Atypical Bacteria: Rickettsia, Mycoplasma, Chlamydia

RICKETTSIA
***Rickettsial organisms

A. Are they classified as bacteria? Which bacteria type are they similar to?

1. They are parasites – but what kind of parasite?

2. Multiply by x.

3 Have x membrane and x peptidoglycan layer

4. Do they contain DNA/RNA/both?

5. Are they capable of metabolism?

B. Multiple species with worldwide distribution. Maintained in x, some transmitted transovarially. Transmitted to human by x or xs.

RICKETTSIA
***Rickettsial organisms

A. Classified as bacteria [similar to gram(-) rods]:

1. Obligate intracellular parasites

2. Multiply by binary fission

3 Have outer membrane and thin peptidoglycan layer

4. Contain DNA and RNA

5. Have metabolic capabilities

B. Multiple species with worldwide distribution. Maintained in insects, some transmitted transovarially. Transmitted to human by bite or feces.

*****Rickettsial diseases

A. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

1. Most prevalent in these 2 US regions.

2. Caused by x

3. Infects, but does not kill the tick, x. Trans-x passage.

4. The Disease
a. Incubation period is #-# days
b. Fever, headache, myalgia, characteristic x.
c. Rash starts on xs and spreads to x
d. Primary lesion is a x-itis – organisms infect endothelium

5. Diagnosis mainly by symptoms. Confirmation by xe and PCR.

6. Treatment – #% fatal with no or ineffective treatment
a. Treat with x in adults
b. Treat with x in children

*****Rickettsial diseases
A. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

1. Most prevalent in southeastern U.S. (N. Carolina) and South Central U.S. (Oklahoma). Rare in Rocky Mountain states!

2. Caused by R. rickettsiae

3. Infects, but does not kill the tick, Dermacentor. Transovarial passage.

4. The Disease
a. Incubation period is 2-6 days
b. Fever, headache, myalgia, characteristic rash
c. Rash starts on extremities and spreads to trunk
d. Primary lesion is a vasculitis – organisms infect endothelium

5. Diagnosis mainly by symptoms. Confirmation by immunofluorescence and PCR.

6. Treatment – 20% fatal with no or ineffective treatment
a. Tetracycline adults
b. Chloramphenicol children

*****Rickettsial diseases
A. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

1. T/F – Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever is rare in the Rocky Mountains.

2. Caused by R. rickettsiae

3. Infects, but does not kill the tick, Dermacentor. Transovarial passage.

4. The Disease
a. Incubation period is 2-6 days
b. Fever, headache, myalgia, characteristic rash
c. Rash starts on extremities and spreads to trunk
d. Primary lesion is a vasculitis – organisms infect endothelium

5. Diagnosis mainly by symptoms. Confirmation by immunofluorescence and PCR.

6. Treatment – 20% fatal with no or ineffective treatment
a. Tetracycline adults
b. Chloramphenicol children

*****Rickettsial diseases
A. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

1. Most prevalent in southeastern U.S. (N. Carolina) and South Central U.S. (Oklahoma). Rare in Rocky Mountain states!

2. Caused by R. rickettsiae

3. Infects, but does not kill the tick, Dermacentor. Transovarial passage.

4. The Disease
a. Incubation period is 2-6 days
b. Fever, headache, myalgia, characteristic rash
c. Rash starts on extremities and spreads to trunk
d. Primary lesion is a vasculitis – organisms infect endothelium

5. Diagnosis mainly by symptoms. Confirmation by immunofluorescence and PCR.

6. Treatment – 20% fatal with no or ineffective treatment
a. Tetracycline adults
b. Chloramphenicol children

What disease is caused by Rickettsia Rickettsiae?
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever via Ixodes deer tick

What disease is caused by Rickettsia prowazekii? (Name 2)
Epidemic Typhus, Brill-Zinsser Disease (relapse due to fading immunity)

What disease is caused by Rickettsia typhi?
Murine typhus, R. typhi transmitted by fleas

What disease is caused by R. tsutsugamushi?
Scrub Typhus

What disease is caused by Bartonella henselae? (name 2)
Cat scratch fever, Bacillary angiomatosis (serious infection in AIDS patients)

***Describe the pathogenesis of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
1. Caused by bite from x
2. What organism causes it?
3. What happens when organism gets into tissues/blood? What is the histological marker of infection?
4. How long before disease shows up?
5. 4 major symptoms of disease
6. What’s the rash like in this disease? What is the primary lesion you see.
7. How to diagnose?
8. How to treat in adults and children?
1. Ixodes (dermacentor) deer tick.
2. R. rickettsiae
3. Rickett attachment/entry by induced phagocytosis. Rickettsiae escape from phagosome and propagate by binary fission. Rickettsiae exit via cell membrane lysis in long cell projection and can infect neighboring cells, be opsonized/phagocytosed/digested, or show heavy infection in some cells and cause necrosis.
4. 2-6 days
5. Fever, myalgia, headache, characteristic rash.
6. Rash starts on extremities and spreads to trunk. Primary lesion is vasculitis due to endothelium necrosis
7. PCR/IF, diagnose via symptoms
8. Adults – give tetracycline
Children – give chloramphenicol

*****Epidemic Typhus
1. Caused by x. Humans are reservoir.
2. Transmitted by x which defecates organisms while feeding. x dies of the infection in a few weeks.

3. Disease –
a. x, headache and chills.
b. Rash first appears on x and then spreads to x
c. Epidemics associated with xs, concentration camps, and extreme social disruption. High (#%) case fatality without treatment due to myocarditis and CNS dysfunction.

4. x disease
a. A relapse of epidemic typhus years after first attack due to fading immunity.
b. Lesser severity
c. IgG antibody response – NOT IgM

5. Treatment -these 3 antibiotics

Epidemic Typhus
1. Caused by R. prowazekii. Humans are reservoir.
2. Transmitted by common body louse which defecates organisms while feeding. Louse dies of the infection in a few weeks.

3. Disease –
a. Fever, headache and chills.
b. Rash first appears on trunk and then spreads to extremities
c. Epidemics associated with wars, concentration camps, and extreme social disruption. High (40%) case fatality without treatment due to myocarditis and CNS dysfunction.

4. Brill-Zinsser Disease
a. A relapse of epidemic typhus years after first attack due to fading immunity.
b. Lesser severity
c. IgG antibody response – NOT IgM
5. Treatment – tetracycline, doxycycline, chloramphenicol

Epidemic Typhus
1. Caused by R. prowazekii. xs are reservoir.
2. Transmitted by common body louse which x organisms while
feeding. Louse dies of the infection in a few weeks.
3. Disease –
a. Fever, x and x.
b. Rash first appears on trunk and then spreads to extremities
c. Epidemics associated with wars, concentration camps, and extreme
social disruption. High (40%) case fatality without treatment
due to xitis and x dysfunction.

4. Brill-Zinsser Disease
a. A relapse of epidemic typhus xs after first attack due to x immunity.
b. Greater or lesser severity?
c. Ig? antibody response – NOT Ig?
5. Treatment – tetracycline, doxycycline, chloramphenicol

Epidemic Typhus
1. Caused by R. prowazekii. Humans are reservoir.
2. Transmitted by common body louse which defecates organisms while
feeding. Louse dies of the infection in a few weeks.
3. Disease –
a. Fever, headache and chills.
b. Rash first appears on trunk and then spreads to extremities
c. Epidemics associated with wars, concentration camps, and extreme
social disruption. High (40%) case fatality without treatment
due to myocarditis and CNS dysfunction.
4. Brill-Zinsser Disease
a. A relapse of epidemic typhus years after first attack due to fading immunity.
b. Lesser severity
c. IgG antibody response – NOT IgM
5. Treatment – tetracycline, doxycycline, chloramphenicol

***Give organism which causes
1. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
2. Epidemic Typhus
3. Brill-Zinsser disease
4. Murine Typhus
5. Scrub Typhus
6. Cat Scratch Fever
7. Bacillary angiomatosis
1. R. rickettsiae
2. R. prowazekii
3. R. prowazekii
4. R. typhi
5. R. tsutsugamushi
6. Bartonella henselae
7. Bartonella henselae

*****MYCOPLASMA

I. General Characteristics
A. Size and complexity compared to other bacteria?

B. Doesn’t have a x; cell membrane similar to other bacteria but contains xs. Major antigenic determinants are membrane xs and xs

C. All are parasites of humans, animals, plants or arthropods
1. T/F – In humans, most are part of normal flora
2. Adhere to mucous surfaces of x and x tracts

D. Three species cause human disease – Mycoplasma x, Mycoplasma x, Ureaplasma x

II. Morphology and Reproduction
A. Form xs in culture

B. M. pneumoniae shows microscopic x colony shape on agar.

C. T-strain (tiny strain) mycoplasmas (M. hominis and U. urealyticum) have even larger/smaller ?-shaped colonies.

III. Nutrition
A. Require complex media with serum (xs and xol), but can grow extracellularly

B. xe and other carbohydrates used for energy

*****MYCOPLASMA

I. General Characteristics
A. Smallest, simplest, self-replicating bacteria

B. No cell wall; cell membrane similar to other bacteria but contains sterols. Major antigenic determinants are membrane glycolipids and proteins

C. All are parasites of humans, animals, plants or arthropods
1. In humans, most are innocuous; part of normal flora
2. Adhere to mucous surfaces of respiratory and urogenital tracts

D. Three species cause human disease – Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum

II. Morphology and Reproduction
A. Form pleomorphic filaments in culture

B. M. pneumoniae shows microscopic granular colony shape on agar.

C. T-strain (tiny strain) mycoplasmas (M. hominis and U. urealyticum) have even smaller fried egg shaped colonies.

III. Nutrition
A. Require complex media with serum (fatty acids and cholesterol), but can grow extracellularly

B. Glucose and other carbohydrates used for energy

*****MYCOPLASMA

1. What doesn’t it have?
2. Major antigenic determinants
3. Part of normal flora?
4. Name the 3 major ones to know
5. What do they look like in culture? Which one is granular colonies?
6. What are T-stain mycoplasmas? What do they look like?
7. What 2 things does media need to culture them?
8. What do they use for energy?

*****MYCOPLASMA

I. General Characteristics
A. Smallest, simplest, self-replicating bacteria

1,2. No cell wall; cell membrane similar to other bacteria but contains sterols. Major antigenic determinants are membrane glycolipids and proteins

3. All are parasites of humans, animals, plants or arthropods
– In humans, most are innocuous; part of normal flora
– Adhere to mucous surfaces of respiratory and urogenital tracts

4. Three species cause human disease – Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum

II. Morphology and Reproduction
5. Form pleomorphic filaments in culture
M. pneumoniae shows microscopic granular colony shape on agar.

6. T-strain (tiny strain) mycoplasmas (M. hominis and U. urealyticum) have even smaller fried egg shaped colonies.

III. Nutrition
7. Require complex media with serum (fatty acids and cholesterol), but can grow extracellularly

8. Glucose and other carbohydrates used for energy

Smallest simplest bacteria
Mycoplasma

***Name the two major mycoplasma diseases to know
1. Mycoplasma pneumonia (primary atypical pneumonia)
2. Nongonococcal urethritis (NGU)

*****Mycoplasma diseases
A. Mycoplasma pneumonia (x-y x-l pneumonia)

1. Most infections by M. pneumoniae are xcal or x infections. Organisms attach to cilia and microvilli of cells lining the bronchial epithelium and impair ciliary function through production of x.

2. Pneumonia – more/less? frequent than URI
a. onset sudden/gradual?, mild to moderately severe
b. persistent x, cough, headache
c. xr, xal infiltrates on x-ray
d. long convalescence (#-# weeks), relatively strong/poor? response to tetracycline or erythromycin

3. Epidemiology
a. Rare in x children, but causes 8-15% of pneumonias in x-aged children and 15-50% of pneumonias in x
children and adults
b. Requires close personal contact for transmission
c. Endemic, year round incidence

Mycoplasma diseases
A. Mycoplasma pneumonia (primary atypical pneumonia)
1. Most infections by M. pneumoniae are subclinical or upper respiratory infections. Organisms attach to cilia and microvilli of cells lining the bronchial epithelium and impair ciliary function through production of toxic substances.
2. Pneumonia – less frequent than URI
a. onset gradual, mild to moderately severe
b. persistent fever, cough, headache
c. lobar, interstitial infiltrates on x-ray
d. long convalescence (4-6 weeks), relatively poor response to tetracycline or erythromycin
3. Epidemiology
a. Rare in pre-school children, but causes 8-15% of pneumonias in school-aged children and 15-50% of pneumonias in older
children and adults
b. Requires close personal contact for transmission
c. Endemic, year round incidence

*****Mycoplasma pneumonia
1. Also known as x pneumonia
2. Most infections don’t progress to pneumonia, they cause this.
3. If one does get pneumonia, describe the onset, severity, what is observed on x-ray, how long is takes to go away, why is treatment difficult?

4. Does incidence increase or decrease with age?
5. How is it transmitted?
6. Does it occur at a particular time of year?

Mycoplasma diseases
A. Mycoplasma pneumonia (primary atypical pneumonia)
1. Most infections by M. pneumoniae are subclinical or upper respiratory
infections. Organisms attach to cilia and microvilli of cells lining the bronchial epithelium and impair ciliary function through production of toxic substances.
2. Pneumonia – less frequent than URI
a. onset gradual, mild to moderately severe
b. persistent fever, cough, headache
c. lobar, interstitial infiltrates on x-ray
d. long convalescence (4-6 weeks), relatively poor response to
tetracycline or erythromycin
3. Epidemiology
a. Rare in pre-school children, but causes 8-15% of pneumonias in school-aged children and 15-50% of pneumonias in older
children and adults
b. Requires close personal contact for transmission
c. Endemic, year round incidence

*****
Nongonococcal urethritis (NGU)

B. Nongonococcal urethritis (NGU)
1. x and x (aka ?-strain mycoplasmas) believed to cause NGU, but associations with human disease contradictory
a. T/F – found in healthy individuals.
b. more frequently isolated from patients with x
c. cured with x

2. x believed to be a more frequent cause of NGU than mycoplasma

3. U. urealyticum and M. hominis acquired by x
a. women may serve as x reservoirs
b. treatment of one or both sexual partners required for eradication?
c. cause of x delivery and neonatal x disease?

B. Nongonococcal urethritis (NGU)
1. U. urealyticum and M. hominis (T-strain mycoplasmas) believed to cause NGU, but associations with human disease contradictory
a. found in healthy individuals
b. more frequently isolated from patients with NGU
c. cured with tetracycline

2. Chlamydia trachomatis believed to be a more frequent cause

3. U. urealyticum and M. hominis acquired by sexual contact
a. women may serve as asymptomatic reservoirs
b. treatment of both sexual partners required for eradication
c. cause of premature delivery and neonatal lung disease?

*****
U. urealyticum and M. hominis (T-strain mycoplasmas) believed to cause x, but this is contradictory

a. Can they be found in individuals without the disease?
b. Even so, why do people think they cause NGU?
c. How to cure?

What other atypical bacteria is a more frequent cause of NGU?

How does one get U. urealyticum and M. hominis?

X serve as asymptomatic reservoirs.

Can you just treat only one partner?

NGU thought to cause premature x and x lung disease

B. Nongonococcal urethritis (NGU)
1.
U. urealyticum and M. hominis (T-strain mycoplasmas) believed to cause NGU, but associations with human disease contradictory
a. found in healthy individuals
b. more frequently isolated from patients with NGU
c. cured with tetracycline
2. Chlamydia trachomatis believed to be a more frequent cause
3. U. urealyticum and M. hominis acquired by sexual contact
a. women may serve as asymptomatic reservoirs
b. treatment of both sexual partners required for eradication
c. cause of premature delivery and neonatal lung disease?

Diagnosis of mycoplasmal infections – usually “clinical”

A. Measurement of specific antibodies in patient’s serum by xt xion- not usually positive until 2-3 weeks after onset of mycoplasma pneumonia

B. Cold agglutinins, Ig? antibodies which agglutinate xs at cold temperatures, are usually positive acutely in mycoplasma pneumonia

C. Detection of xe by use of genetic probes

Diagnosis of mycoplasmal infections – usually “clinical”
A. Measurement of specific antibodies in patient’s serum by complement fixation – not usually positive until 2-3 weeks after onset of mycoplasma pneumonia
B. Cold agglutinins, IgM antibodies which agglutinate RBCs at cold temperatures, are usually positive acutely in mycoplasma pneumonia
C. Detection of M. pneumoniae by use of genetic probes

Diagnosis of mycoplasmal infections – usually “clinical”
A. Measurement of x in patient’s serum by complement fixation – not usually positive until # weeks after onset of mycoplasma pneumonia
B. xins, IgM antibodies which agglutinate RBCs at cold temperatures, are usually positive acutely in mycoplasma x
C. Detection of M. pneumoniae by use of genetic probes
Diagnosis of mycoplasmal infections – usually “clinical”
A. Measurement of specific antibodies in patient’s serum by complement fixation – not usually positive until 2-3 weeks after onset of mycoplasma pneumonia
B. Cold agglutinins, IgM antibodies which agglutinate RBCs at cold temperatures, are usually positive acutely in mycoplasma pneumonia
C. Detection of M. pneumoniae by use of genetic probes

Three ways to diagnose mycoplasmal infections.
Diagnosis of mycoplasmal infections – usually “clinical”
A. Measurement of specific antibodies in patient’s serum by complement fixation – not usually positive until 2-3 weeks after onset of mycoplasma pneumonia
B. Cold agglutinins, IgM antibodies which agglutinate RBCs at cold temperatures, are usually positive acutely in mycoplasma pneumonia
C. Detection of M. pneumoniae by use of genetic probes

CHLAMYDIA
I. General Characteristics

A. What kind of parasites? “Energy parasites”. Have xNA genome,xRNA, and proteins. Cell walls are similar to those of gram (?) bacilli but contain no x layer.

B. Developmental cycle based on x bodies (infectious extracellular particles) and x bodies (dividing intracellular particles). Both types of particles may be present within the large inclusions in cytoplasm of infected cells.

C. All species are susceptible to xne and xol.

CHLAMYDIA
I. General Characteristics

A. Obligate intracellular parasites. “Energy parasites”. Have DNA genome, RNA, and proteins. Cell walls are similar to those of gram (-) bacilli but contain no peptidoglycan layer.

B. Developmental cycle based on elementary bodies (infectious extracellular particles) and reticulate bodies (dividing intracellular particles). Both types of particles may be present within the large inclusions in cytoplasm of infected cells.

C. All species are susceptible to tetracycline and chloramphenicol.

CHLAMYDIA
I. General Characteristics

A. Obligate x parasites. “Energy parasites”. Have DNA genome, RNA, and proteins. Cell x are similar to those of gram (-) bacilli but contain no peptidoglycan layer.

B. Developmental cycle based on elementary bodies (xious xacellular particles) and reticulate bodies (xing xacellular particles). Both types of particles may be present within the large inclusions in x of infected cells.

C. T/F – ALL species are susceptible to tetracycline and chloramphenicol.

CHLAMYDIA
I. General Characteristics

A. Obligate intracellular parasites. “Energy parasites”. Have DNA genome, RNA, and proteins. Cell walls are similar to those of gram (-) bacilli but contain no peptidoglycan layer.

B. Developmental cycle based on elementary bodies (infectious extracellular particles) and reticulate bodies (dividing intracellular particles). Both types of particles may be present within the large inclusions in cytoplasm of infected cells.

C. All species are susceptible to tetracycline and chloramphenicol.

What are elementary bodies and reticulate bodies?
CHLAMYDIA
I. General Characteristics

A. Obligate intracellular parasites. “Energy parasites”. Have DNA genome, RNA, and proteins. Cell walls are similar to those of gram (-) bacilli but contain no peptidoglycan layer.

B. Developmental cycle based on elementary bodies (infectious extracellular particles) and reticulate bodies (dividing intracellular particles). Both types of particles may be present within the large inclusions in cytoplasm of infected cells.

C. All species are susceptible to tetracycline and chloramphenicol.

******Chlamydia trachomatis

1. Trachoma – leading cause of x in developing countries, particularly where climate is arid
a. Caused by serotypes A, B, Ba, and C
b. Transmission by xs, xers, xtes
c. Pathogenesis a prolonged cycle (decades) of irritation of x by dust, sand, and smoke, reactivation of infection, healing, then reactivation, with eventual xing of corneas and lids
d. Successful treatment of early disease with xne, xcin

2. Newborn inclusion xitis, nongonococcal xitis, xgitis, xmitis, and infant xnia all may be caused by serotypes D-K
a. Organisms causing genitourinary syndrome transmitted xlly
b. Organisms causing newborn xitis and infant xitis transmitted from mother to infant during delivery
c. Salpingitis and pelvic inflammatory disease are causes of xy
d. Treatment with x (adults) and xcin (babies)

3. Lympho-x x-um – systemic infection of lymphoid system after organism is introduced through a break in the skin.
a. Caused by serotypes L1, L2, L3
b. Distinctive syndrome characterized by inguinal lymphadenopathy above and below the inguinal ligament.

4. Diagnosis
a. Culture
i. x-containing inclusions stain with iodine
ii immunofluorescence

b. Antigen detection using monoclonal antibodies
c. DNA probes
d. Serology – IgM antibodies useful in x infection

******Chlamydia trachomatis

1. Trachoma – leading cause of blindness in developing countries, particularly where climate is arid
a. Caused by serotypes A, B, Ba, and C
b. Transmission by flies, fingers, fomites
c. Pathogenesis a prolonged cycle (decades) of irritation of cornea by dust, sand, and smoke, reactivation of infection, healing, then reactivation, with eventual scarring of corneas and lids
d. Successful treatment of early disease with tetracycline, erythromycin

2. Newborn inclusion conjunctivitis, nongonococcal urethritis, salpingitis, epididymitis, and infant pneumonia all may be caused by serotypes D-K
a. Organisms causing genitourinary syndrome transmitted venereally
b. Organisms causing newborn conjunctivitis and infant pneumonitis transmitted from mother to infant during delivery
c. Salpingitis and pelvic inflammatory disease are causes of infertility
d. Treatment with tetracycline (adults) and erythromycin (babies)

3. Lymphogranuloma venereum – systemic infection of lymphoid system after organism is introduced through a break in the skin.
a. Caused by serotypes L1, L2, L3
b. Distinctive syndrome characterized by inguinal lymphadenopathy above and below the inguinal ligament.

4. Diagnosis
a. Culture
i. glycogen-containing inclusions stain with iodine
ii immunofluorescence

b. Antigen detection using monoclonal antibodies
c. DNA probes
d. Serology – IgM antibodies useful in neonatal infection

******Chlamydia trachomatis

1. x-oma = leading cause of blindness in developing countries, particularly where climate is arid
a. Caused by serotypes A, B, Ba, and C
b. Transmission by flies, fingers, fomites
c. Pathogenesis a prolonged cycle (decades) of irritation of cornea by dust, sand, and smoke, reactivation of infection, healing, then reactivation, with eventual scarring of corneas and lids
d. Successful treatment of early disease with tetracycline, erythromycin

2. Newborn inclusion conjunctivitis, nongonococcal urethritis, salpingitis, epididymitis, and infant pneumonia all may be caused by serotypes ?-?
a. Organisms causing xy syndrome transmitted venereally
b. Organisms causing newborn conjunctivitis and infant pneumonitis transmitted from x to x during delivery
c. xitis and x inflammatory disease are causes of infertility
d. Treatment with tetracycline (xs) and erythromycin (xs)

3. Lymphogranuloma venereum – xic infection of lymphoid system after organism is introduced through a break in the skin.
a. Caused by serotypes x,x,x?
b. Distinctive syndrome characterized by x lymphadenopathy above and below the inguinal ligament.

4. Diagnosis
a. Culture
i. glycogen-containing inclusions stain with x
ii immunofluorescence

b. Antigen detection using monoclonal antibodies
c. DNA probes
d. Serology – Ig? antibodies useful in neonatal infection

******Chlamydia trachomatis

1. Trachoma – leading cause of blindness in developing countries, particularly where climate is arid
a. Caused by serotypes A, B, Ba, and C
b. Transmission by flies, fingers, fomites
c. Pathogenesis a prolonged cycle (decades) of irritation of cornea by dust, sand, and smoke, reactivation of infection, healing, then reactivation, with eventual scarring of corneas and lids
d. Successful treatment of early disease with tetracycline, erythromycin

2. Newborn inclusion conjunctivitis, nongonococcal urethritis, salpingitis, epididymitis, and infant pneumonia all may be caused by serotypes D-K
a. Organisms causing genitourinary syndrome transmitted venereally
b. Organisms causing newborn conjunctivitis and infant pneumonitis transmitted from mother to infant during delivery
c. Salpingitis and pelvic inflammatory disease are causes of infertility
d. Treatment with tetracycline (adults) and erythromycin (babies)

3. Lymphogranuloma venereum – systemic infection of lymphoid system after organism is introduced through a break in the skin.
a. Caused by serotypes L1, L2, L3
b. Distinctive syndrome characterized by inguinal lymphadenopathy above and below the inguinal ligament.

4. Diagnosis
a. Culture
i. glycogen-containing inclusions stain with iodine
ii immunofluorescence

b. Antigen detection using monoclonal antibodies
c. DNA probes
d. Serology – IgM antibodies useful in neonatal infection

*****Chlamydia trachomatis
Has a variety of serotypes. Which diseases are caused by
1. Serotypes A, B, Ba, C
2. Serotypes D,E,F,G,H,I,J,K
3. Serotypes L1,L2,L3
1. Trachoma
2. Nongonococcal urethritis, newborn inclusion conjunctivitis, salpingitis, epididymitis, infant pneumonia
3. Lymphogranuloma venereum

Chlamydia trachomatis can be spread in many ways. Name diseases caused by

1. Transmission by flies, fingers, fomites
2. sexual contact
3. mother to infant
4. through skin break

1. trachoma
2. Nongonococcal urethritis/ other GU syndromes
3. newborn conjunctivitis and infant pneumonitis
4.Lymphogranuloma venereum

Distinctive syndrome characterized by inguinal lymphadenopathy above and below the inguinal ligament.
Lymphogranuloma venereum – systemic infection of lymphoid system after organism is introduced through a break in the skin.
a. Caused by serotypes L1, L2, L3
b. Distinctive syndrome characterized by inguinal lymphadenopathy
above and below the inguinal ligament.

What is the pathogenesis and symptoms of trachoma due to chlamydia trachomatis?
Trachoma – leading cause of blindness in developing countries, particularly where climate is arid
a. Caused by serotypes A, B, Ba, and C
b. Transmission by flies, fingers, fomites
c. Pathogenesis a prolonged cycle (decades) of irritation of cornea by
dust, sand, and smoke, reactivation of infection, healing,
then reactivation, with eventual scarring of corneas and lids
d. Successful treatment of early disease with tetracycline,
erythromycin

How to test for Chlamydia infection in neonates?
IgM antibody serology

How to test for Chlamydia? (3 main ways)
Diagnosis
a. Culture
i. glycogen-containing inclusions stain with iodine
ii immunofluorescence
b. Antigen detection using monoclonal antibodies
c. DNA probes

*****Chlamydia psittaci

1. Psittacosis
a. Human infections in x shop employees or families keeping xs for pets – a zoonosis.
b. Mild to fulminant x treated with tetracycline or erythromycin.
c. Diagnosis by serologic testing – x (CF).

Chlamydia psittaci
1. Psittacosis
a. Human infections in pet shop employees or families keeping birds for pets – a zoonosis.
b. Mild to fulminant pneumonia treated with tetracycline or erythromycin.
c. Diagnosis by serologic testing – Complement Fixation (CF).

Chlamydia psittaci
1. x-osis
a. Human infections in pet shop employees or families keeping birds
for pets – a zoonosis.
b. Mild to fulminant pneumonia treated with xe or xn.
c. Diagnosis by serologic testing – Complement Fixation (CF).
Chlamydia psittaci
1. Psittacosis
a. Human infections in pet shop employees or families keeping birds
for pets – a zoonosis.
b. Mild to fulminant pneumonia treated with tetracycline or erythromycin.
c. Diagnosis by serologic testing – Complement Fixation (CF).

Chlamydia psittaci causes what disease? How to treat?
Chlamydia psittaci
1. Psittacosis
a. Human infections in pet shop employees or families keeping birds
for pets – a zoonosis.
b. Mild to fulminant pneumonia treated with tetracycline or
erythromycin.
c. Diagnosis by serologic testing – Complement Fixation (CF).

Psittacosis – caused by what? How to treat? How to diagnose?
Chlamydia psittaci
1. Psittacosis
a. Human infections in pet shop employees or families keeping birds
for pets – a zoonosis.
b. Mild to fulminant pneumonia treated with tetracycline or erythromycin.
c. Diagnosis by serologic testing – Complement Fixation (CF).

*****Chlamydia pneumoniae
1. Important cause of xitis, pneumonia, sinusitis, and other x infections
2. Diagnosed by serology – x or immunofluorescence
*****Chlamydia pneumoniae
1. Important cause of bronchitis, pneumonia, sinusitis, and other respiratory infections
2. Diagnosed by serology – CF or immunofluorescence

*****Chlamydia x?
1. Important cause of bronchitis, pneumonia, sinusitis, and other respiratory infections
2. Diagnosed by serology – CF or immunofluorescence
*****Chlamydia pneumoniae
1. Important cause of bronchitis, pneumonia, sinusitis, and other respiratory infections
2. Diagnosed by serology – CF or immunofluorescence

What is especially notable about the size of mycoplasma? -smallest free living oraganism Compare the size of mycoplasma to e. coli? -genome size is less than 20% of the size of e. coli WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE …

Make sure you know the learning objectives. 1. Recognize the clinical presentation of Mycoplasma pneumonia. 2. Recall why Mycoplasma pneumoniae is considered an “atypical” organism that causes pneumonia. 3. Assess how M. pneumoniae infection is diagnosed. 4. Evaluate why beta-lactam …

why is it that mycoplasma do not have a definitive gram staining pattern no cell wall what is special about mycoplasma cell membrane contains cholesterol WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY …

What are the usual symptoms in atypical pneumonia? Fever, dry (non-productive) cough, interstitial patter of fibronodular or patchy infiltrates by x-ray, less severe than typical pneumonia. If there is sputum, it will be scanty and thin or white (UNLIKE typical …

What is Atypical Pneumonia? – pneumonia char by interstitial pattern of fibronodular or patchy infiltrate – dry cough*/ scanty & thin or white sputum – considered “walking pneumonia because most people don’t know they have it” T/F: It is more …

Four P/B pathogens Pseudomonas/Burkholderia P. aeruginosa B. cepacia B. pseudomallei B. mallei P. aeruginosa a common and serious nosocomial pathogen. Can grow in water WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE …

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