APUSH Unit 15 Terms

1. Election of 1928
After Calvin Coolidge refused to run again in this election, Sec. of Commerce Herbert Hoover became the Republican candidate for this election. Hoover’s campaign was in the spirit of the era; he was a “dry” candidate for individualism, free enterprise, and small government. Hoover was pitted against Albert Smith. Smith was a “wet” candidate, a Catholic, and a city man from New York. Smith was not appealing to the country, especially the South, because prohibition was still in spirit and many Americans were prejudiced against Catholics. South Democrats from former Confederate States, voted Republican for the first time in years. Hoover was voted in by a landslide both in popular and electoral votes.

2. Herbert C. Hoover
He was an orphan from Iowa who worked his way up and graduated from Stanford University. He was a self-made man and an advocate of many Progressive Era ideals such as efficiency, industry, and self-reliance. He was shy and not much of a talker. He was a passionate man, though, dedicated to getting the facts and getting things done. His integrity and humanitarianism gave him his power. He had previously been head of the Food Administration during WWI where he was famous for helping the starving people of Belgium and saving food through propaganda. He was Sec. of Commerce from 1921 to 1927. He was elected president in 1928. As president, he was against direct government handouts to the poor victims of the Great Depression. He believed in the “trickle down” theory that helping the corporations would trickle down and help the people. He also advocated public works, starting the construction of the dam that bears his name. He was against the radical New Deal.

3. Alfred E. Smith
He was the Democratic candidate in the election of 1928. He was a “wet” Catholic governor of New York. A funny, liberal man, he was subject to the prejudices of the day in his race for the presidency. Prohibition and prejudice against Catholics made him unappealing to many. He lost the election to Hoover.

4. Norman Thomas
He was a Presbyterian minister and social reformer who joined the Socialist Party in 1918. He helped found the American Civil Liberties Union. He was the Socialist candidate for president in the elections from 1928 to 1948. From 1926 onward, he led the Socialist Party. Serving as chairman of the Postwar World Council after WWII, he fought for nuclear disarmament.

5. Agricultural Marketing Act (1929)
Establishing the Federal Farm Board and setting up a half billion dollars of funding, this act helped farm organizations who wanted to buy, sell, and store agricultural surpluses. Hoover made this in an attempt to halt the falling crop prices. Exhausting the funding, the act failed to stop the price deflation.

6. Muscle Shoals controversy
A “socialistic” proposal, Hoover vetoed the bill to dam the Tennessee River and produce electricity that would be sold by the government. Hoover did not believe that the government should set up companies that would compete with privately own companies. The Tennessee Valley Authority would later apply the same principles in this controversy under Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal.

7. George W. Norris
This man made the 20th Amendment which eliminated the lame-duck session of Congress. He also engineered the bill that created the Tennessee Valley Authority, creating a government run company to produce and judge of cost of electricity, so private companies wouldn’t overcharge. He also was one of the authors of the ( _____)-La Guargia Act.

8. Hoover Dam (Boulder Dam)
This famous piece of engineering began construction under the president whose name it bears. It was a massive public project that took six years to complete, creating the biggest artificial lake in the US. It was built to aid in irrigation, flood control, and production of electricity. The gigantic concrete structure was built on the Colorado River in Boulder City, Nevada. It helped provide water an electricity for the future population boom in California and Arizona.

9. Bonneville Dam
This was a major dam created under F. Roosevelt’s New Deal. It was on the Columbia River in the Cascade Mountains between Oregon and Washington. The project, undertaken by U.S. Corps Engineers, was one of the largest hydroelectric projects in the New Deal. The main purpose of the dam was to produce electricity. It included locks so that ships could sail around it, and fish ladders to help the salmon spawn upriver.

10. Grand Coulee Dam
This was part of the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation’s Columbia basin project. It was a dam on the Columbia River restrained Franklin Roosevelt Lake. It was the largest structure since the Great Wall of China, spanning 4,173 feet long by 550 feet high. It was built with two power plants, and I third was later added. It has the largest power-producing capacity in the US (6,465MW). The water from the dam is pumped into the Grand Coulee gorge and used as a reservoir.

11. Dust Bowl
The dry-farming techniques wore out the top soil and reduced it to dust when a severe drought in the 1930s brought this upon the Great Plains, stretching from Texas and Oklahoma to Colorado and Kansas. The top soil blew away and caused “black blizzards,” forcing farmers to flee to California. John Steinbeck portrayed this event in The Grapes of Wrath.

12. Stock Market Crash 1929
The bull market came to an abrupt halt after this incident in October 1929. A record trading day called “Black Thursday” saw the swapping over over 12 million shares. Banks attempted to stop the panic by buying large chunks of stock. The following Tuesday (Black Tuesday) sent the market over the edge when over 16 million stocks clotted the market and dropped the prices of stock by 12%. This occurred on October 29, 1929, and its affects lasted for years to come, ushering in the Great Depression.

13. Panic of 1929
This refers to the events surrounding the massive speculation of prices that led up to the Stock Market Crash and the Great Depression. Prices had been going up and up in a “long boom” in a bull market. Hoover tried to stop speculation with the Federal Reserve Board, but the prices still went up and up until they came crashing down in October resulting the Great Depression.

14. Home Loan Bank Act
The Great Depression destroyed the economic market with its many branches of business. This act helped the housing and savings and loan industries. It made a credit reserve that would be used to increase the amount of credit available to the housing market, so people can buy and houses. Its initial results were a complete failure, turning down all but three of the 41,000 applicants for a loan.

15. Reconstruction Finance Corporation
Congress responded to Hoover’s desire to maintain individualism by making this agency. It was a government lending bank that indirectly helped the people suffering from the Great Depression. It had a $500 million in capital to provide relief to insurance companies, banks, agricultural organizations, and railroads. It helped the businesses so that they could be in a better financial situation; the businesses, in turn, would be able to help the people.

16. Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act
Passing in 1930, this act was supposed to help the dire situation with the farmers. As always, it acquired hundreds of amendments as it passed through the Senate. With the number of amendments, the tariff rate also grew to the highest in peacetime history—an average of 60% on non-free goods. This helped to make the Great Depression even worse than it already was, and the high rates made other countries mad, too!

17. Norris-LaGuardia Act
This act (aka the __-____ Injunction Act) prevented companies from using “yellow-dog” (antiunion) contracts as well as from issuing injunctions to break strikes, boycotts, and picketing. This proved to be an benevolent bill for laborers.

18. Veterans Administration Act
This act created an eponymous agency that took over roles formerly held by the Veterans’ Bureau, the Bureau of Pensions, and the National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers. The Veterans Bureau was previously in charge of disability compensation, insurance for veterans and rehabilitation for the disabled. This act, signed by Hoover, consolidated all the agencies for handling benefits for veterans into a single agency.

19. Bonus Army
The former soldiers of WWI were now impoverished by the Great Depression and demanded all of the bonus money that they earned. About 20,000 men marched on the capital in 1932 and set up a camp on vacant lots. A bill to finance their demands failed, but Hoover managed to get enough money to pay 6,000 of them. They were then told to leave, resulting in riots. Hoover called in the army to force these men to evacuate. The force was more brutal than Hoover had intended, using tear gas and bayonets. A baby was allegedly killed during the evacuation. This incident ruined Hoover’s reputation.

20. Patman Bonus Bill
This was the bill that the WWI veterans wanted passed to provide them with money to relieve their suffering the Great Depression. The Senator from Texas whose name the bill bears sponsored its provision of a $2.4 billion dollar payment to the WWI veterans. The bill failed to pass the Congress, and the soldiers marching on the capital were instructed to leave. They refused and Hoover called in the army to evict them.

21. Election of 1932
This was a major change in the political tide. With the Americans unhappy with Hoover’s policies and angry about his failures, including the Smoot-Hawely Tariff and the Bonus Army incident, a change was needed. Franklin Delano Roosevelt was that change. He was charismatic and an able speaker. He was voted into office in this election, denouncing Hoover’s policies and proclaiming a “new deal” for the “forgotten man.” With his easy victory, came a great deal of change. Blacks, usually Republican, voted Democrat, and the New Deal, written by FDR’s “Brains Trust,” came into American history.

22. Franklin D. Roosevelt
A distant cousin of a former president, he was a tall and charming man before he caught polio in 1921, and his legs were paralyzed. He wore leg braces in public and rode in a wheelchair in private. He was elected president in 1932, defeating Hoover by a landslide. The Americans blamed the Republicans for the Great Depression, so they were happy to elect a Democrat who promised a “new deal for the forgotten man.” He promised a New Deal to American and built his plan around the three R’s of Relief, Recovery, and Reform.

23. John N. Garner
He served in the House of Representatives before 1931 when he became the Speaker of the House. He was elected as VP with FDR. A conservative, he worked on FDR’s New Deal until he broke his friendship with FDR after he attempted to enlarge the Supreme Court. The Split widened when he wanted to run for president after the end of FDR’s 2nd term. He lost miserably to Roosevelt, and FDR broke the two-term tradition.

24. New Deal
This was FDR’s plan to help the economy in the Great Depression and to promote social reform. It was planned out by a group of his academic friends known as the Brain Trust. This program was based on his three R’s of Relief, Recovery, and Reform. The goal was to provide relief for the Depression, recovery for the farmers, businesses, and the economy, and reform mostly through the Tennessee Valley Authority. This program resulted in a downpour of new bills on Congress even in the first “Hundred Days.” The money to fund all of the actions this program would be paying for would come from raising taxes on the rich and the sale of government bonds.

25. “Hundred Days”
The Hundred Days is the title often given to the first congressional session of President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s administration, March 9 to June 16, 1933. To address the crisis of the worsening depression, the president convened Congress in special session and launched the New Deal with an avalanche of bills designed to stabilize the economy, create jobs, and bolster flagging local relief efforts.

26. “Brain Trust”
Brain trust began as a term for a group of close advisors to a political candidate or incumbent, prized for their expertise in particular fields. The term is most associated with the group of advisors to Franklin Roosevelt during his presidential administration. Group of advisers to Franklin Roosevelt in his 1932 presidential campaign. Its principal members were the Columbia University professors Raymond Moley, Rexford Tugwell, and Adolf A. Berle, Jr. (1895 – 1971). They presented Roosevelt with analyses of national social and economic problems and helped him devise public-policy solutions. The group did not meet after Roosevelt became president, but members served in government posts.

27. Eleanor Roosevelt
was the First Lady of the United States from 1933 to 1945. She supported the New Deal policies of her husband, distant cousin Franklin Delano Roosevelt, and became an advocate for civil rights. After her husband’s death in 1945, Roosevelt continued to be an international author, speaker, politician, and activist for the New Deal coalition. She worked to enhance the status of working women, although she opposed the Equal Rights Amendment because she believed it would adversely affect women.

28. Henry A. Wallace
was the 33rd Vice President of the United States (1941-1945), the Secretary of Agriculture (1933-1940), and the Secretary of Commerce (1945-1946). In the 1948 presidential election, Wallace was the nominee of the Progressive Party. From Iowa

29. Harold L. Ickes
was a leading New Dealer as Secretary of the Interior from 1933 to 1946 and a top liberal advisor to President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Starting off in Chicago Republican politics Ickes campaigned for Theodore Roosevelt’s Progressive party in 1912 and for the presidential campaigns of Republican nominee Charles Evans Hughes (1916) and presidential hopeful Hiram Johnson in 1920. He was an important figure in the New Deal, as Secretary of the Interior (1933-46) and administrator of the Public Works Administration (1933-39).

30. Frances Perkins
was the U.S. Secretary of Labor from 1933 to 1945, and the first woman appointed to the U.S. Cabinet. As a loyal supporter of her friend, Franklin D. Roosevelt, she helped pull the labor movement into the New Deal coalition. She and Interior Secretary Harold Ickes were the only original members of the Roosevelt cabinet to remain in office for his entire presidency.

31. Henry Morgenthau, Jr.
was the U.S. Secretary of the Treasury during the administration of Franklin D. Roosevelt. He played a major role in designing and financing the New Deal. After 1937, while still in charge of the Treasury, he played an increasingly major role in foreign policy, especially with respect to policies supporting China, helping Jewish refugees, and (in the “Morgenthau Plan”) preventing Germany from ever again being a military power after the Allied victory in 1945.

32. Jesse H. Jones
a Houston, Texas politician and entrepreneur. He served as United States Secretary of Commerce from 1940 to 1945. His most important role was to head the Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC), (1932-45), a federal agency originally created by Herbert Hoover that played a major role in combating the Great Depression and financing industrial expansion in World War II. Jones was in charge of spending $50 billion, especially in financing railways and building munitions factories.

33. Fireside Chats
A series of informal radio addresses given by President Franklin D. Roosevelt in the 1930s. In his fireside chats, Roosevelt sought to explain his policies to the American public and to calm fears about the Great Depression.

34. Emergency Banking Act
act of the United States Congress spearheaded by President Franklin D. Roosevelt during the Great Depression. It was passed on March 9, 1933. The act allowed a plan that would close down insolvent banks and reorganize and reopen those banks strong enough to survive. This act allows only Federal Reserve-approved banks to operate in the United States of America.

35. Bank Holiday (1933)
FDR decided that to ease the crisis in the banking industry, the banks should be closed. Banks had “failed” — run out of money — partly because people had panicked after the stock market crash, and fearing that their money would be lost, began withdrawing it. Many banks were under-funded, could not meet the demands, and went out of business. It was instituted to stop the withdrawals that were leading to bank failures.

36. Glass-Steagall Banking Act
a law that established the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) in the United States and introduced banking reforms, some of which were designed to control speculation. It is most commonly known as the Glass-Steagall Act, after its legislative sponsors, Carter Glass and Henry B. Steagall. It forced a separation between commercial banking and investment banking. This act, which required commercial banks to dispose of their securities affiliates, bears the same name as the Banking Act of 1933.

37. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)
The U.S. corporation insuring deposits in the U.S. against bank failure. The FDIC was created in 1933 to maintain public confidence and encourage stability in the financial system through the promotion of sound banking practices. It is a United States government corporation created by the Glass-Steagall Act of 1933.

38. Economy Act
an Act of Congress that cut the salaries of federal workers and reduced benefit payments to veterans, moves intended to reduce the federal deficit in the United States. It was enacted six days after FDR’s inauguration.
***** The Economy Act of 1933 is different from the Economy Act of 1932. The Economy Act of 1932 was signed in the final days of the Hoover administration in February 1933. This sometimes leads to confusion between the two pieces of legislation. The Hoover-sponsored bill established the purchasing authority of the federal government*****

39. Home Owners’ Loan Corporation (HOLC)
former U.S. government agency established in 1933 to help stabilize real estate that had depreciated during the depression and to refinance the urban mortgage debt. It granted long-term mortgage loans to some 1 million homeowners facing loss of their property. The HOLC ceased its lending activities in June, 1936, by the terms of the Home Owners’ Loan Act.

40. Gold Reserve Act
Required that all gold and gold certificates held by the Federal Reserve be surrendered and vested in the sole title of the United States Department of the Treasury.The Gold Reserve Act outlawed most private possession of gold, forcing individuals to sell it to the Treasury, after which it was stored in Fort Knox and other locations. The act also authorized the president to devalue the gold dollar so that it would have no more than 60 percent of its existing weight. Under this authority the president, on 31 January 1934, fixed the value of the gold dollar at 59.06 cents.

41. Silver Purchase Act (1934)
passed by the U.S. Congress to replace the Bland-Allison Act of 1878. It not only required the U.S. government to purchase nearly twice as much silver as before, but also added substantially to the amount of money already in circulation. The Silver Act of 1934 required the U.S. Treasury Secretary to purchase silver in large quantities and allowed President Roosevelt to nationalize all private silver holdings. The act greatly disrupted the world’s silver markets and ultimately was repealed in the 1960s.

42. Federal Securities Act
A federal piece of legislation enacted as a result of the market crash of 1929. The legislation had two main goals: (1) to ensure more transparency in financial statements so investors can make informed decisions about investments, and (2) to establish laws against misrepresentation and fraudulent activities in the securities markets. The 1933 Act was the first major federal legislation to regulate the offer and sale of securities. Prior to the Act, regulation of securities was chiefly governed by state laws, commonly referred to as blue sky laws.

43. Securities Exchange Act
created to provide governance of securities transactions on the secondary market (after issue) and regulate the exchanges and broker-dealers in order to protect the investing public. Contrasted with the Securities Act of 1933, which regulates these original issues, the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 regulates the secondary trading of those securities between persons often unrelated to the issuer, frequently through brokers or dealers.

44. London Economic Conference
a meeting that took place between representatives of 66 nations in the June 1933. Held at London’s Geological Museum, the purpose was to attack global depression, revive international trade, and stabilize international currencies. However, while vacationing on his yacht off the coast of New England, Franklin D. Roosevelt issued a radio message to London, condemning the conference for trying to stabilize currency, and he indirectly declared that the United States would not participate in the negotiations.

45. Reciprocity Trade Agreements Act
An act passed by Congress in 1934 to authorize the president to establish tariff-reduction agreements with foreign countries and without Congressional approval. Based on an idea proposed by Secretary of State Cordell Hull, it encouraged mutually beneficial negotiations and trade with foreign governments, and it led to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade of 1947. The primary purpose of the act was to repeal several of the isolationist trade policies from the 1920s so the United States could better compete in foreign trade.

46. Export-Import Bank
is the official export credit agency of the United States federal government. It was established in 1934 by an executive order, and made an independent agency in the Executive branch by Congress in 1945, for the purposes of financing and insuring foreign purchases of United States goods for customers unable or unwilling to accept credit risk.

47. Revenue Act of 1935
raised United States taxes on higher income levels, gifts, estates and corporations, by introducing the “Wealth Tax”. It was a new graduated tax that took up to 75 percent of the highest incomes in taxes, starting at incomes above $50,000. It was signed into law by President Franklin D. Roosevelt to generate needed funds for the projects of his Second New Deal. The 1935 Act also was popularly known at the time as the “Soak the Rich” tax.

48. Adjusted Compensation Act (Bonus Act of 1936)
This act awarded veterans additional pay in various forms, with only limited payments available in the short term. The value of each veteran’s “credit” was based on each recipient’s service in the United States Armed Forces between April 5, 1917 and July 1, 1919, with $1.00 awarded for each day served in the United States and $1.25 for each day served abroad.

49. Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1933 (AAA)
Agricultural Adjustment Act was a United States federal law of the New Deal era which restricted agricultural production by paying farmers subsidies not to plant part of their land (that is, to let a portion of their fields lie uncultivated) and to kill off excess livestock. Its purpose was to reduce crop surplus and therefore effectively raise the value of crops.

50. US v. Butler
US v. Butler, also known as the Hoosac Mills case, eviscerated the Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1933 (AAA), dealing a blow to New Deal agricultural policy. AAA provided payments to farmers who agreed to reduce production acreage; these benefits were paid from the proceeds of a tax on commodities processors. In a 6 to 3 decision, the Supreme Court found that while the tax itself was justified under the “general welfare” clause of the Constitution, its intended use was “coercive” and thus unconstitutional. AAA violated the Tenth Amendment by attempting to use the taxing power to regulate agricultural production—a matter that the Court determined was the sole jurisdiction of the states.

51. Farm Relief and Inflation Act
The Farm Relief and Inflation Act was popularly known as the First Agricultural Adjustment Act. The objective was to raise farm income by cutting the acreages planted or destroying the crops in the field, paying the farmers not to plant anything, and organizing marketing agreements to improve distribution. The program soon covered not only cotton, but also all basic cereal and meat production as well as principal cash crops. The expenses of the program were to be covered by a new “processing tax” levied on an already depressed industry.

52. Farm Credit Act
The Farm Credit Act of 1933 offered short-term loans for agricultural production as well as extended low interest rates for farmers threatened by foreclosure. Small farmers were able to refinance their mortgages with the aid of twelve district banks. Local Production Credit Associations provided short and intermediate term loans for seasonal production, insuring that farmers would not lose out on essential crop yields. The act was passed on June 16, 1933, the last day of President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s “Hundred Days” initiative.

53. Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC)
The Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) is a wholly owned government corporation created in 1933 to “stabilize, support, and protect farm income and prices” (federally chartered by the CCC Charter Act of 1948. The CCC is authorized to buy, sell, lend, make payments and engage in other activities for the purpose of increasing production, stabilizing prices, assuring adequate supplies, and facilitating the efficient marketing of agricultural commodities.

54. Farm Mortgage Refinancing Act
The Farm Mortgage Refinancing Act was signed by President Roosevelt on January 31, 1934. This act was written in an effort to assist farmers in the United States who wished to refinance their mortgages. The Farm Mortgage Refinancing Act loaned funds to farmers in danger of losing their properties. The campaign refinanced 20% of farmer’s mortgages.

55. Jones-Connally Farm Relief Act
The Jones-Connally Farm Relief Act passed, a bill that effectively places an expanded roster of farm products under the control of the Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA). This act defined beef, dairy cattle, rye, grain sorghum, flax, peanuts, and barley as basic commodities covered by the First Agricultural Adjustment Act. It was adopted by Congress in April of 1934 to help struggling farmers.

56. Farm Mortgage Foreclosure Act
This law, passed in 1934 on June 12, allowed the Farm Credit Administration to make loans so that farmers could regain title to property they had lost by foreclosure. It was an interim measure until the Frazier -Lemke Farm Bankruptcy Act was brought into action.

57. Federal Farm Bankruptcy Act (Frazier-Lemke Bankruptcy Act)
The Frazier-Lemke Farm Bankruptcy Act was enacted on 28 June 1934 and restricted the ability of banks to repossess farms. The bill is named for North Dakota Senator Lynn Frazier and North Dakota Representative William Lemke. It also delayed foreclosure of a bankrupt farmers’ property for five years, during which the bankrupt made rental payments. The farmer could then buy back the property at its currently appraised value over six years at 1 percent interest, or remain in possession as a paying tenant.

58. Rural Electrification Administration
Rural Electrification Administration (REA), former agency of the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture administered loan programs for electrification and telephone service in rural areas. The REA undertook to provide farms with inexpensive electric lighting and power. To implement those goals the administration made long-term, self-liquidating loans to state and local governments, to farmers’ cooperatives, and to nonprofit organizations; no loans were made directly to consumers.

59. Farm Mortgage Moratorium Act
This was formerly called the Frazier-Lemke Farm Bankruptcy Act and represented an effort by agrarian reformers to solve the problems of the agricultural depression that began during the 1920s. Sponsored by North Dakota Senator Lynn Frazier and North Dakota Representative William Lemke, it allowed the federal courts to scale down a farmer’s debt to a level commensurate with the existing value of his property. If the farmer was able to retire this scaled-down debt, no further demands could be made upon him. The bill was enacted by Congress on 28 June 1934 and authorized the courts, under certain conditions, to grant such farmers a five-year moratorium.

60. Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act
The Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act (P.L. 74-46 of February 26, 1936) is a United States federal law that allowed the government to pay farmers to reduce production so as to “conserve soil”, prevent erosion, and accomplish other minor goals. It was a piece of legislation passed in response to the Supreme Court’s declaration that the Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) was unconstitutional.

61. Bankhead-Jones Farm Tenancy Act
The Bankhead-Jones Farm Tenant Act of 1937 (P.L. 75-210) was passed on July 22, 1937 and authorized acquisition by the federal government of damaged lands to rehabilitate and use them for various purposes. Most importantly, however, the law authorized a modest credit program to assist tenant farmers to purchase land, and it was the culmination of a long effort to secure legislation for their benefit.

62. Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938 (2nd AAA)
The Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938 (P.L. 75-430) was legislation in the United States that was enacted as an alternative and replacement for the farm subsidy policies, in previous New Deal farm legislation (Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1933), that had been found unconstitutional. The act revived the provisions in the previous Agriculture Adjustment Act, with the exception that the financing of the law’s programs would be provided by the Federal Government and not a processor’s tax, and was also enforced as a response to the success of the “Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act,” which passed in 1935.

63. Federal Crop Insurance Corporation
The Federal Crop Insurance Corporation (FCIC) is a wholly owned Government corporation managed by the Risk Management Agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. FCIC manages the Federal crop insurance program which provides U.S. farmers and agricultural entities with crop insurance protection. FCIC was created by the United States Congress in legislation that passed on February 16, 1938. The legislation was created in response to the economic difficulties brought to the U.S. farming industry by the Great Depression and the weather-related catastrophe of the Dust Bowl.

64. Federal Emergency Relief Act
The Federal Emergency Relief Act was a relief effort for the unemployed with immediate relief goals. It looked for immediate relief rather than long-term alleviation, and its correlating Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA) was headed by the zealous Harry L. Hopkins. The Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA) was established because of this act.

65. Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) was a public work relief program that operated from 1933 to 1942 in the United States for unemployed, unmarried men from relief families, ages 18-25. It provided unskilled manual labor jobs related to the conservation and development of natural resources in rural lands owned by federal, state and local governments. The CCC was designed to provide employment for young men in relief families who had difficulty finding jobs during the Great Depression while at the same time implementing a general natural resource conservation program in every state and territory.

66. National Recovery Act (NRA of NIRA)
The National Industrial Recovery Act, enacted June 16, 1933, was an American statute which purposed to authorize the President of the United States to regulate industry and permit cartels and monopolies in an attempt to stimulate economic recovery, and established a national public works program. The legislation was enacted in June 1933 during the Great Depression as part of President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal legislative program.

67. Schechter Poultry Corp. v. US
A.L.A. Schechter Poultry Corp. v. United States, (1935), was a decision by the Supreme Court of the United States that invalidated regulations of the poultry industry according to the nondelegation doctrine and as an invalid use of Congress’s power under the commerce clause. This was a unanimous decision that rendered the National Industrial Recovery Act unconstitutional, a main component of President Roosevelt’s New Deal.

68. Public Works Administration (PWA)
The Public Works Administration (PWA), part of the New Deal of 1933, was a large-scale public works construction agency in the United States headed by Secretary of the Interior Harold L. Ickes. It was created by the National Industrial Recovery Act in June 1933 in response to the Great Depression. It built large-scale public works such as dams and bridges, warships, hospitals and schools.

69. Civil Works Administration
The Civil Works Administration was established by the New Deal during the Great Depression to rapidly create manual labor jobs for millions of unemployed workers. President Franklin D. Roosevelt unveiled the CWA on November 8, 1933 and put Harry L. Hopkins in charge of the short-term agency. The CWA created construction jobs, mainly improving or constructing buildings and bridges. It ended on March 31, 1934, after spending $200 million a month and giving jobs to 4 million people.

70. Works Progress Administration (WPA)
The Works Progress Administration (WPA) was a relief measure established in 1935 by executive order as the Works Progress Administration, and was redesigned in 1939 when it was transferred to the Federal Works Agency. Headed by Harry L. Hopkins and supplied with an initial congressional appropriation of $4,880,000,000, it offered work to the unemployed on an unprecedented scale by spending money on a wide variety of programs, including highways and building construction, slum clearance, reforestation, and rural rehabilitation. It stimulated private business during the depression years and inaugurated reforms that states had been unable to subsidize.

71. Social Security Act
The Social Security Act was enacted August 14, 1935. The Act was drafted during Roosevelt’s first term by the President’s Committee on Economic Security, under Frances Perkins, and passed by Congress as part of the New Deal. The Act was an attempt to limit what were seen as dangers in the modern American life, including old age, poverty, unemployment, and the burdens of widows and fatherless children. By signing this Act on August 14, 1935, President Roosevelt became the first president to advocate federal assistance for the elderly. The Act provided benefits to retirees and the unemployed, and a lump-sum benefit at death.

72. Townsend Plan
Townsend Plan, as embodied in a bill endorsed by Townsend, entitled all people sixty years of age or over who had been U.S. citizens for at least five years, to an annuity of up to $200 a month, provided they did not earn any money, and spent all of each month’s annuity, within the United States, by the fifth day of the following month. To finance the plan, advocates sought to raise $20 billion annually through a general sales tax of two percent.

73. National Labor Board
The National Labor Board (NLB) was an independent agency of the United States Government that was established on August 5, 1933 to handle disputes arising under the National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA). The American labor movement, encouraged by the protections guaranteed under the National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA), undertook a wave of organizing, and a series of strikes overtook the country in the summer of 1933. Roosevelt issued no executive order defining the Board’s powers, duties or procedures, but he did assert that the board should ‘consider, adjust, and settle differences and controversies’ arising in labor disputes. The NLB quickly settled on a strategy of suggesting elections as a way of determining majority status and breaking a collective bargaining deadlock.

74. Wagner-Connery Act (NLRA)
The Wagner-Connery Act (National Labor Relations Act = NLRA) is a 1935 United States federal law that limits the means with which employers may react to workers in the private sectorwho create labor unions, engage in collective bargaining, and take part in strikes and other forms of concerted activity in support of their demands. It established that collective bargaining was a key component of public policies addressing economic recovery. Set up the National labor Relations Board to hold elections for forming trade unions, certifying unions are employee bargaining units, defining unfair labor practices, and issuing cease and desist orders as required.

75. NLRB v. Jones and Laughlin Steel Corp
The National Labor Relations Board (“N.L.R.B.”) brought suit against the Defendant, Jones and Laughlin, for engaging in unfair labor practices, specifically, the discharge of certain employees based on union affiliation. It argued over the question of Congress’s ability to regulate the practices under which goods involved in interstate commerce are produced, and challenged the constitutionality of the National Labor Relations Act of 1935 which regulates activity that occurs solely within the boundaries of one state. The court upheld the idea that Congress has the power to regulate intrastate activities that potentially could have a significant impact on interstate commerce.

76. Railroad Retirement Act
The Railroad Retirement Act is a federal law enacted by Congress in 1937 that provides a special system of annuity, pension, and death benefits to railroad workers. Congress first passed the Railroad Retirement Act in 1934 (unconstitutional then revised and approved in 1937) to reward the hard work done by railroad workers, recognize the national benefits conferred by railroad work, and encourage the retirement of older railroad workers. By offering the means for railroad workers “to enjoy the closing days of their lives with peace of mind and physical comfort,” Congress intended to provide jobs to younger workers and generally improve the operation of the railroads with stronger, more able bodies. The Railroad Retirement Act was amended several times to make it similar to the benefits scheme of the social security act

77. Railway Labor Act
The Railway Labor Act is a United States federal law that governs labor relations in the railroad and airline industries. The Act, passed in 1926 and amended in 1934 and 1936, seeks to substitute bargaining, arbitration and mediation for strikes as a means of resolving labor disputes. Its provisions were originally enforced under the Board of Mediation, but were later enforced under National Mediation Board. Like its predecessors, it relied on boards of adjustment, established by the parties, to resolve labor disputes, with a government-appointed Board of Mediation to attempt to resolve those disputes that board of adjustment could not. The RLA promoted voluntary arbitration as the best method for resolving those disputes that the Board of Mediation could not settle. Congress strengthened these procedures in the 1934 amendments to the Act, which created a procedure for resolving whether a union had the support of the majority of employees while turning the Board of Mediation into a permanent agency, the National Mediation Board (NMB), with broader powers. Congress extended the RLA to cover airline employees in 1936.

78. Walsh-Healey Act (Public Contract Act)
The Walsh-Healey Act or Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act was passed in 1936 as part of the New Deal. It is a United States federal law that applies to U.S. government contracts exceeding $10,000 for the manufacture or furnishing of goods. Walsh-Healey establishes overtime pay for hours worked by contractor employees in excess of 8 hours per day or 40 hours per week, and sets the minimum wage equal to the prevailing wage as determined by the Secretary of Labor. It also prohibits the employment of youths less than 15 years of age and convicts, except under certain conditions. The Act sets standards for the use of convict labor, and job health and safety standards.

79. Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO)
The Congress of Industrial Organizations, or CIO, proposed by John L. Lewis in 1932, was a federation of unions that organized workers in industrial unions in the United States and Canada from 1935 to 1955. The CIO supported Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal Coalition, and was open to African Americans. The Committee for Industrial Organization was founded on November 9, 1935, by eight international unions belonging to the American Federation of Labor. It officially broke away from the AF of L in 1938 and reformed itself as the Congress of Industrial Organizations.

80. John L. Lewis
A dominant figure in labor history, John L. Lewis was the founding force behind several national unions and a leader of the United Mine Workers of America (UMWA) for more than 40 years. In aiding the union struggle for better wages and benefits, he confronted presidents, corporate powers and even other unions to shape and expand the union movement during the decades when labor made its greatest gains. When the NRA took effect, Lewis kicked off an all-out organizing campaign that soon brought 92 percent of the nation’s coal miners into the union fold. He left the Republican Party in support of Franklin Delano Roosevelt because of campaign promises to help labor unions. He founded the Committee for Industrial Organization (CIO). This led many shrikes and was formally recognized by Congress.

81. Philip Murray
He was Scottish-born U.S. labor leader. After immigrating to the U.S. in 1902, he became a coal miner in Pennsylvania. He joined the United Mine Workers of America and rose through the ranks to serve as vice president (1920 – 42) under John L. Lewis. When Lewis became president of the newly formed Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) in 1936, he delegated Murray to create an industry-wide steelworkers’ union (United Steelworkers of America). Murray succeeded Lewis as CIO president in 1940 and held the post until his death.

82. Sit down strikes
Sit down strikes was a revolutionary technique that workers wanting labor unions resorted to in 1936. The workers refused to leave the factories where they worked. This prevented the importation of strikebreakers. The most famous sit down strike was the one on the General Motors factory at Flint Michigan. After negotiations, the Committee for Industrial Organization (CIO) became recognized by General Motors.

83. Unemployment Compensation
Unemployment compensation was one of the most important successes of the New Deal. One of the greatest successes for unemployment was the Social Security Act of 1935. It provided for federal-state unemployment insurance and provided security for old age since specified categories of retired workers were to receive regular payments from Washington. This was financed by a payroll tax on both employees and employers.

84. Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)
The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) is a federally owned corporation in the United States created by congressional charter in May 1933 to provide: navigation, flood control, electricity generation, fertilizer manufacturing, and economic development in the Tennessee Valley, a region particularly affected by the Great Depression. The enterprise was a result of the efforts of Senator George W. Norris of Nebraska. TVA was envisioned not only as a provider, but also as a regional economic development agency that would use federal experts and electricity to rapidly modernize the region’s economy and society.

85. Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
The United States Federal Communications Commission, created by an act of Congress on 19 June 1934, merged the administrative responsibilities for regulating broadcasting and wired communications under the rubric of one agency. The commission was given broad latitude to establish “a rapid, efficient, Nation-wide, and world-wide wire and radio communication service.” It merged the Federal Radio Commission, the Interstate Commerce Commission and the Postmaster General into one agency, and was organized into three divisions: Broadcast, Telegraph, and Telephone.

86. Election of 1936
The United States presidential election of 1936 was the most lopsided presidential election in the history of the United in terms of electoral votes (523 to 8). The election took place as the Great Depression entered its eighth year. Incumbent President Roosevelt was still working to push the provisions of his New Deal economic policy through Congress and the courts. However, the New Deal policies he had already enacted, such as Social Security and unemployment benefits, had proven to be highly popular with most Americans. Roosevelt’s Republican opponent was Governor Alfred Landon of Kansas, a political moderate. Roosevelt won 60.8% of the national popular vote, the second highest popular-vote percentage won since 1820.

87. Alfred M. Landon
Alfred M. Landon (September 9, 1887 – October 12, 1987) was an American Republican politician, who served as the 26th Governor of Kansas from 1933-1937. He was best known for being the Republican Party’s nominee for President of the United States, defeated in a landslide by Franklin D. Roosevelt in the 1936 presidential election. Landon proved to be an ineffective campaigner who rarely traveled. He lost bt 10 million popular votes. Landon respected and admired Roosevelt and accepted much of the New Deal but objected that it was hostile to business and involved too much waste and inefficiency.

88. 20th Amendment
The Twentieth Amendment to the United States Constitution establishes the beginning and ending of the terms of the elected federal offices. It also deals with scenarios in which there is no President-elect. The Twentieth Amendment was ratified on January 23, 1933. The amendment reduced the amount of time between Election Day and the beginning of Presidential, Vice Presidential and Congressional terms. Originally, the terms of the President, the Vice President and the incoming Congress began on March 4, four months after the elections were held; this kept a “lame duck” congress in session, preventing anything from being accomplished. Also, it moved the date of the required congressional meeting.

89. Court Packing Plan
The court-packing plan was a legislative initiative proposed by President Franklin Roosevelt in 1937 to add more justices to the Supreme Court. Roosevelt’s purpose was to obtain favorable rulings regarding New Deal legislation that had been previously ruled unconstitutional. The central and most controversial provision of the bill would have granted the President power to appoint an additional Justice to the Supreme Court, up to a maximum of six, for every sitting member over the age of 70 years and 6 months. Roosevelt’s initiative ultimately failed due to adverse public opinion, the retirement of one Supreme Court Justice, and the unexpected and sudden death of the legislation’s U.S. Senate champion: Senate Majority Leader Joseph T. Robinson.

90. Recession of 1937
By the spring of 1937, production, profits, and wages had regained their 1929 levels. Unemployment remained high, but it was considerably lower than the 25% rate seen in 1933. The American economy took a sharp downturn in mid-1937, lasting for 13 months through most of 1938. Industrial production declined almost 30 percent and production of durable goods fell even faster. Unemployment jumped from 14.3% in 1937 to 19.0% in 1938. Manufacturing output fell by 37% from the 1937 peak and was back to 1934 levels. Producers reduced their expenditures on durable goods, and inventories declined, but personal income was only 15% lower than it had been at the peak in 1937. To counter this, Congress passed a new AAA bill in 1938 which authorized crop loans, crop insurance against natural disasters, and large subsidies to farmers who cut back production, and Roosevelt sent a new large-scale spending program to Congress, and received $3.75 billion which was split among PWA, WPA, and various relief agencies.

91. Fair Labor Standards Act (Wages and Hours Law)
The Fair Labor Standards Act, also known as the Wages and Hours Law, was passed in 1938. It was one of the most memorable laws that benefited labor unions. Industries involved in interstate commerce were to set up minimum-wage and maximum-hour levels. It set these standards initially at forty cents an hour and forty hours a week. It forbade children under 16 from working. It was opposed by those who profited from low-wage labor. It excluded agricultural, service, and domestic workers, meaning it did not help women, blacks, and Mexican Americans who were focused in these fields.

92. US v. Darby
United States v. Darby, which took place in 1941, was a case in which the United States Supreme Court upheld the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, holding that the U.S. Congress had the power under the Commerce Clause to regulate employment conditions. The issue was whether Congress had overstepped its constitutional authority in creating the Fair Labor Standards Act. An American lumber company in Georgia that did not meet these standards was charged with violating the law, but had won an appeal, where the appellate judge found that the federal government is barred by the 10th Amendment from interfering in matters that are strictly local, that is, within intrastate boundaries. The Court reversed the appellate court decision and affirmed the constitutional power of Congress to regulate interstate commerce.

93. Fair Employment Practices Committee
On June 25, 1941, President Roosevelt created the Fair Employment Practices Committee (FEPC) by signing Executive Order 8802, which stated, “there shall be no discrimination in the employment of workers in defense industries or government because of race, creed, color, or national origin.” It was intended to help African Americans and other minorities obtain jobs in the home front industry. In 1943, Roosevelt greatly strengthened the FEPC with a new executive order, which required that all government contracts have a non-discrimination clause. In the private sector the FEPC was generally successful in enforcing non-discrimination in the North, and it did not attempt to challenge segregation in the South.

94. Federal Security Agency
The Federal Security Agency (FSA) was an independent agency of the United States government established in 1939 pursuant to the “Reorganization Act of 1939.” For a time, the agency administered the Social Security old-age pension plan, oversaw food and drug safety, administered public health programs, and federal education funding. Included in the FSA was the Social Security Board, the U.S. Public Health Service, Food and Drug Administration, the Civilian Conservation Corps, the Office of Education (later the United States Department of Education), the National Youth Administration and a number of other agencies.

95. Hatch Act
Law of 1939 that prevented federal officials from engaging in campaign activities or using federal relief funds for political purposes. It removed political patronage from government jobs and blocked office holders from using their power for partisan ends. The immediate need came from the widespread allegation that Works Progress Administration (WPA) workers had been used by local Democratic Party politicians during the congressional elections of 1938.

96. Un-American Activities Committee
The House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) was created in 1938 to investigate alleged disloyalty and subversive activities on the part of private citizens, public employees, and those organizations suspected of having Communist ties. Through its power to subpoena witness and hold people in contempt of Congress, HUAC often pressured witnesses to surrender names and other information that could lead to the apprehension of Communists and Communist sympathizers.

Causes of the Great Depression ♦Uneven distribution of wealth ♦Stock market speculation “buying on the margin” ♦Excessive use of credit ♦Overproduction on consumer goods ♦Weak farm economy ♦Government policies ♦Global economic policies Black Tuesday ♦Stock market crash (Oct. 29, 1929) …

The most striking characteristics of the stock market in 1929 was investors’ obsession with speculation By 1932, what percentage of American workers were unemployed? 25 WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY …

Great Depression The period following the stock market crash that was the longest, most severe depression yet…it caused far more business failures and unemployment and affected more people. Black Tuesday (October 29, 1929) The day the stock market crashed!! WE …

In 1932, the Farmers’ Holiday Association was essentially a farmers’ strike The 1931 Scottsboro court case saw black teenagers accused of rape by two white women WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR …

Causes of the Great Depression – Factories and farms produce more goods than people can buy. – Banks make loans that borrowers cannot pay back. – After the stock market crash, many businesses cannot find people who will invest in …

The Congress of Industrialized Organizations was most interested in unionizing which of the following C. Unskilled and semiskilled factory workers The LEAST prosperous group in the 1920’s consisted of C. farmers in the Midwest and South WE WILL WRITE A …

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