlamydial infection: diagnosis, treatment and prevention
diagnosed by demonstration of chlamydial DNA following PCR amplification
treatment is with antimicrobial drugs
prevented by absence or mutual monogamy

one of the most reported vector-borne diseases in the US
lyme diasease

two events contribute to increase in lyme disease
1.) human populations have moved into woodland areas
2.) deer population has been protected

rash of lyme disease
bulls eye rash

lyme disease: diagnosis
based on signs and symptoms of the disease
bacterium rarely detected in the blood

lyme disease: treatment
in early phases, antimicrobial drugs are used
treatment of later phases is difficult because symptoms are often caused by the immunesystem

lyme disease: prevention
Use of repellants containing DEET, and use of repellant clothing

lyme disease: pathogen
Borrelia burgdorferi

5 species cause 90% of bacterial meningitis cases
strep pneumoniae, neisseria meningitidis, haemophilus influenzae, listeria monocytogenes, strep agalactiae

leading cause of bacterial meningitis in adults
streptococcus pneumoniae

neisseria meningitidis
due to fimbria, capsule, and lipooligosaccharide

haemophilus influenzae
leading cause of bacterial meningitis prior to vaccine

listeria monocytogenes
disease in fetuses, pregnant women, and immunocompromised individuals

causes most cases of newborn meningitis
streptococcus agalactiae

bacterial meningitis: diagnosis and treatment
diagnosis made based on symptoms and culturing of bacteria from CSF from a spinal tap
treat with various antimicrobial drugs

bacterial meningitis: prevention
vaccines available for S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae type b, and N meningitidis

individuals at risk for listeriosis should
avoid high-risk foods (milk, cheeses, undercooked meat)

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