APUSH- The Great Depression/ New Deal

buying on margin
one of the cause of the stock market crash before great depression where consumers can buy stocks with credit.

uninformed investors
one of the causes of the stock market crash before the great depression where investors are not sure as to exactly what they are putting their money into.

speculators/ some fraud
one of the causes of the stock market crash before the great depression where speculators bought/resold stock involving fraud.

banks invested in stock market with customer deposits
one of the causes of the stock market crash before the great depression where banks invested in stocks with money from their customers.

industries not healthy
one of the causes of the stock market crash where some industries such as steel, construction, and auto sales were down

black thursday
October 24, 1929; stock market crashes and almost 13 million shares are sold that day alone

black tuesday
October 29, 1929; date of the worst stock-market crash in American history and beginning of the Great Depression.

pellagra
protein deficiency disease that appeard in many parts of the south during the great depression

dust bowl
Region of the Great Plains that experienced a drought in 1930 lasting for a decade, leaving many farmers without work or substantial wages.

herbert hoover
Republican candidate who assumed the presidency in March 1929 promising the American people prosperity and attempted to first deal with the Depression by trying to restore public faith in the community.

associationalism
president hoover’s political philosophy which envisioned a federalgovernment empowered to collect and disseminate information and structured to encourage voluntary cooperation among businesses but forbidden to intervene further.

Agricultural marketing act of 1929
bill signed by hoover which was designed to alleviate the plight of american farmers and established a fed farm board which brought together representatives of the various farming interests. board helped establish agricultural cooperative sdeigned to purchase surplus crops and make the distributionand sale of farm products more efficient and administered 500 million dollars in fed loans to help establish prices. did not compel any reduction in production

national credit corporation
corporation that was formed by hoover in response to the failure of banks in the stock market crash. encouraged banks to pool resources to stave of a gen. collapse.

president’s emergency commitee on employment
committee organized by hoover which sought to convince companies not to lay off workers and cut wages

president’s organization on unemployment relief
organization created by hoover which was designed to encouarage private individuals and corporations to contribute to charities that were struggling to provide relief to the homeless and unemployed.

Reconstruction Finance corporation
corporation created by hoover after seeing that the national credit corporation could not save the banks. was authorized to loan two billion dollars to large corporations and financial institutions to stimulate investment.

hawley-smoot tariff of 1930
tariff passed during hoover’s presidency which raised import duties to their highest level in history, stifling any hope that international trade might help with the economy and caused untld damamge to the weak nations of europe.

gold standard
a monetary standard under which the basic unit of currency is defined by a stated quantity of gold

bonus marchers
in 1932, a groupd of war veterans organized and camped outside of capitol grounds in protest for early bonuses. were met by force by the military.

franklin d. roosevelt
32nd US President – He began New Deal programs to help the nation out of the Great Depression, and he was the nation’s leader during most of WWII

emergency banking act
conservative bill that was aimed mainly at shoring up the existing banking system. gave the treasury secretary the power to determine which banks could safely reopen . legitmized fdr’s bank holiday.

fireside chat
broadcasts of fdr who talked to the people via radio and explained his measure to address the banking crisis. helped him gain popularity.

glass-steagall banking act of 1933
actr that imposed conservative banking practices nationwide. speculative loans, investments in the stock market and shdy business practices by banks were outlawed.

federal deposit insurance corporation
corporation that protected ten savings of individual depositors during the great depression

banking act of 1935
act that reorganized the federal reserve, bringing the entire system under more centralize dnad democratic control. helped establish credibility of the us banking system.

truth in securities act
1933 act that required all companies issuing stock to file dtailed financial reports with the federal trade commission and to disclose accurate information about the stocks to al presective buyers.

securities and exchange act
1934 legislation that regulated the markets that sold stocks. prohibited inside traidng and other forms of stock manipulation. gave the fed reserve board the power to control how much credit was available for stock purchases.

securities and exchange commission
one of the largest and most effective regulatory agnecies in the country which regulates the stock trade market.

Federal Emergency relief administration
bill during fdr’s term in office to oversee the provision of half billion dollars for relief for the unemployed.

harry hopkins
social workers and confidant of roosevelt who was the leader of FERA. helped distribute money at a terrific rate. convinced roosevelt that only a massive new fed program could avert disaster.

civil works administration
administration whic employed over four million men and women for building/renovating public works projects. created jobs for many unemployed

civilian conservation corps
federal relief program started by fdr which employed young men to build roads and trails in the national parks. dramatically transformed america’s public land sand employed over three million teenagers and oung adults.

landuse planning and soil conservation/ modernization of rural life/ effort to eradicate rural poverty
the three categories of rural relief legislature in the new deal.

tennessee valley authority
new deal program that involved the establishment of a system of dams along the tennessee valley. controlled flooding in the tennessee valley, created reservoirs for irrigation and provided cheap hydroelectric power to new factory complexes clustered around the dams. took responsibility for soil conservation, reforestation, improved nativation and even the manufacture of fertilizer.

brain trust
FDR’s reform-minded intellectual advisers who conceived much of the New Deal legislation. attempted to convince fdr that the depression was caused by the economy’s fundamental defects and that the core of the prlboem is the maldistribution of wealth within the us.

rural electrification administration
program established in 1935 which provided electricity for many rural farms

tenant farmers/ sharecroppers
two groups of people who benefied the least from te new deal

john collier
fdr’s commissioner of indian affairs who reversed decades of federal attempts to force indians to sell their lands and assimilate into the cultural mainstream. used the various agencies of the new deal to build proressive schools on the reservations

indian reorganization act of 1934
legislature that allowed john collier to reverse decades of federal attempts to force indians to sell their lands and assimilate into te culturl mainstream. forced land sales were ended and reservations are enlarged. tribal democracy replaced bureaucratic authority.

national industrial recovery act
A New Deal legislation that focused on the employment of the unemployed and the regulation of unfair business ethics. The ___ pumped cash into the economy to stimulate the job market and created codes that businesses were to follow to maintain the ideal of fair competition and created the ____.

national recovery administration
Government agency that was part of the New Deal and dealt with the industrial sector of the economy. It allowed industries to create fair competition which were intended to reduce destructive competition and to help workers by setting minimum wages and maximum weekly hours. was created by nira.

schechter poultry corporation v united states
supreme court case that invalidated the national industrial recovery act. case had been brought by small new uork poutry company, but was funded by larger companies. nra ruled unconstitutional b/c it was regulating interstate commerce.

agricultural adjustment act
Recovery: (AAA); May 12, 1933; restricted crop production to reduce crop surplus; goal was to reduce surplus to raise value of crops; farmers paid subsidies by federal government; declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in US vs Butler on January 6, 1936

US v Butler
a case in which the Supreme Court of the United States ruled that the processing taxes instituted under the 1933 Agricultural Adjustment Act were unconstitutional. Justice Owen Josephus Roberts argued that the tax was “but a means to an unconstitutional end” that violated the Tenth Amendment

works progress administration
program that revived the popular jobs program that harry hopkins had run under the NIRA. employed 3.3 million americans at one time.

wagner act
act that recovered and strengthened section 7a of the nira which guaranteed workers the right to bargain collectively. outlawed company unions, prohibited employers from firing workers after a strike and restricted many of the other tactics traditionally used by comapnsoeto inhibit the fomration of unions. created national labor relations board

revenue act
act propsed by roosevelt that would encourage a wider distribution of the wealth. raised estate and corporate taxes and pushed personal income taxes in the top branket to 79 percent.

wheeler-rayburn act
major legislature in the scond new deal. grew out of roosevelt’s concern about the concentrated power of holding ompanies in the nations utility industry. gave the securities and exchange commission the power to break up utilities companies that made no geographic sense.

Emergency relief apropriations bill
bill that fdr sponsored which provided nearly five billion dollars to fund work relief.

social security act of 1935
legislature in the second new deal which established matching grants to states that set up their own systems of worker’s compensation, unemployment insurance, and aid to families with dependent children.

congress of industrial organizations
orgnization that was formed by john l lewis and sidney hillman. organized some of the most powerful and prosperous industries in country.

frances perkins
first woman to be appointed to the cabinet.

eleanor roosevelt
FDR’s Wife and New Deal supporter. Was a great supporter of civil rights and opposed the Jim Crow laws. She also worked for birth control and better conditions for working women

national committee to uphold constitutional government
committee formed by conservatives which was aggainst the congressional control of the supreme court.

conservative manifesto
created by fdr’s administration’s opposition who called for balanced budgets, states rights, lower taxes and defense of private property and capitlist system.

fair labor standards act
law passed in 1938 which required payment of overtime after 40 hours of work in a week, establihsed minimum wage, and eliminated child labor.

john maynard keynes
english economist whi argued tahat the government needs to stimulate recovery through deficit spending.

keyneisan economics
economic theory developed by John Maynard Keynes, states that government can intervene in the economy to affect the level of output and employment

dorothea lange
United States photographer remembered for her portraits of rural workers during the Depression (1895-1965)

court packing bill
FDR tried to appoint supreme court officials to make the supreme court more democratic in order to pass more bills, unconstitutional

Causes of the Great Depression ♦Uneven distribution of wealth ♦Stock market speculation “buying on the margin” ♦Excessive use of credit ♦Overproduction on consumer goods ♦Weak farm economy ♦Government policies ♦Global economic policies Black Tuesday ♦Stock market crash (Oct. 29, 1929) …

Election of 1928 Al Smith – Dem Herbert Hoover – Rep Hoover victorious because he was Rep (2 previous Pres. were Rep) Maintain prosperity Farming Crisis Over production Shows hard times on horizon WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE …

Works Progress Administration (WPA) Hires jobless people to build public buildings and parks. New Deal program of President Franklin D. Roosevelt to end the Great Depression WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR …

Great Depression the economic crisis beginning with the stock market crash in 1929 and continuing through the 1930s stock market an exchange where security trading is conducted by professional stockbrokers WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC …

Six causes of Great Depression 1- Overproduction-too many goods,(agriculture), too few buyers. 2-Banking failure-system weakness. 3-Stock Market crash. 4-Consumer debt-Installment buying,(buying on credit/margin). 5-Speculation-Federal Government Regulation(businesses expanded expecting profit) 6- Low Wages(paychecks) not keeping up with cost of living. Short …

What is Bull Market? When values of stocks continued to increase during the 1920’s Banks loaned money to stockbrokers to facilitate what? on margin buying WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY …

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