APUSH The Roaring 20s and the Depression

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“Return to Normalcy”
a return to the way of life before World War I; Warren G. Harding’s campaign promise in the election of 1920

Election of 1924
Calvin Coolidge Republican; John W. Davis Democratic; Robert M. La Follette Progressive; Coolidge was vice-president under Warren G. Harding and became president in 1923 when Harding died in office; Coolidge was given credit for a booming economy at home and no visible crises abroad

Federal Farm Board
1929; before the stock market crash on Black Tuesday, 1929; established by the Agricultural Marketing Act to stabilize prices and to promote the sale of agricultural products; Hoover’s response to Great Depression

Theodore Dreiser
wrote “An American Tragedy”; American novelist and journalist of the naturalist school; several campaigns against social injustice including the lynching of Frank Little, the Sacco-Vanzetti case, and the deportation of Emma Goldman; committed socialist

T.S. Eliot
wrote “The Waste Land”; obscure nature, satire and prophecy

Billy Sunday
popular outfielder in baseball’s National League during the 1880s; most celebrated and influential American evangelist during the first two decades of the 20th century; no scandals; strong supporter of Prohibition

Henry Ford
Model T car; American industrialist; founder of the Ford Motor Company; sponsor of the development of the assembly line technique of mass production; revolutionized transportation and American industry; consumerism as the key to peace; franchise

flappers
make-up; cigarettes; short skirts; women rebelling against formality of society

Harlem Renaissance
distinct black culture flourished; 1920s and 1930s; “The New Negro Movement”; Great Migration out of the South into the Negro neighborhoods of the North and Midwest; blues, spirituals, and jazz; Duke Ellington; Pan-Africanism; Zora Neale Hurston; Langston Hughes

Marcus Garvey
Jamaican-born immigrant; Universal Negro Improvement Association; believed in Black Pride; advocated racial segregation because of black superiority; thought blacks should return to Africa; bought ship to start “Black Star” line; attracted many investments but government found him guilty of fraud and was deported to Jamaica

Charles Lindbergh
American aviator, author, inventor, explorer, and social activist; baby was kidnapped and murdered; awarded Medal of Honor; anti-war but still supported war efforts after Pearl Harbor

Twenty-One Demands
Japanese Empire sent set of demands to China for terms of peace; resulting in two treaties with Japan on May 25, 1915; U.S. and Great Britain did not approve of Japan’s treatment of China

Naval Ratio
5:5:3:1.67:1.67; Fire Power Treaty 1922; battleship ratio established; US:UK:Japan:France; many loopholes; Japan got guarantee that US and UK would stop fortifying Far East territories (including the Philippines)

Young Plan
1930; program for settlement of German reparations debts after World War I written in 1929 and formally adopted in 1930; $26,350,000,0000 to be paid over a period of 58.5 years

Teapot Dome Scandal
1922-1923; bribery scandal; President Harding; Secretary of the Interior Albert B. Fall leased Navy petroleum reserves at Teapot Dome and two other locations to private oil companies at low rates without competitive bidding; further destroying the public reputation of the Harding administration

Andrew W. Mellon
Secretary of the Treasury; March 4, 1921 until February 12, 1932; Mellon Plan: increase the federal revenue and cut spending; became unpopular with onset of the Great Depression

Progressive Party
U.S. 1924; new party created as a vehicle for Robert M. La Follette, Sr. to run for president in the 1924 election; more agrarian, populist, and mid-western

“The Lost Generation”
came of age during WWI; Ernest Hemingway; end of World War I to the beginning of the Great Depression; “WWI Generation”

Ernest Hemingway
wrote “A Farewell to Arms” based on wartime experiences; author and journalist; economical and understated style had a strong influence on 20th-century fiction; influenced later generations

Prohibition
on manufacture and sales of alcohol; 18th Amendment in 1919; Volstead Act; Gangsters (Al Capone in Chicago); increase in organized crime; speakeasies and bootleggers; 18th amendment repealed with 21st amendment in 1933

Immigration Acts
1921 and 1924; National Origins Act, and Asian Exclusion Act; limited number of immigrants allowed in U.S.

Scopes Trial
Scopes “Monkey” Trial; Dayton, Tennessee; evolution versus creationism; argument over what can be taught in schools; Charles Darwin and evolution; science versus religion; John Scopes was high school biology teacher; Famous attorneys for this case: Clarence Darrow and William Jennings Bryan

“The Jazz Singer”
1st talking movie; commercial ascendance of the “talkies” and the decline of the silent film era; Warner Bros. and Al Jolson

Langston Hughes
American poet, social activist, novelist, playwright, and columnist; jazz poetry; Harlem Renaissance; drawn to the promise of Communism as an alternative to a segregated America

Pan-African Movement
seeks to unify African people or people living in Africa, into a “one African community”; W.E.B. DuBois; Marcus Garvey

“Spirit of St. Louis”
custom-built, single engine, single-seat monoplane that was flown solo by Charles Lindbergh on May 20-21, 1927

Washington Naval Conference
Washington Arms Conference; military conference called by President Warren G. Harding and held in Washington from 12 November 1921 to 6 February 1922; United States, Japan, China, France, Britain, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands, and Portugal; first disarmament conference; came up with naval ratio

Dawes Plan
attempt in 1924 to solve the reparations problem; Allies to collect war reparations debt from Germany; initially helped German economy but made the Germans dependent; replaced by the Young Plan

Kellogg-Briand Pact
1928; 15 dedicated to outlawing aggression and war as tools of foreign policy; 62 nations; no actual means of enforcement and gave Americans a false sense of security

Smoot-Hawley Tariff
1930; Senator Reed Smoot and Representative Willis C. Hawley, and signed into law on June 17, 1930, that raised U.S. tariffs on over 20,000 imported goods to record levels; reduced exports and imports by more than half

Bonus Army
assemblage of some 43,000 marchers; WWI Veterans, friends and families; spring and summer of 1932 to demand immediate cash-payment redemption of their service certificates; Walter Waters; Washington D.C.; Compensation Act of 1924; Hoover brought in national army

Good Neighbor Policy
FDR 1933 inaugural address; important to have all nations in Western Hemisphere united in lieu of foreign aggression; good neighbor respects himself and rights of others; policy of non-intervention and cooperation

Election of 1932
FDR Democrat; Herbert Hoover Republican; middle of Great Depression so Hoover’s chances were slim; FDR won majority vote

Emergency Banking Relief Act
1933; March 9, 1933; only Federal Reserve-approved banks to operate in the United States of America; 1st 100 days

Glass-Steagall Act
1933; Banking reform; An Act to provide for the safer and more effective use of the assets of banks, to regulate interbank control, to prevent the undue diversion of funds into speculative operations, and for other purposes; established the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC); control speculation

National Industrial Recovery Act
recovery of industries; partnership of business, labor, government; price controls, high wages, codes of fair competition; June 16, 1933; authorize the President of the United States to regulate industry and permit cartels and monopolies in an attempt to stimulate economic recovery, and established a national public works program

“The Blue Eagle at Work”
“The Blue Eagle At Work: Reclaiming Democratic Rights in the American Workplace”; legal treatise written by Charles J. Morris which analyzes collective bargaining under the National Labor Relations Act (NLRA), the federal statute governing most private sector labor relations in the United States

Agricultural Adjustment Act
1st AAA; recovery of agriculture; paid farmers who agreed to reduce production; money from tax on processors passed cost on to consumer; enacted May 12, 1933; Thomas Amendment; unconstitutional ruling in 1935

Federal Emergency Relief Administration
FERA; 1933; to help relieve poverty in America; funneled federal money ($500 million) to state and local governments to assist in their relief effort; replaced by WPA; alleviating household unemployment by creating new unskilled jobs in local and state government

Public Works Administration
PWA; part of the New Deal in 1933; large-scale public works construction agency in the United States headed by Secretary of the Interior Harold L. Ickes; created by NIRA; built large-scale public works such as dams, bridges, hospitals and schools

Harry Hopkins
one of FDR’s closest advisers; helped start the New Deal and relief programs; Roosevelt’s chief diplomatic advisor and troubleshooter and was a key policy maker in the $50 billion Lend Lease program that sent aid to the allies

Home Owners’ Loan Corporation
HOLC; 1933; New Deal agency established by FDR and the Home Owners’ Loan Corporation Act; refinance home mortgages currently in default to prevent foreclosure; selling bonds to lenders in exchange for the home mortgages

Securities and Exchange Commission
SEC; 1934; primary responsibility for enforcing the federal securities laws and regulating the securities industry, the nation’s stock and options exchanges, and other electronic securities markets; prevent causes of depression (bankruptcy, loans, speculation); set regulations for going on margin and insider trades

Tennessee Valley Authority
TVA; 1933; conservation of wildlife, forests, and resources; Republican Senator George Norris; independent public corporation with power to sell electricity and fertilizer and promote flood control and land reclamation;built 9 major dams and many more smaller ones; cheaper electricity and radios, electric irons, washing machines, etc…; jobs for dam builders

National Youth Administration
NYA; 1935-1939; providing work and education for Americans between the ages of 16 and 24; part of WPA; youth normally lived at home, and worked on construction or repair projects; Its annual budget was approximately $58,000,000

Wagner Act
1935; National Labor Relations Act (NLRA); limits the means with which employers may react to workers in the private sector who create labor unions (also known as trade unions), engage in collective bargaining, and take part in strikes and other forms of concerted activity in support of their demands; doesn’t apply to workers who are covered by the Railway Labor Act, agricultural employees, domestic employees, supervisors, federal, state or local government workers, independent contractors and some close relatives of individual employers

Fair Labor Standards Act
Wages and Hours Bill; established minimum wage of 25 cents per hour (rise to 40 cents per hour); lowered maximum work week to 44 hours (then to 40 hours); prohibited child labor; diminished need for special legislation for women

John L. Lewis
American leader of organized labor who served as president of the United Mine Workers of America (UMW) from 1920 to 1960; driving force behind the founding of the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO), which established the United Steel Workers of America; helped FDR win election but different on foreign policy

“Okies”
resident or native of Oklahoma; migration of the 1930s brought in over a million new displaced people

Frances Perkins
secretary of labor; first woman appointed to the U.S. Cabinet; 1933-1945; helped pull the labor movement into the New Deal coalition; championed many programs and acts of the New Deal; loyal supporter of FDR

Keynesian economics
school of macroeconomic thought based on the ideas of 20th-century English economist John Maynard Keynes; private sector decisions sometimes lead to inefficient macroeconomic outcomes which require active policy responses by the public sector, particularly monetary policy actions by the central bank and fiscal policy actions by the government to stabilize output over the business cycle; advocated in 1930s; mixed economy

“Share the Wealth”
movement begun during the Great Depression by Huey Long; movement to literally limit people’s wealth and spread it among everyone

Election of 1936
FDR democratic; Alf Landon Republican; biggest landslide victory in history (at that point in time) for FDR; popular New Deal programs

“Court Packing”
Judicial Procedures Reform Bill of 1937 or the “Court packing” Plan; FDR wanted to add more justices to the U.S. Supreme Court; obtain favorable rulings regarding New Deal legislation that had been previously ruled unconstitutional

Hatch Act
1939; main provision is to prohibit employees (civil servants) in the executive branch of the federal government, except the President and the Vice President, from engaging in partisan political activity; precluded federal employees from membership in “any political organization which advocates the overthrow of our constitutional form of government,” which especially applied to fascist and communist organizations

Reconstruction Finance Corporation
RFC; independent agency of the United States government; established and chartered by the US Congress in 1932 under Herbert Hoover; gave $2 billion in aid to state and local governments and made loans to banks, railroads, mortgage associations and other businesses; almost all repaid and continued by the New Deal

“Hoovervilles”
name for shanty towns built by homeless people during the Great Depression; named after Hoover because he was blamed for letting the nation slip into the Great Depression

Norris-LaGuardia Act
1932; Anti-Injunction Bill; banned yellow-dog contracts, barred federal courts from issuing injunctions against nonviolent labor disputes, and created a positive right of noninterference by employers against workers joining trade unions

20th Amendment
establishes the beginning and ending of the terms of the elected federal offices; determines rank of superiority (for President position); January 23, 1933

21st Amendment
repealed the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which had mandated nationwide Prohibition; ratified on December 5, 1933

First Hundred Days
first 100 days of a first term presidency of a president of the United States; FDR accomplished a lot in his first 100 days

“Relief, Recovery, Reform”
stages of FDR’s plan to improve America and bring it out of the Great Depression: relieve the citizens and recover, then reform for the better

Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
FDIC; 1933; condition of banks and people hoarding gold and not trusting banks; gave federal government more regulatory power over banks; provides deposit insurance, which guarantees the safety of deposits in member banks

Civilian Conservation Corporation
1933; CCC; addressed unemployment, work relief, and preservation of resources; use young unemployed men (mostly white); work on reforestation, roads, parks, flood control, etc…; men in work camps and they earn money to be sent back to families; successful and least controversial program in New Deal

Civil Works Administration
CWA; 1935; addressed unemployment and work relief; put 4 million people to work on various state, municipal, and federal projects; ended on March 31, 1934; $200 million a month

Works Progress Administration
WPA; 1935; addressed unemployment and its effects; employed about 3 million people each year on socially useful projects (bridges, airports, roads, libraries, golf courses, etc…); headed by Harry Hopkins

Federal Arts Project
FAP; visual arts arm of the Great Depression-era New Deal Works Progress Administration Federal One program in the United States; August 29, 1935, until June 30, 1943; employ out-of-work artists and to provide art for non-federal government buildings: schools, hospitals, libraries, etc..

Federal Housing Authority
FHA; part of the National Housing Act of 1934; insured loans made by banks and other private lenders for home building and home buying; improve housing standards and conditions, provide an adequate home financing system through insurance of mortgage loans, and to stabilize the mortgage market

Joseph Kennedy, Sr.
American businessman, investor, and government official; father of JFK; leading member of the Democratic Party; friends with FDR; inaugural Chairman of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)

Rural Electrification Administration
REA; May 11, 1935; promoted rural electrification; no direct government competition to private enterprise; made loans available to local electrification cooperatives, which operated lines and distributed electricity

Indian Reorganization Act
1934; Indian New Deal; secured certain rights to Native Americans; reversal of the Dawes Act’s privatization of communal holdings of American Indian tribes and a return to local self-government on a tribal basis; restored to Native Americans the management of their assets (being mainly land) and included provisions intended to create a sound economic foundation for the inhabitants of Indian reservations; John Collier Sr.

National Labor Relations Board
NLRB; July 5, 1935; conducting elections for labor union representation and with investigating and remedying unfair labor practices; established by the National Industrial Recovery Act in1933 which was struck down by Supreme Court;

Congress of Industrial Organization
CIO; proposed by John L. Lewis in 1938; federation of unions that organized workers in industrial unions in the United States and Canada from 1935 to 1955; supported Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal Coalition, and was open to African Americans; eventually merged with AFL

Dust Bowl
period of severe dust storms causing major ecological and agricultural damage to American and Canadian prairie lands in the 1930’s, particularly in 1934 and 1936; forced many “Okies” to migrate to other states (California); noted by John Steinbeck

John Steinbeck
wrote “The Grapes of Wrath”; American writer; described migration due to economic conditions; negative portrayal of aspects of capitalism, and sympathy for the plight of worker; joined the League of American Writers, a Communist organization, in 1935; mentored by Lincoln Steffens

Eleanor Roosevelt
First Lady of the United States from 1933 to 1945; supported FDR’s New Deal; worked to enhance the status of working women

Huey Long
“The Kingfish”; U.S. Senator from 1932 to 1935; Democrat; noted for his radical populist policies; initially back FDR but became a critic of the New Deal; created the Share Our Wealth program in 1934 with the motto “Every Man a King”; Long was assassinated in 1935

Father Charles Coughlin
controversial Roman Catholic priest; one of the first political leaders to use radio to reach a mass audience; initially supported FDR and the New Deal but became critic; though FDR was too friendly to bankers; for monetary reforms, the nationalization of major industries and railroads, and protection of the rights of labor; National Union for Social Justice

Social Security Act
SSA; 1935; social insurance program; gave old people survivor insurance paid by tax of 1% on employers and employees; aid for disabled, blind, dependent children; built cooperative federal-state system of unemployment compensation; would expand to largest federal welfare program

Charles Evans Hughes
Chief Justice 1930-1941; Republican candidate in the 1916 U.S. Presidential election (lost to Wilson); leader of opposition to the New Deal in the 1930s; has been called both “leader of the progressive movement of the 20th century” and “American conservative”; limit the liberal scope Roosevelt’s changes

Schechter Poultry Corporation versus U.S.
1935 constitutionality of New Deal programs; Section 3 of the National Industrial Recovery Act was an unconstitutional delegation of legislative power to the Executive, and was not a valid exercise of congressional Commerce Clause power

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy Hundred Days Period in which the Congress an inconceivable large amount of legislation Glass-Steagall Banking Reform Act Act that …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy Great Depression the economic crisis beginning with the stock market crash in 1929 and continuing through the 1930s stock …

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We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy Election of 1932 The Republicans nominated Herbert Hoover to run for president in the election of 1932. The Democrats …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy terroist A person who kills in a shocking way to get attention submarine/U-boat The sea weapon used by Germany …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy KKK A racist group that favored white supremacy, backed the temperance movement. Charles Lindbergh Became the first man to …

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