Laryngitis – swelling of the larynx (voice box) causing hoarseness
Tonsillitis – inflammation of the tonsils, making it difficult to swallow
Sinusitis – inflammation of the sinuses
Otitis Media – swelling of the inner ear, causing pressure
Most common disease agents are Streptococci and S. aureus
Colds, environmental pollutants, excessive dryness (need to have cavities moist), pollen, other allergies
Direct or indirect contact with secretions
Autoinfection – reinfection with a bacteria that is already present on or within the body.
Example – self infection through direct contact with bacteria growing under one’s fingernails
Caused by several different disease agents:
Second hand smoke
Prior bouts of sinusitis
Airborne droplets or secretions of the nose and throat
Sore throat (when maxillary sinus overflows, it flows into throat and the drip is acidic so it causes cells to burst)
Pill form or nasal spray
Liquid form…when in liquid form it loses some of its properties because it starts to be absorbed before it hits the stomach
Proper food handling
Up to 20% of children ages 6-12 are carriers
Otitis media or acute sinusitis are the most common complications.
Ingestion of contaminated food.
Severe sore throat
Swollen glands and tonsils
Malaise (feeling weak, generally out of it and tired)
Loss of appetite and occasional abdominal discomfort
Symptoms in small children may be inapparent (not present)
Early treatment – milder illness and less chance of complications
Avoid close contact with the infected.
Proper food handling
Investigation to determine the source
Antibiotics may be given prophylactically.
Prophylactic – taken before disease to decrease risk of occurrence
Potentially dangerous although symptoms appear mild.
Cause of rheumatic heart disease.
Causative factors include low immune resistance and hypersensitivity.
More prevalent in lower income groups.
It can not be transmitted from person to person.
Rash nodules under the skin
Chorea may occur up to 6 months later
Chorea – abnormal involuntary movement disorder
Don’t treat the fever, manage the fever….need to get rid of the bacteria
Seek immediate treatment for strep infections.
It is classified by disease agent, location, and type.
Types: (determined by type of bacteria causing it)
Pneumococcal Pneumonia (most common form)
Mycoplasmal Pneumonia (mild form- walking pneumonia)
Legionnaire’s Disease (lot of public health interest today, one of the 3 most concerning emerging diseases)
High frequency among the very young and the very old
Common cause of death among alcoholics
Incubation period of 1-3 days (more symptoms in a short time spam)
With antibiotic therapy, it is noninfectious within 24-48 hours. (more easily treated in earlier stages)
Bright red or rusty sputum
May also have pleurisy – sharp pain with breathing
Older individuals may be asymptomatic (because of wear and tear- typically put body through so much so don’t have equipment or energy to take care of it)
In an outbreak, avoid crowds
Problems are starting to occur with penicillin resistance.
“Walking pneumonia” – having pneumonia without a physical manifestation of symptoms.
May last a month or more
Children under 5 may be asymptomatic, or exhibit very light symptoms.
Proper sanitary methods
Headache, malaise, paroxyc cough (sudden attacks), substernal pain
Often not recognized as pneumonia
Generally no complications, and fatalities are rare.
Unrecognized cause of pneumonia for many years (described in 1947)
Has been diagnosed in most states and foreign countries.
Mortality rates are as high as 15% in hospitalized patients. (15% of people who are getting treatment pass away)
Rifampin (antibiotic made for this, used when later in disease)
Infection by inhalation of airborne particles
No evidence of person-to-person transmission
Diarrhea, loss of appetite, malaise (tired), myalgia (muscle pain), weakness, headache, high fever, chills
Nonproductive cough (not able to bring up sputum)
May have grayish, blood-streaked sputum (blood streaked because internal bleeding in the lungs)
May have nausea, vomiting, disorientation (become dehydrated and start to lose oxygen), pleurisy, and bradycardia (heart beat slows down)
These symptoms are found in about 50% of patients.
Acute respiratory failure (mucus is so thick that we cant manually clear it through coughing so it builds to the point where it gets to the Bronchial tubes and obstructs those tubes (same thing as drowning)- so much fluid lungs have no surface area)
Shock Occur when toxins get to brain (brain seize or turns off certain areas)
Implicated cooling systems
Disinfected water supplies
Dust control at excavation sites
Public attention has increased in recent years – media
With fewer and fewer new mothers breast feeding, the number of pertussis cases has unfortunately started to rise again
Caused by Bordetella pertussis
Mortality likely of secondary pneumonia in children under one and the elderly
Highly communicable during late incubation and prodrome stage
Low danger of transmission 3 weeks after cough begins
If treated early with antibiotics, communicable only 5-7 days
Up to 31% of adults with a chronic cough may be carriers
Nutritional supplements, mild sedation with Codine, oxygen therapy
Antibiotics are not very effective in relieving symptoms, but they do shorten the period of communicability.
–>Insidious onset, may include irritating cough, loss of appetite, sneezing, listlessness, infected conjunctiva, low-grade fever
–>Spasmodic/recurrent coughing – expel tenacious mucus, cough – high pitched inspiratory “whoop,” vomiting – hernia (coughing); 3 weeks
–>Cough may last 1-2 months and be triggered again by another upper respiratory infection.
Isolation of suspected cases
Gamma globulin prophylactically
Indirect contact with contaminated objects
Likely cause of death in underdeveloped countries.
Caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae
Stays in upper respiratory region, producing a deadly exotoxin and pseudomembrane, which helps the toxin spread.
Reservoir of infection is humans.
Attack does not always confer immunity.
Epidemic proportions in Soviet Union since 1990.
Indirect by contact with contaminated articles or milk
Fever, sore throat, rasping cough, hoarseness
Pseudomembranes obstruct the airway
around body causing problems in specific areas)
In 1900, 2 out of every 1,000 Americans died of TB, while 20 out of every 1,000 was ill with TB.
Present – 30,000 new cases per year, with over 10 million infected
These numbers are increasing.
May be influenced by AIDS.
Declared a global emergency in 1993
HIV/AIDS lowers resistance
Increased numbers in immigrants
Increased numbers in poverty, alcoholism, drug abuse, and homelessness
Primarily a disease of the lungs, but it can invade the blood stream to affect the liver, brain, urogenital tract, and bones.
Illness and death rates increase with age.
Primary reservoir is humans. Secondary is cattle.
Usually by inhalation of airborne droplets
Prolonged exposure to an active case
Living in close quarters (barracks, dorms, etc.)
9 months of therapy usually resolves active cases
Primary infections heal without intervention.
Improved social conditions, education of the public
Source and contact investigation
Appropriate chemotherapeutic methods
Frequent community surveys by testing and x-rays.
Organisms are encapsulated in the lungs.
Reactivation of TB usually occurs later in life, or at a time when the immune system is compromised.
Cough producing sputum containing mucus and pus
Sometimes bloody sputum