ATI Pharm Chapter 46: Urinary Tract Infections

medications used to treat urinary tract infections
sulfonamides, trimethoprim, and urinary antiseptics

Sulfonamides and trimethoprim medication prototypes
sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprin, sulfadiazine, trimethoprim

Sulfonamides and trimethoprim mechanism
inhibit bacterial growth by preventing the synthesis of folic acid

Sulfonamides and trimethoprim therapeutic uses (causative agents)
E.coli, klebsiella, proteus, enterobacter, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae

Sulfonamides and trimethoprim therapeutic uses (other infections)
otitis media, bronchitis, shigellosis, and pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia

Sulfonamides and trimethoprim adverse effects
Stevens-Johnson syndrome, blood dyscrasias, crystalluria, kernicterus, photosensitivity

Sulfonamides medication interactions
increase effects of warfarin, phenytoin, sulfonylurea oral hypoglycemics, and tolbutamide, diuretics, ACE inhibitors and ARB

Sulfonamides and trimethoprim nursing interventions
Monitor for pallor, bleeding, sore throat, drink lots of water, wear sunscreen and avoid too much sunlight,

Sulfonamides contraindications
clients who have folate deficiency (increases risk of megaloblastic anemia), renal dysfunctions

Urinary tract antiseptic prototypes
nitrofurantoin, and nitrofurantoin macrocrystals

Urinary tract antiseptic other medications
methenamine

Urinary tract antiseptic mechanism
broad-spectrum with bacteriostatic and bacteriocidal interaction, damages DNA

Urinary tract antiseptic therapeutic uses
acute UTIs, prophylaxis

Urinary tract antiseptic adverse effects
GI, severe pulmonary manifestations, blood dyscrasia, peripheral neuropathy, headache/drowziness/dizziness

Urinary tract antiseptic contraindications
renal dysfunctions and creatinin clearance less than 40 mL/min

Urinary tract antisepctic nursing considerations
– brownish urine discoloration
– administer with food
– avoid crushing tablets (causes tooth staining)
– monitor for epistaxis

Fluoroquinolone prototype
ciprofloxacin

Fluoroquinolone other medications
ofloxacin, moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, norfloxacin

Fluoroquinolone mechanism
bactericidal as a result of inhibition of enzyme necessary for DNA replication

Fluoroquinolone Therapeutic uses
broad-spectrum for aerobic gram-negative bacteria, gram positive bactera, klbsiella, and E.coli

– UTIs, GI infections, infections of bones, joints, skin, and soft tissues

Medication of choice for prevention of:
anthrax in clients who have inhaled anthrax spore

Fluoroquinolone adverse effects
GI, achilles tendon rupture, supra infection (thrush, vaginal yeast infection), phototoxicity

Ciprofloxacin contraindications/precautions
younger than 18 unless being treated for UTI/E.coli due to risk of achilles tendon, increases risk of c.diff, affects CNS

Fluoroquinolone nursing interventions
– monitor achilles tendon, yeast infections
-avoid sun exposure

Fluoroquinolone interactions
cationic compounds, theophylline, warfarin

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the common cases encountered in medical practice. The National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention states that UTI’s account for about 8. 3 million doctor visits each year (National …

Fluoroquinolones Naladixic acid is the predecessor to all fluoroquinolones. Introduction of the first fluorinated quinolone, norfloxacin, was rapidly followed by development of other members of this group, such as ciprofloxacin, which has had wide clinical application. Today, over 10,000 analogs …

Urinary retention leads to overdistention of the bladder, poor detrusor muscle contractility, & inability to urinate. If problem persists; hydroureter→ hydronephrosis→impaired renal function→acute renal failure can result. Risk factors for Urinary retention -Benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH)= common cause. difficutly initiating …

Major Drug Actions for this classification: Interferes with conversion of intermediate DNA fragments into high-molecular weight DNA in bacteria; DNA gyrase inhibitor Uses for drugs in this classification: Adult urinary tract infections (including complicated); chronic bacterial prostatitis; acute sinusitis; infectious …

Major Drug Actions for this classification: Interferes with conversion of intermediate DNA fragments into high-molecular weight DNA in bacteria; DNA gyrase inhibitor Uses for drugs in this classification: Adult urinary tract infections (including complicated); chronic bacterial prostatitis; acute sinusitis; infectious …

During pregnancy, a woman’s body experiences many remarkable changes in terms of the structure and function of the urinary tract. As blood volume expands, there is also an accompanied increase in the glomerular filtration rate and urinary output. As an …

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