ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

Examples of ACE Inhibitors

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

Captopril
Enalapril
Enalaprilat (IV Route)
Fosinopril
Lisinopril

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

Examples of Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers (ARBs)

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

Losartan
Valsartan
Irbesartan

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

Therapeutic use of ACE Inhibitors and ARBs

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

• Hypertension
• HF
• MI
• Diabetic nephropathy.

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

Precautions/interactions of ACE Inhibitors and ARBs.

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

• Diuretic therapy
• Monitor potassium levels.

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

Side/adverse effects of ACE Inhibitors

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

• Persistent nonproductive cough
• Angioedema
• Hypotension
• ø 2nd/3rd trimester.

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

Side/adverse effects of ARBs

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

• Angioedema
• Hypotension
• ø in 2nd/3rd trimester.

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

Nursing Interventions and Client Education for ACE Inhibitors and ARBs.

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

• Captopril taken 1 hour before meals.
• Monitor BP
• Monitor for angioedema → epinephrine 0.5mL of 1:1000 subcutaneously.

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

Purported use of Glucosamine

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

• Relieve osteoarthritis and promote joint health.

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

Purported use of Echinacea

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

• Prevent and treat the common cold, stimulate immune system.

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

Purported use of Ginkgo

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

• Improve cerebral circulation

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

Purported use of Omega-3 fatty acids.

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

• Improve hypertriglyceridemia and maintain cardiac health.

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

Purported use of Ginger root

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

• Relieves vertigo and nausea.

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

Purported use of Saw Palmetto

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

• Treat and prevent benign prostatic hypertrophy.

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

Purported use of St. John’s wort

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

• Treat depression, seasonal affective disorder, and anxiety.

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

Purported use of Valerian root

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

• Manage migraines, insomnia, and menstrual cramps.

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

Purported use of Melatonin

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

• Manage insomnia and jet lag.

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

Interactions with Saw Palmetto

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

• Additive effect with anticoagulants

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

Interactions with Valerian root

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

• Additive effect with barbiturates and benzodiazepines

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

Side effects of Saw palmetto

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

• HA
• Altered platelet function.

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

Side effects of Valerian root

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

• Drowsiness
• HA
• Nervousness with prolonged use.

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

Side effects of St. John’s wort

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

• HA
• Sleep disturbances
• Phototoxicity (long-term use)
• Constipation.

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

Interactions with St. John’s Wort

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

• Oral contraceptives
• Cyclosporine
• Warfarin
• Reduced antiretroviral effects
• Digoxin
• Calcium channel blockers
• Antidepressants

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

Side effects of Echinacea

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

• Fever (rare)
• Nausea (rare)
• Anaphylaxis in susceptible individuals.
• Possible immunosuppression (long-term).

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

Interactions of Echinacea

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

• May ↓ effects of immunosuppressants
• May ↑ serum levels of alprazolam, CCB, and protease inhibitors.

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

Interactions of Garlic

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

• ↑ bleeding risk of taking NSAIDs, warfarin, and heparin.
• ↓ levels of saquinavir and cyclosporine.

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

Interactions of Ginger Root.

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

• Pregnant: high doses can cause uterine contractions.
• NSAIDs, warfarin, and heparin
• Can ↑ hypoglycemic effects of diabetes.

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

Side effects of Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba)

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

• Dizziness
• Stomach upset
• Vertigo

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

Interactions of Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba)

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

• May ↑ effects of MAOIs, anticoagulants and antiplatelet aggregates
• May ↓ the effectiveness of insulin

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

Nursing considerations of Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba)

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

• Discontinue 2 weeks prior to surgery
• May ╡ seizures w/ overdose
• ø ╡ children.

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

Side effects of Glucosamine (2-Amino-2-deoxyglucose)

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

• Nausea
• Heartburn

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

Interactions of Glucosamine

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

• May ↑ insulin resistance to antidiabetic angents and insulin.
• May ↑ risk of bleeding.
• Caution in clients w/ shellfish allergy.

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

Side effects of Omega-3 fatty acids

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

• Nausea
• Diarrhea

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

Interactions of Omega-3 fatty acids

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

• May ↑ risk of vitamin A/D overdose.

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

Side effects of Melatonin

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

• Morning grogginess
• Lower body temperature
• Vivid dreams.

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

Interactions of Melatonin

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

• Beta Blockers
• Warfarin
• Steroids

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

Action of Acetaminophen

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

• SLows production of prostaglandins in the CNS.

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

SIde effects of Acetaminophen

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

• N/V
• Long-term: hemolytic anemia, leukopenia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia.
• Hepatotoxicity, esp. w/ rifampin, INH, carbamazepine, and barbiturates.

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

Interventions and education for Acetaminophen

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

• Monitor Liver & Kidney function
• Be aware for OTC sources of acetaminophen
• Do not exceed 4g/24 hours
• Hepatotoxicity
• Administration to children should be based on age, not to exceed 5 doses / day
• Antidote: Acetylcysteine.

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

Examples of Ophthalmologic medications (Antiglaucoma)

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

• Levobunolol
• Timolol
• Pilocarpine
• Latanoprost.

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

Interactions of Ophthalmologic medications

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

• Oral Beta Blocker/CCB

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

Side effects of Ophthalmologic medications

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

• Systemic Beta-Blocker: Bradycardia, heart failure, & bronchospasm
• Brown discoloration of the iris (latanoprost)
• Retinal detachment (pilocarpine)

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

Tocolytic medications

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

• Terbutaline sulfate
• Nifedipine
• Magnesium sulfate

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

What type of drug is Methylergonovine?

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

• Oxytocic (stimulation of contractions)

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

Examples of Antiseizure medications

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

• Carbamazepine
• Gabapentin
• Phenobarbital
• Phenytoin
• Valproic Acid

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

What type of medication is Carbamazepine?

ATI Comprehensive Review Pharmacology June 2017

• Antiseizure

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