solemn referendum
Wilson’s belief that the presidential election of 1920 should constitute a direct popular vote on the League of Nations

Warren G. Harding
Republican candidate in the Election of 1920 and wins. He did not want America to join the League of Nations.

Calvin Coolidge
Vice President to Harding. Took his place when Harding died. Very Conservative and Pro-business. Nominated and won the Election of 1924.

James Cox
Democratic nominee in the Election of 1920. He was pro-League of Nations.

Franklin Roosevelt
Cox’s running VP for the Election of 1920

Election of 1920
Harding vs. Cox. Harding won 16 million to 9 million. Platforms were solely based upon whether to join the League of Nations.

Red Scare
America’s fear of the potential rise of radical socialism around 1920

Compensation that Germany had to make – as signed in the Treaty of Versailles – after their defeat in WWI

A. Mitchell Palmer
Attorney General from 1919 to 1921. Led an attempt to arrest and deport communists and anarchists.

Sacco-Vanzetti case
Italian immigrants and suspected anarchists convicted of murder

New Ku Klux Klan
Became more focused on the potential communist threat rather than racial differences

Emergency Quota Act 1921
limited the number of immigrants from Europe to 3% per nationality living in America

Immigration Act of 1924
decreased the immigrant limit to 2% from the Emergency Quota Act

National Origins Act
same as the immigration act of 1824

Volstead Act
Exempt farmer cooperatives from antitrust laws

Al Capone
Alcohol distributor based in Chicago. Started 6 years of gang warfare, netting him millions. Could never be convicted of murder but served time for income-tax evasion, then released as a syphilitic wreck. Also known as Scarface

Scopes monkey trial
A trial in Dayton, TN where a school teacher was indicted for teaching evolution. However, all of America was watching. The defense ultimately lost, but it made a major impact in Christian belief.

Clarence Darrow
Criminal lawyer who fought for the defense.

George “Babe” Ruth
Baseball star who played a role in making sports a money making industry

Henry Ford
One of the big entrepreneurs who started the automotive industry in America

Orville and Wilbur Wright
Made the first successful flight on December 17, 1903

Charles Lindbergh
Made the first solo flight across the Atlantic Ocean

The Birth of a Nation
One of the first classic movies and made by D.W. Griffith which glorified the KKK from Reconstruction and defamed blacks and carpetbaggers.

The Jazz Singer
First movie with sound

Margaret Sanger
Activist that promoted the use of birth control and contraceptives.

Sigmund Freud
Psychologist that specialized in justifying sexual behavior

Louis Armstrong
Jazz musician. Help start the Harlem Renaissance that argued for a “New Negro” that would be equal to white men

Duke Ellington
Pianist that played a large role in promoting Jazz

Theodore Dreiser
Famous author; wrote An American Tragedy

Ernest Hemmingway
Author; fought in WWI and based some of his best novels on the war

Sherwood Anderson
Author; wrote fictional novels of American small-town life

Sinclair Lewis
Journalist who wrote a couple of books that exemplified civil issues like provincialism and materialism

William Faulkner
Wrote war novel, Soldier’s Pay, then started to write fictional novels about the Deep South

Ezra Pound
Poet that deserted America for Europe

T.S. Elliot
Poet that was heavily influenced by Pound and moved to England. Considered to have written “one of the most impenetrable but influential poems of the century”

Robert Frost
Poet that produced quite realistic depictions of rural New England

E.E. Cummings
Poet whose unorthodox diction and font produce

Langston Hughes
Poet that mixed Black culture into his work

Harlem renaissance
cultural movement that created the idea of “New Negro” where Black people were socially equal to Whites and could still embrace their culture

Frank Lloyd Wright
Architect that believed that buildings should grow from their sites and not imitate European designs

Bull Market
Market where prices continually rise, enticing people to buy shares

small down payment for stocks

Andrew Mellon
Secretary of the Treasury that lowered the US debt by $10 billion

Albert Fall
Secretary of Interior under Harding administration. Took bribes for leases on federal oil reserves (aka Teapot Dome scandal)

Harry Daugherty
Appointed attorney general under Harding; was part of the Ohio Gang

Ohio gang
Crooks in Harding’s administration that also came from the same state as him

Adkins v. Children’s Hospital
Ruled opposite from Muller v. Oregon in that child-labor restriction was taken away

Esch-Cummins Act
Encouraged private consolidation of the railroads and obligated the federal Interstate Commerce Commission to guarantee their profitability.

Railway Labor Board
This was a successor to the wartime labor boards; it ordered a wage cut of 12 percent in 1922, provoking a two-month strike. It ended when Attorney General Daugherty placed sweeping injunctions on the strikers.

Chicago race riot
Incident where a Black teenager had drowned in Lake Michigan. When the white man who had “caused” it wasn’t arrested, gangs of black and white Chicagoans were rioting for a week. It didn’t end until 23 blacks had been killed and many more injured.

Veterans Administration
Military veteran system responsible for administering benefits for veterans and their families

Five Power Naval Treaty
1922, Agreement emerging from the Washington Disarmament Conference that reduced naval strength and established a ratio of warships among the major ship-building powers

Four Power Treaty
1921. Treaty between the US, Great Britain, France, and Japan to maintain the status quo in the South Pacific, that no countries could seek further territorial gain.

Nine Power Treaty
Treaty that established open door in China; signed by European powers

Kellogg-Briand Pact
Agreement signed in 1928 in which nations agreed not to pose the threat of war against one another

Emergency Tariff Act
This tariff was made in 1921 and was an attempt by the U.S. to protect domestic industries. It established huge tariff walls and raised duties on agricultural products in an effort to deter foreign products from entering the U.S.

Fordney-McCumber Tariff
This tariff rose the rates on imported goods in the hopes that domestic manufacturing would prosper. This prevented foreign trade, which hampered the economy since Europe could not pay its debts if it could not trade.

Charles Forbes
First director of the Veterans Administration and resigned when caught in a money scandal. He spent 2 years in federal penitentiary

Teapot Dome scandal
Albert B. Fall had the secretary of the Navy transfer priceless naval oil reserves to the Interior Department

Harry F. Sinclair
One of the men Fall leased the oil reserves to for a bribe of about $300,000. Went to jail for having shadowed jurors and refusing to testify before a Senate committee

Edward Doheny
One of the men Fall leased the oil reserves to for a bribe of about $100,000

McNary-Haugen Bill
Tried to keep agricultural prices high by allowing the government to buy surplus and sell them overseas

John W. Davis
Corporation lawyer who ran as a conservative in the Election of 1924

Robert LaFollette
Created a Progressive party, but had no one running for presidency

World Court
Judicial part of the League of Nations

Allied war debt

German reparations

Dawes Plan
Rescheduled German reparations payments and opened the way for further American private loans to Germany

Young Plan
Replaced the Dawes Plan and provided a more manageable way germany to pay its debt

debt moratorium
Hoover declared this and soon almost all of America’s debtors defaulted

Alfred E. Smith
Democrat nominee for the Election of 1928. 4-time governor of New York

Hawley-Smoot Tariff
Charged highest tariff on imports on record. Europeans retaliated by increasing their tariffs thereby reducing trade worldwide

Wall Street crash
A loss of confidence made many people sell all their shares on what became know as Black Tuesday

shantytowns for unemployed

Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC)
Government lending bank designed to provide indirect relief by assisting businesses. There were no loans to individuals due to the want to preserve “rugged individualism”

Bonus Army
Veterans who were hit hard by the depression got together to go to Washington and demand for the immediate payment for their service in WWI

Stimson Doctrine
Declared that US would not recognize any territorial acquisitions achieved by force

Good Neighborism
FDR’s foreign policy toward Latin America; no involvement form of isolationism; back to Monroe Doctrine

Brain Trust
Group of expert policy advisers who worked with FDR in the 1930s to end the great depression

banking holiday
In order to lower the panic, FDR declared a nationwide holiday for banks.

The hundred days
Period in which Congress spit out many legislations in a trial-and-error fashion

New Deal
Program in which FDR attempted to rescue the economy through legislation

Glass-Stegall Act
Established the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) which insured individual deposits in banks

Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
provided shelter, food, clothing, and money to many unemployed

Emergency Banking Relief Act
Gave executive branch the power to regulate foreign trade and banks

Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA)
Major goal was immediate relief rather than long term recovery

Harry Hopkins
led FERA

Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)
made money available to help farmers meet their mortgages

Civil Works Administration
branch of FERA and was also controlled by Hopkins. Designed to provide temporary jobs

Frances Perkins
U.S. Secretary of Labor from 1933 to 1945, and the first woman ever appointed to the cabinet.

Father Coughlin
A Catholic priest who broadcast anti-New Deal ideas and raised about 40 million fans. His superiors eventually silenced him.

Francis Townsend
Retired physician who came up with a retirement plan. It involved paying every senior $200 per month.

Huey Long
Senator of Louisiana who promised to give every family $5000 at the expense of Gerald L.K. Smith, his chief lieutenant (aka Kingfish)

Works Progress Administration (WPA)
Focused on employment on useful projects

National Recovery Administration (NRA)
Designed to assist industry, labor, and the unemployed. It ended up regulating work hours and minimum wage.

The Blue Eagle
Symbol of the NRA

Schechter case
shot down the NRA when there was too much expected from labor, industry, and the public to make it work (aka sick chicken case)

Public Works Administration (PWA)
As with the NRA, this was designed to aid industry and the unemployed

Harold Ickes
Secretary of the Interior, Head of the PWA, and a free-swinging bull mooser

20th Amendment
Set the start and end of terms for elected federal officials

21st Amendment
Repeals the 18th amendment

The Dust Bowl
Late 1933 brought a elongated drought in the states of the trans-Mississippi Great Plains. Lack of rain and abundance of wind blew tons of topsoil all over the region.

Grapes of Wrath
Written by John Steinbeck and is an Uncle Tom’s Cabin except based in the Dust Bowl

John Steinbeck
wrote Uncle Tom’s Cabin

Frazier-Lemke Act
Aided farmers with foreclosures by allowing a suspension of mortgage. However it was ruled unconstitutional because it defies creditor’s 5th amendment rights

Truth in Securities Act
Required promoters to transmit to the investor sworn information regarding the soundness of their stocks and bonds

Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)
Designed to provide jobs, generate electricity, navigation, and flood control. Turned Tennessee from a slum full of unemployed to a flourishing society

Federal Housing Administration (FHA)
It was to stimulate the building industry by loaning small amounts to householders in order to improve their houses as well as build new ones

Securities & Exchange Commission (SEC)
watchdog administrative agency designed to protect the public against fraud, deception, and inside manipulation

Social Security Act
In order to cushion further depressions, this gave federal-state unemployment insurance. This also gave security to the elderly by providing them with money per month

National Labor Relations Act
Created the National Labor Relations Board which allowed organized labor again

John L. Lewis
owner of United Mine Workers that created the Committee for Industrial Organization

Committee for Industrial Organization (CIO)
a subgroup of the American Federation of Labor. Unlike old unions like the Knights of Labor, CIO didn’t mind unskilled labor

sit-down strike
Strike in General Motor’s factory at Flint, MI. The CIO refused to leave the building. CIO won in that they earned representation as a sole bargaining agency for its employees

Memorial day massacre
police fired upon pickets and workers in the Republic Steel Company plant in South Chicago.

Fair Labor Standards Act
set a minimum wage and maximum number of work hours. restricted child labor

Alf Landon
Republican nominee in the election of 1936

Eleanor Roosevelt
known as the “conscience of the New Deal”. She played a major role in FDR’s political career

court packing scheme
FDR wanted to “pack” the court to obtain a more liberal majority to support his New Deal

recession of 1937
Recession due to Social Security cutting into payrolls

Hatch Act
Barred federal administrative officials from political campaigning and soliciting

Three R’s
Roosevelt’s three goals he wanted to achieve: Relief, Recovery, Reform

Benefit paid by government to the unemployed

direct relief
Washington had helped needy families make it through the winter of 1933-1934

trickle down theory
Theory that, if money is all put into the top, where big business is, then the money will gradually go down to the people

Causes of the Great Depression ♦Uneven distribution of wealth ♦Stock market speculation “buying on the margin” ♦Excessive use of credit ♦Overproduction on consumer goods ♦Weak farm economy ♦Government policies ♦Global economic policies Black Tuesday ♦Stock market crash (Oct. 29, 1929) …

The red scare of 1919-1920 was provoked by the public’s fear that labor troubles were sparked by communist and anarchist revolutionaries. Disillusioned by war and peace, Americans in the 1920s did all of the following except struggle to achieve economic …

Federal Emergency Relief Act/Admin [FERA] FIRST New Deal; RELIEF. Money to states for direct payments or wages on work projects, direct aid to unemployed, public works. Civil Works Administration [CWA] FIRST New Deal; RELIEF. Provided temporary jobs during the winter …

The Congress of Industrialized Organizations was most interested in unionizing which of the following C. Unskilled and semiskilled factory workers The LEAST prosperous group in the 1920’s consisted of C. farmers in the Midwest and South WE WILL WRITE A …

The red scare of 1919-1920 was provoked by a. the wartime migration of rural blacks to northern cities. b. urban immigrants’ resistance to prohibition. c. public anger at evolutionary science’s challenge to the biblical story of the Creation. d. the …

Election of 1928 Al Smith – Dem Herbert Hoover – Rep Hoover victorious because he was Rep (2 previous Pres. were Rep) Maintain prosperity Farming Crisis Over production Shows hard times on horizon WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE …

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