Athlete Performance Compared

The NCAA is the acronym for the National Collegiate Athletic Association, a voluntary organization that includes approximately 1200 individuals, conferences, associations and institutions which manage athletics programs for many US universities and colleges. The current president of the NCAA is Myles Brand. Headquartered in Indianapolis, Indiana the NCAA is one of the largest collegiate athletic organizations in the world. Its success is due in large to the popularity of college sports in the US and in other countries. IAAUS, (Intercollegiate Athletic Association of the United States) established March 1906, preceded the NCAA.

The IAAUS was created to manage special rules for sports of amateurs in the United States of America. In 1910 the name was changed to the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). The NCAA began administering women’s athletics programs in 1980 when Divisions II and III established 10 championships for 1981-82. A year later, the 75th Convention adopted a plan to include women’s athletics programs, services and representation. With the addition of 19 events, the women’s championships program was expanded. 45 In 1973, NCAA was segmented into three divisions: NCAA Division I, NCAA Division II and NCAA Division III.

Under NCAA rules, NCAA Divisions I and II schools have the possibility to offer training to people for playing sport. In general, bigger schools participate in Division I and all others schools – in NCAA Divisions II and III. Division I football is divided into I-A and I-AA. NCAA legislative structure is divided into many committees, cabinets, and sub-committees that include representatives from many academic institutions. The organization also includes a Management Council with legislation power that oversees the committees and cabinets and involves schools representatives, such as faculty advisors and athletic directors.

Staff provides support, liaison and research, acting as guides, media and public relations. NCCA membership was divided into three legislative and competitive divisions – I, II and III – in 1973. Five years later, Division I members voted to create subdivisions I-A and I-AA (subsequently renamed the Football Bowl Subdivision and the Football Championship Subdivision) in football. On August 1, 1997, the NCAA implemented a change in its governance structure that provides greater autonomy for each membership division and more control by the presidents of member colleges and universities.

? Premise Some students become student athletes when they officially declare a desire to play sports. This can happen as early as their sophomore or junior year school, although coaches cannot formerly recruit this early. Division III institutions can and should use the word ‘student’ a little more in their conversations with prospective student athletes. It appears that Division I athletes and Division II athletes spend a great amount of their college days involved with their respective sports . In recent years there seems to be a transformation in just what a student athlete is.

Good athletes can also be good students. For example, schools like Emory & Henry College are stepping up to the challenges of helping the ‘student athlete’ not only pursue his/her athletic talents but also to obtain a well-rounded academic experience at the same time. Of course, there are always exceptions to the rule but colleges and universities in Division III place the highest priority on the overall quality of the educational experience and on the successful completion of all students’ academic programs as stated in the Division III Philosophy Statement.

The purpose of the NCAA is to assist its members in developing the basis for consistent, equitable competition while minimizing infringement on the freedom of individual institutions to determine their own special objectives and programs. The NCAA is committed to Division III membership and will serve as a guide for the preparation of legislation by the division and for planning and implementation of programs by institutions and conferences. 1 The College Sports Project (CSP) is an initiative of The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation.

CSP represents more than 80 colleges and universities in the NCAA’s Division III who are committed to strengthening the bonds between intercollegiate athletics and educational values. Two fundamental and interconnected objectives serve as cornerstones of the College Sports Project: first, athletes are primarily students—their academic outcomes and engagement with a wide variety of campus activities should be representative of their peers—and second, students who participate on intercollegiate athletic teams should do so in an environment that is integrated with and complementary to the educational values of the institution.

There is strong consensus among participating colleges and universities that a well-conceived athletic program can offer tremendous benefits. In addition, these like-minded institutions have pledged an intentional commitment to the core values of “representativeness” and integration in hopes of supporting a college sports model that is first and foremost intended to contribute to the overall education of students. 2 ? Division III NCAA Division III is comprised of student-athletes in the true sense of the word. Division III creates a balanced combination of academics and competitive sports.

The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) is the main governing body of collegiate sports, dividing levels of classification into three divisions. D3 institutions are largely regarded as leading academic institutions and do not offer athletic scholarships. Even so, D3 is highly a highly competitive arena. There are over 136,000 athletes at over 430 D3 colleges and universities. • Athletes at D3 colleges and universities receive no financial aid on the basis of athletic merit, although substantial financial aid and academic merit scholarships are available at most D3 institutions.

• D3 schools place highest priority on the overall educational experience; athletics is a complement to academics and overall experience. • D3 student-athletes are well rounded and take advantage of extracurricular activities in college. At the D1 and D2 levels, athletics are a student’s life and they have limited availability to college life outside of their respective sport. • D3 student-athletes must be taught time management skills at the outset to survive in such a competitive environment. ?

Division III athletics are not just an extensive of the High School experience. Competition within Division III is often just as intense as in that of any other affiliation. The student athlete is given the opportunity to grow, learn, and lead by example in an environment that stresses both academic and athlete aptitude. Conversely, the Division I student athlete is bound to his/her sport during the entire year which leaves little time for extra-curricular activities that are also an important part of the educational experience. 3 Division III Athletic Philosophy Statement

The Division III Athletic Philosophy Statement has evolved over time dependent on the changing needs of the student athletic and his/her academic education. However, the basic premises have not changed. Colleges and universities in Division III place highest priority on the overall quality of the educational experience and on the successful completion of all students’ academic programs. They seek to establish and maintain an environment in which a student-athlete’s athletics activities are conducted as an integral part of the student-athlete’s educational experience, and in which coaches play a significant role as educators.

They also seek to establish and maintain an environment that values cultural diversity and gender equity among their student-athletes and athletics staff. (Revised: 1/10/95, 1/9/06 effective 8/1/06). (a) Place special importance on the impact of athletics on the participants rather than on the spectators and place greater emphasis on the internal constituency (e. g. , students, alumni, institutional personnel) than on the general public and its entertainment needs; (Philosophy Statement is listed verbatim from this point)

(b) Shall not award financial aid to any student on the basis of athletics leadership, ability, participation or performance; (Revised: 7/24/07) (c) Encourage the development of sportsmanship and positive societal attitudes in all constituents, including student-athletes, coaches, administrative personnel and spectators; (d) Encourage participation by maximizing the number and variety of athletics opportunities for their students; (e) Assure that the actions of coaches and administrators exhibit fairness, openness and honesty in their relationships with student-athletes;

(f) Assure that athletics participants are not treated differently from other members of the student body; (g) Assure that athletics programs support the institution’s educational mission by financing, staffing and controlling the programs through the same general procedures as other departments of the institution. Further, the administration of an institution’s athletics program (e. g. , hiring, compensation, professional development, certification of coaches) should be integrated into the campus culture and educational mission; (Revised: 1/9/06 effective 8/1/06)

(h) Assure that athletics recruitment complies with established institutional policies and procedures applicable to the admission process; (Adopted: 1/12/04 effective 8/1/04) (i) Assure that academic performance of student-athletes is, at a minimum, consistent with that of the general student body; (Adopted: 1/9/06 effective 8/1/06) (j) Assure that admission policies for student-athletes comply with policies and procedures applicable to the general student body; (Adopted: 1/9/06 effective 8/1/06)

(k) Provide equitable athletics opportunities for males and females and give equal emphasis to men’s and women’s sports; (l) Support ethnic and gender diversity for all constituents; (Adopted: 1/12/99) (m) Give primary emphasis to regional in-season competition and conference championships; and (n) Support student-athletes in their efforts to reach high levels of athletics performance, which may include opportunities for participation in national championships, by providing all teams with adequate facilities, competent coaching and appropriate competitive opportunities.

The purpose of the NCAA is to assist its members in developing the basis for consistent, equitable competition while minimizing infringement on the freedom of individual institutions to determine their own special objectives and programs. The above statement articulates principles that represent a commitment to Division III membership and shall serve as a guide for the preparation of legislation by the division and for planning and implementation of programs by institutions and conferences. 1, 3 ? Division III Athlete Identity

January 15, 2010, The Council of NCAA Division III Presidents unveiled the new identity platform for the division. It is planned to be used as a way to unite all Division III institutions under one entity. This platform is meant to provide a cohesive platform to define future goals of Division III with 440 members, currently the largest division in the NCAA. The main focus of the Identity includes three words; discover, develop and dedicate. The platform will also Re-emphasize that Division III doesn’t offer athletic scholarships and is academically focused.

In 2007 Division III members were in serious talks about splitting up the division due to differing types of colleges and differing opinions on what the philosophy of the division was. The schools in the division range from New York University, a research university of 50,000 students to small liberal arts colleges like Wisconsin Lutheran College with 741 students and everything in between. There was a survey given out to schools to get their opinions on whether Division III should be split or not. After much talk, it was ultimately decided to keep the division together.

The Identity Platform came shortly after as a way to unite all of the schools. It also comes in the wake of NCAA Division II’s Identity Platform which has the tagline “I Chose Division II. ” The identity platform also helps to communicate to prospective students and their families that Division III is a competitive environment. The statement from the Division III Identity Platform in its entirety: “The college experience is a time of learning and growth – a chance to follow passions and develop potential.

For student-athletes in Division III, all of this happens most importantly in the classroom and through earning an academic degree. The Division III experience provides for passionate participation in a competitive athletic environment, where student-athletes push themselves to excellence and build upon their academic success with new challenges and life skills. And student-athletes are encouraged to pursue the full spectrum of opportunities available during their time in college.

In this way, Division III provides an integrated environment for student-athletes to take responsibility for their own paths, follow their passions and find their potential through a comprehensive learning experience. ”4, 5, 6 In describing the new platform, Division III Vice President Dan Dutcher emphasized its positioning statement, which he said articulates three key components of the student-athlete experience – academics, athletics and the opportunity to participate in co-curricular activities.

There is a growing body of resources that provide a connection between the student-athlete’s ability to reach higher goals through an integration of specific academic services. This means as a DIII student-athlete higher academic achievement and his/her individual sport achievement go hand-in-hand. With excessively heavy study loads it is imperative to find some sort of balance to be able to handle all of the responsibilities that any student faces. For instance, at Ithaca College, time management seminars are offered to their DIII student-athletes.

These seminars provide assistance in how to not only handle their course work but perform well in their chosen sport6. Team run study programs are also an option, although there is little information to support the benefits of such programs at the present time. Division III and Non-Division III Athletic Performance The graphs below provide a statistical comparison between a sampling of Division III Schools and Non-Division III Schools participation in various sports categories for the years 1998 – 2008.

Keep in mind that these are random comparisons without proven calculations and there are many missing gaps due to research constraints and how statistics are represented (i. e. , %, rankings of 1, 2, 3, differences in number of games played, scoring methods per sport, conference differences, wins/losses, and more. These factors will impede the overall understanding of the statistics represented, but will provide a basis for discussion on causal effects in athletic performance.

The sampling in each instance will include three schools (for each individual year) that participate in Div III and three schools that do not (if stats are available for that number of schools. 7 In addition, schools are only identified as either Div II or Div II or Non-Participant or Participant, not conference or region. The top 5 colleges in the sport being defined are included in each sport category. This is just a reference point since there are many conferences/regions per sport.

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