ATI Pharmacology Made Easy 3.0: Introduction to Pharmacology Notes

Pharmacokinetics
Absorption–>Distribution–>Metabolism–>Excretion

Absorption
The movement of drug from site of administration to various tissues of the body.

Distribution
The movement of the drug by circulatory system to its intended site of action

Metabolism
Is the change that occurs in a drug into a
-more or less potent form
-more soluble form
-to an inactive form

Where does the majority of a drug’s biotransformation occur?
The liver. Metabolites are the new or altered form of the drug (a by product of metabolism)

Where can drugs be excreted from?
The kidneys, GI track and lungs.

What does a decrease in the function of either or both the kidneys and/or liver?
It increases the half-life of drugs.

How are peak and trough levels of a drug determined?
By taking blood samples from a patient throughout the day.

Give an example of two drugs that produce an additive effect?
alcohol + opioids (CNS depressants) 1+1=2, which puts the patient at risk for serious CNS depression (low BP, low R, low HR)

Give an example of two drugs that produce a synergistic effect
aspirin + warfrin 1+1=more than 2. The effects of warfrin increase and severe bleeding can occur.

Give an example of two drugs that produce an antagonistic (antagonizes=interferes) effect
1+1=less than 2. With an Asthma drug that opens airway and a cardiovascular drug w side effect that constricts the airway this is a 1+1=0

What is age range for neonates?
Younger than 1 month

What is age range for babies?
1 month to 1 year

What is age range for children?
1-12

In relation to gastric emptying, gastric absorption is slower until what age?
6-8 months

Gastric pH is higher until _____ of age, and until the liver matures at _____year(s) of age
(under) 2 years(=higher gastric pH)
(under) 1 year (1 years old= when liver matures)

Less of drug is absorbed on its first past through, when?
When the liver is immature before the age of 1

If drugs are administered intramuscularly in neonates there is a ______in absorption.
delay

If drugs are administered intramuscularly in infants and children there is a ______in absorption.
increase

The ________water content and ______body fat content in neonates, infants and children affects the distribution of drugs.
higher water content
lower body fat content

Infants have a less effective BBB than adults, this allows______
drugs to enter the brain easier

Absorption refers to the movement of drug into the bloodstream, with the rate dependent on the physical characteristics of the drug and its formation. Refers to the passage of drug molecules from the site of administration into the circulation. Active …

A health care professional obtaining a patient’s health history discovers that the patient is taking loratadine (Claritin), an over the counter drug. Which of the following information about over the counter drugs is correct? (select all that apply) They do …

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