What are the usual symptoms in atypical pneumonia?
Fever, dry (non-productive) cough, interstitial patter of fibronodular or patchy infiltrates by x-ray, less severe than typical pneumonia. If there is sputum, it will be scanty and thin or white (UNLIKE typical pneumonia in which it would be yellow, green, or rust colored)

All viral pneumonia falls under the atypical category as well as three bacteria (Mycoplasma, Legionella, and Chlamydophila)

Would you find anything significant on X-ray in atypical pneumonia?
There will infiltrates in a mildly ill patient – “walking pneumonia”

What do you know about Mycoplasma pneumoniae?
It’s the 2nd most common cause of CAP after Strep pneumoniae. It’s not visible on gram stain, but culturable. Specific IgM antibody is best diagnostic method. Cold agglutinins are sometimes diagnostic Bacterium is a short rod, lacks a cell wall. CAP with this bug is spread by droplets disseminated by cough. Pneumonia is common in 5-20 yr age group and infection in children less than 3 years of age.

What would you find on X-ray for Mycoplasma pneumoniae?
Interstitial pattern (linear markings, streaky, patchy, fibronodular). There are thickened septae, alveolar spaces clear, exudate of PMNs in alveoli.

Classify Legionella as it relates to pneumonia.
Legionella is a small gram-negative bacillus that stains poorly (better with silver stains). This bacteria is aerobic and doesn’t grow on routine media, requires L-cysteine for growth.
The main species that causes pneumonia is Legionella pneumophila, has 16 different serogroups. It’s relatively resistant to chlorine, grows at high temperatures, up to 46 degrees C. Grows well in nature inside free-living amoebae. In patients, organisms are mostly intracellular, especially in macrophages. Virulence is related to LPS endotoxin, flagellin. It is slow-growing – culture on charcoal yeast extract takes 3-5 days.

What is the epidemiology of Legionella?
Acquired from aerosols from environment usually created by water coolers or faucets or showers. Not transmitted person-to-person, not contagious. Host susceptibility increased in smokers, elderly, immunocompromised.

What are the symptoms of Legionella infection?
Dry cough, fever. Sometimes prodrome for several days: fever, headache, malaise, myalgia, anorexia. In about 1/2 of the patients purulent sputum and lung consolidation by X-ray suggestive of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Abdominal pain and diarrhea common. Fatalities in about 10%.

What is the cause of Chlamydia Pneumonia?
Caused by Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Chlamydophila psittaci (parrot fever). This is a different species but same genus as Chlamydophila trachomatis – cause of trachoma (infectious blindness) and STD.
It’s a small gram-negative bacterium, its LPS is truncated and not very endotoxic, peptidoglycan not confirmed. Obligate intracellular organism, requires ATP from host cells for energy needs.

What is the reproduction cycle for Chlamydia?
The elementary body is taken up by phagocytosis into susceptible host cells. The elementary particle reorganizes into a larger noninfectious reticulate body. The reticulate body then divides repeatedly by binary fission, forming inclusion bodes. After 48 hours, multiplication ceases and reticulate bodies condense, becoming new, infectious elementary bodies. Finally the elementary bodies are then released from the cell by cytolysis, ending in cell host death. `

What is the epidemiology of Chlamydia Pneumonia?
Person-to-person spread by droplet aerosols. Can be asymptomatic. Not seasonal. More than 1/2 of US adults are sero-positive, young children rarely sero-positive. Rapid rise of sero-positivity in adolescence. Adult males get more infections than females. Adults with antibodies can get reinfected.

What are the normal symptoms of Chlamydophila?
Dry cough, malaise, sometimes no fever, can last for weeks to months. Gradual onset over several days. X-ray usually shows interstitial infiltrate but is nonspecific. WBC usually normal. Can cause pharyngitis, bronchitis, otitis media, sinusitis

How do you diagnose Chlamydophila?
Serology by microimmunofluorescnce. Antigen detection, PCR, culture by tissue culture but too cumbersome for routine diagnosis.

What causes psittacosis? Describe it.
Caused by C. psittaci. Contracted from fecal aerosol of sick or stressed birds, especially parrots but also other birds like turkeys. Rare transmission from person-to-person. Incubation period 5-15 days. Illness like other atypical pneumonia or febrile illness like mononucleosis or influenza. Rare compared to C. pneumoniae

What is the relationship between chlamydophila and atherosclerosis?
Serosurveys suggest association between infection and atherosclerotic heart disease. Organisms found in some atheromas at autopsy. Antibiotic treatment trials have not consistently shown benefit to prevent cardiac disease. Causal linkage between infection and atherosclerosis remains uncertain.

What is Atypical Pneumonia? – pneumonia char by interstitial pattern of fibronodular or patchy infiltrate – dry cough*/ scanty & thin or white sputum – considered “walking pneumonia because most people don’t know they have it” T/F: It is more …

Typical pneumonia acute inflammation and consolidation of the lung Usually severe – need to stay in hospital if you have this Clinical presentations of typical pneumonia sudden onset oh high-grade fever and chills, productive cough, dull percussion, and increase tactile …

Community Acquired pneumonia (CAP) definition – no contact with hospital setting – vary by age and comorbidites ____% of the time the cause of CAP is left unknown 30-40% of the time the cause of CAP is left unknown WE …

Atypical pneumonia also known as walking pneumonia, is the type of pneumonia not caused by one of the more traditional pathogens. Its clinical presentation contrasts to that of “typical” pneumonia. A variety of microorganisms can cause it. When it develops …

common cause of pneumonia in immunocompromised patients pneumocystis jirovecii most common cause of atypical/walking pneumonia mycoplasma pneumoniae WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write my sample common causative agent for …

3 cardinal manifestations of pneumonia fever cough dyspnea “classifications” of pneumonia….. community acquired (with or without risk factors) hospital acquired (risk factors?) ventilator associated pneumonia in immunocompromised host pneumonia in endemic geographic areas WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE …

David from Healtheappointments:

Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one? Check it out https://goo.gl/chNgQy