APUSH review chapter 33-36

True
(T/F) Roosevelt’s call for a New Deal in the 1932 campaign included attacks on the Hoover deficits and a promise to balance the federal budget

False
(T/F) Eleanor Roosevelt had little experience with social reform and women’s concerns before her husband was elected president

True
(T/F) Congress rushed to pass many of the early New Deal programs that granted large emergency powers to the president

False
(T/F) In designing the New Deal, Roosevelt and his advisers avoided drawing on European models that might smack of socialism to Americans

False
(T/F) The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) and the Public Works Administration (PWA) were both designed to reform American business practices

True
(T/F) Two early New Deal programs, the National Recovery Administration (NRA) and the Agricultural Adjustment Agency (AAA), were both declared unconstitutional by the supreme court

False
(T/F) Even amidst the worst of the Great Depression, most Americans did not worry that the United States would follow Italy or Germany in giving a dictator power to solve the crisis

True
(T/F) The New Deal opened new opportunities for women through appointment to government offices and the new social sciences

False
(T/F) The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) was designed to primarily aid in conserving water and soil resources in eroded hill areas

True
(T/F) The Committee for Industrial Organization (CIO) used sympathetic New Deal laws to unionize many unskilled workers previously ignored by the American Federation of Labor (AF of L)

True
(T/F) Roosevelt’s political coalition rested heavily on lower-income groups, including African Americans, Jews, Catholics, and southerners

False
(T/F) After Roosevelt’s Court-packing plan failed, the conservative Supreme Court continued to stroke down New Deal legislation just as it had before

True
(T/F) The US Social Security System created by the New Deal provided more comprehensive social welfare insurance than anything available in Europe at the time

True
(T/F) The New Deal more than doubled the US national debt through deficit spending

False
(T/F) By 1939, the New Deal had largely solved the major depression problem of unemployment

C (promised to aid the “forgotten man” by balancing the federal budget and ending deficits)
Franklin Roosevelts presidential campaign in 1932:
a) called for large-scale federal spending to reduce unemployment and restore prosperity
b) focused primarily on issues of international trade
c) promised to aid the “forgotten man” by balancing the federal budget and ending deficits
d) emphasized that there were no simple solutions to recovering from the Depression
e) declared that curing the Depression would require the president to exercise unprecedented power over the economy

E (women and poorer classes)
Even before FDR won the White House, Eleanor Roosevelt had become an influential figure in her own right by advocating the causes of:
a) blacks and people with disabilities
b) consumer protection and environmentalism
c) farmers and ranchers
d) immigrant and ethnic groups
e) women and poorer classes

B (African Americans)
The Roosevelt landslide of 1932 included the shift into the Democratic camp of traditionally Republican:
a) New englanders
b) African Americans
c) labor unions
d) southerners
e) Hispanics

E (closing all the banks and declaring a national bank Holiday)
Roosevelt’s first bold action during the Hundred Days was:
a) taking the nation off of the gold standard
b) taking federal control of the railroads
c) legalizing unions and strikes
d) doubling relief for the unemployed
e) closing all the banks and declaring a national bank holiday

D (provide jobs and experience for unemployed young people)
The primary purpose of the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) was the:
a) restore unproductive farmland to productive use
b) protect wildlife and the environment
c) provide better-trained workers for industry
d) provide jobs and experience for unemployed young people
e) construct public buildings, shelters, and trails in the National Forests

E (Father Charles Coughlin and Huey Long)
Strong political challenges to Roosevelt came from extremist critics like:
a) Herbert Hoover and Al smith
b) Francis Perkins and Harry Hopkins
c) Henry Ford and Mary McLeod Bethune
d) John Steinback and John L Lewis
e) Father Charles Coughlin and Huey Long

D (the supreme court declared it unconstitutional)
Roosevelt’s National Recovery Administration (NRA) ended when:
a) Dr. Francis Townsend attacked it as unfair to the elderly
b) Congress refused to provide further funding for it
c) it cane to be considered too expensive for the results it achieved
d) the Supreme Court declared it unconstitutional
e) it was caught engaging in wasteful and corrupt spending

C (raised prices by paying farmers to slaughter animals and not grow crops)
Roosevelts Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA) mrt especially sharp criticism because it:
a) failed to raise farm prices
b) actually contributed to soil erosion on the Great Plains
c) raised prices by paying farmers to slaughter animals and not grow crops
d) relied too much on private bank loans to aid farmers
e) favored southern cotton and sugar growers at the expense of Midwestern Grain growers

B (Excessive use of dry farming and mechanization techniques on marginal land)
In addition to the natural forces of drought and wind, the Dust Bowl of the 1930’s was also caused by:
a) Roosevelts AAA farm policies
b) Excessive use of dry farming and mechanization techniques on marginal land
c) southwestern farmers’ tendency to plant crops only every other year
d) the drying up of underground aquifers used to irrigate the Great Plains
e) the repeated failure of large-scale dam projects to bring water to the region

A (local tribal self-government and recovery of Indian identity and culture)
The so-called Indian New Deal included an emphasis on:
a) local tribal self-government and recovery of Indian identity and culture
b) the distribution of tribal lands to individual Indian Landowners
c) the migration of Indians from rural reservations to the cities
d) programs to encourage businesses like gambling casinos to locate on Indian lands
e) creating a common Indian identity beyond identifying with a particular tribe

D (tennessee River)
The daring New Deal program that attempted simultaneously to provide flood control, electric power, and economic development occurred in the valley of the:
a) Columbia River
b) Colorado River
c) Hudson River
d) Tennessee River
e) Missouri River

B (pensions for the elderly, the blind, and unemployment insurance for workers)
The Social Security Act of 1935 provided for:
a) electricity and conservation for rural areas
b) pensions for the elderly, the blind, and unemployment insurance for workers
c) assistance for low-income public housing and social services
d) insurance for catastrophic medical expenses
e) social welfare protections for the poor whether they were able to work or not

D (Committee for Industrial Organizations)
The new labor organization that flourished under Depression conditions with the New Deal’s s legal backing was the:
a) Knights of Labor
b) American Federation of Labor
c) National Labor Relations Board
d) Committee for Industrial Organizations
e) United Mine Workers

A (African Americans, southerners, and catholics)
Among the key groups that made up the powerful Roosevelt coalition in the election of 1936 and for many decades afterward were
a) African Americans, southerners, and Catholics
b) Republicans, New Englanders, and Old Immigrants
c) Midwesterners, small-town residents, and Presbyterians
d) business women, prohibitionists, and Coughlinites
e) westerners, farmers, and miners

e (its failure took away much of the political momentum of the New Deal)
Roosevelts attempt to pack the Supreme Court with his supporters proved extremely costly because:
a) the court members he appointed still failed to support the New Deal
b) Congress began proceeding to impeach him
c) it revealed that he could not stand up to sharp political opposition
d) many of his New Deal supporters turned to back Huey Long
e) its failure took away much of the political momentum of the New Deal

New Deal
Phrase used to describe all of Franklin Roosevelt’s policies and programs to combat the great depression

Brain Trust
FDR’s reform minded intellectual advisers, who conceived much of the New Deal legislation

Hundred day congress
Popular term for the special session of Congress in early 1933 that rapidly passed cast quantities of Roosevelt-initiated legislation and handed the president sweeping power

Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
The early New Deal agency that worked to solve the problems of unemployment and conservation by employing youth in reforestation and other beneficial tasks

Work Project Administration
Large federal employment program, established in 1935 under Harry Hopkins, that provided jobs in areas from road building to art

Blue eagle
Widely displayed symbol of the National Recovery Administration (NRA), which attempted to reorganize and reform US industry

Agricultural Adjustment Agency (AAA)
New Deal farm agency that attempted to raise prices by paying farmers to reduce their production of crops and animals

Dust Bowl
The drought-stricken plains areas from which hundreds of thousand of Oakies and Arkies were driven during the Great Depression

Tennessee Valley Authority
New Deal agency that aroused strong conservative criticisms by producing low-cost electrical power while providing full employment, soil conservation, and low cost housing to an entire region

Social Security
New Deal program that financed old-age pension, unemployment insurance, and other forms of income assistance

Committee of Industrial Organization (CIO)
The new union group that organized large numbers of unskilled workers with the help of the Wagner Act and the National Labor Relations Board

Security and Exchange Commission
New Deal agency established to provide a public watchdog against deception and fraud in stock trading

American Liberty League
Organization of wealthy Republicans and conservative Democrats whose attack on the New Deal caused Roosevelt to denounce them as economic royalists in teh campaign of 1936

Court Packing
Roosevelt’s highly criticized scheme for gaining Supreme Court approval of New Deal legislation

Keynesianism
Economic theory of British economist who held that governments should run deliberate deficits to aid the economy in times of depression

Alfred M Landon
Republican who carried only two states in a futile campaign against “The Champ” in 1936

Father Coughlin
The “microphone messiah” of Michigan whose mass radio appeals turned anti-New Deal and anti-Semitic

John Steinbeck
Writer whose best-selling novel portrayed the suffering of dust bowl Okies in the Thirties

Mary McLeod Bethune
As Director of Minority Affairs for the National Youth Administration, the highest black official in the Roosevelt Administration

Eleanor Roosevelt
Presidential wife who became an effective lobbyist for the poor during the New Deal

Huey (“kingfish”) Long
Louisiana senator and popular mass agitator who promised to make “every man a king” at the expense of the wealthy

Franklin D Roosevelt
Former New York governor who roused the nation to action against the depression with his appeal to the “forgotten man”

Francis Perkins
Roosevelt’s secretary of Labor, America’s first female cabinet member

Ruth Benedict
Prominent 1930s social scientist who argued that each culture produced its own type of personality

Harry Hopkins
Former New York social worker who became an influential FDR adviser and head of several New Deal agencies

Harold Ickles
Former bull moose progressive who spent billions of dollars on public building projects while carefully guarding against waste

Francis E Townsend
Leader of senior citizen movement who called for the federal government to pay $200 a month to everyone over sixty

John Maynard Keynes
British Economist whose theories helped justify New Deal deficit spending

George W Norris
Vigorously progressive senator from Nebraska whose passionate advocacy helped to bring about the New Deal’s Tennessee Valley Authority

John L Lewis
Domineering boss of the mine workers’ union who launched the CIO

A (wanted to concentrated primarily on the recovery of the American domestic economy)
Roosevelt torpedoed the international London Economic Conference of 1933 because he:
a) wanted to concentrated primarily on the recovery of the American domestic economy
b) saw the hand of Hitler and Mussolini behind the conference’s proposals
c) was firmly committed to the gold standard
d) wanted economic cooperation only between the US and Britain, not the rest of Europe
e) resented the role of European bankers in bringing on the Great Depression and feared their return to influence

E (the Philippines)
Seeking to withdraw from overseas commitments and colonial expense, the US, in 1934, promised future independence to:
a) Puerto Rico
b) the Virgin Islands
c) American Samoa
d) Cuba
e) the Philippines

B (a renunciation of American intervention in Mexico or elsewhere in the region)
Roosevelts Good Neighbor policy toward Latin America included:
a) a substantial of American economic aid for Latin American countries
b) a renunciation of American intervention in Mexico or elsewhere in the region
c) an American military presence to block growing German influence in Argentina and Brazil
d) an American pledge to transfer the Panama Canal to Panama by the year 2000
e) opening American markets to Latin exports of cotton, coffee, and rubber

D (a deeper commitment to remain isolated from european problems)
The immediate response of most Americans to the rise of the Fascist dictators Mussolini and Hitler was:
a) a call for a new military alliance to contain aggression
b) a focus on political cooperation with Britain and the Soviet Union
c) support for the Spanish government against fascist rebels
d) a deeper commitment to remain isolated from European problems
e) a willingness to aid Italian and German refugees from the totalitarian regimes

B (no Americans sail on belligerent ships, sell munitions, or make loans to nations at war)
The Neutrality Acts of 1935, 1936, and 1937 essentially required that:
a) US remained neutral in any war between Britain and Germany
b) no Americans sail on belligerent ships, sell munitions, or make loans to nations at war
c) no belligerent pose could conduct propaganda campaigns, sell goods, or make loans within the US
d) The US as a neutral power intervene to end the wars in China and Ethiopia and the Spanish Civil War
e) German Americans, Italians Americans, and Japanese Americans all had to declare their loyalty to the US and not send aid or give support to the aggressors

D (cripple the democratic loyalist government while the italians and Germans armed Franco)
The effect of the strict american arms embargo during the civil war between the Loyalist Spanish government and Franco’s fascists rebels was to:
a) encourage a negotiated political settlement between the warring parties
b) strengthen the Spanish government’s ability to resist Franco
c) push British and the Soviet Union to intervene in the Spanish Civil War
d) cripple the democratic Loyalist government while the Italians and Germans armed Franco
e) encourage American arms merchants to sell

C (Munich)
The policy of appeasing the Fascist dictators reach its low point in 1938, when Britain and France sold out Czechoslovakia to Hitler in the conference at:
a) Geneva
b) Versailles
c) Munich
d) Prague
e) Paris

D (aid Britain and France by letting them buy supplies and munitions in the US without involving American loans or ships)
The cash-and-carry Neutrality ACt of 1939 was cleverly designed to:
a) guarantee that American policy would not benefit either side in WW1
b) enable American merchants to provide loans and ships to the Allies without violating neutrality laws
c) prepare America for involvement in the war
d) aid Britain and France by letting them buy supplies and munitions in the US without involving American loans or ships
e) permit American bans to loan cash to Britain and France put not provide credit

A (the US would give Britain fifty American destroyers in exchange for 8 british bases in North America)
The destroyers-for-bases deal of 1940 provided that:
a) the US would give Britain fifty American destroyers in exchange for 8 british bases in North America
b) the US would give Britain new bases in North America in exchange for fifty british destroyers
c) if America entered the war, it would receive eight bases in Britain in exchange for american destroyers
d) the British would transfer captured French destroyers to the US in exchange for the use of American bases is East Asia
e) American destroyers would have complete access to eight British naval bases around the world

E (fall of France and the Battle of Britain)
The twin events that precipitated a clear change in American foreign policy from neutrality to active, though nonbelligerent, support of the allied cause were the
a) Munich Conference and the invasion of Poland
b) Nazis’ Kristallnacht and Mussolini’s backdoor invasion of France
c) fall of Poland and the invasion of Norway
d) invasion of the Soviet Union and the German submarine attacks on American shipping
e) fall of France and the Battle of Britain

D (foreign Policy)
In the campaign of 1940, the Republican nominee Willie essentially agreed with Roosevelt on the issue of:
a) the New Deal
b) the third term
c) Roosevelt’s use of power in office
d) foreign policy
e) upholding the Neutrality Acts of 1935, 1936, and 1937

B (an end to the pretense of American neutrality between Britain and Germany)
The Lend-Lease Agreement clearly marked:
a) the end of isolationist opposition to Roosevelt’s foreign policy
b) an end to the pretense of American neutrality between Britain and Germany
c) a secret Roosevelt plan to involve the US in war with Japan
d) the beginning of opposition in Congress to Roosevelt’s foreign policy
e) the American public’s realization that a war with Germany was now inevitable

A (self-determination for oppressed peoples and a new international peacekeeping organization)
The provisions of the Atlantic Charter, signed by the Roosevelt and churchill in 1941, included:
a) self-determination for oppressed peoples and a new international peacekeeping organization
b) a permanent alliance between Britain, the US, and the Soviet Union
c) a pledge to rid the world of dictators and to establish democratic governments in Germany and Italy
d) an agreement to oppose Soviet communism, but only after Hitler was defeated
e) a joint commitment to end the British Empire and US denomination of Latin America through the Monroe Doctrine

B (Ireland)
By the fall of 1940, over a year before Pearl Harbor, American warships were being regularly attacked by German destroyers near the coast of:
a) Spain
b) Ireland
c) the southeastern US
d) Canada
e) Iceland

C (the Japanese refusal to withdraw from China)
The Key issue that caused the negotiations between the US and Japan to fail just before Pearl Harbor was:
a) the refusal of the Japanese to withdraw their navy from Hawaiian waters
b) America’s insistence on its right to expand naval power in Asia
c) the Japanese refusal to withdraw from China
d) the Japanese refusal to guarantee the security of the Philippines
e) Japan’s unwillingness to loosen its harsh rule in Korea

London Conference
International economic conference on stabilizing currency that was sabotaged by FDR

Philippines
Nation to which the US promised independence in the Tydings-McDuffie Act of 1934

Good neighbor policy
FDR’s repudiation of Theodore Roosevelt’s Corollary to the Monroe Doctinre, stating his intention to work cooperatively with Latin America

neutrality acts
A series of laws enacted by Congress in the mid-1930s that attempted to prevent any American Involvement in future overseas wars

Spanish Civil War
Conflict between the rebel fascist forces of General Francisco Franco and the Loyalist government that severely tested US neutrality

Quarantine Speech
Roosevelt’s 1937 speech that proposed strong US measures against overseas aggressors

Munich Conference
European diplomatic conference in 1938, where Britain and France yielded to Hitler’s demands for Czechoslovakia

Appeasement
Term for the British-French Policy of attempting to prevent war by granting german demands

Committee to defend America
Leading US group advocating American support for Britain in the fight against Hitler

America First
Leading isolationist group advocating that America focus on continental defense and non-involvment with the European war

Lend lead agreement
Controversial 1941 law that made America the arsenal of democracy by providing supposedly temporary military assistance to Britain

Night of Broken Glass
A devastating night of Nazi attacks on Jewish businesses and synagogues that signaled a deepening of anti-Semitism and caused revulsion in the US

Atlantic Charter
US-British agreement of August 1941 to promote democracy and establish new international organizations for peace

Reuben James
US destroyer sunk by German submarines off the coast of Iceland in October 1941, with the loss of over a hundred men

Pearl Harbor
Major American Pacific naval base devastated in a surprise attack in December 1941

True
(T/F) The Civilian Conservation Corps provided work for men between the ages of 17-28

False
(T/F) The word boondoggle referred to the crooked politicians in the New Deal agencies

True
(T/F) under the Agricultural Adjustment Act, farmers were paid to destroy crops and to kill livestock

True
(T/F) The Tennessee Vally Authority revitalized the Tennessee River Valley

True
(T/F) The National Industrial Recovery Act set up price controls for industrial goods

True
(T/F) The second New deal focused on reform rather than relief and recovery

False
(T/F) The Works Progress Administration was headed by John L Lewis

True
(T/F) Unemployed writers, artists, musicians, and actors were helped by the WPA

False
(T/F) The Social Security Act established a system of social insurance available only to the poor

False
(T/F) The Securities and Exchange Commission supported the practice of insider trading on the stock market

True
(T/F) The National Industrial Recovery Act was eventually declared unconstitutional by the supreme court

True
(T/F) The National Labor Relations Act put the federal government on the side of the unions in collective bargaining

False
(T/F) A minimum wage of $3.25 an hour was established as a result of the Fair Labor Standards Act

True
(T/F) The Liberty League was an organization of wealthy men who opposed the New Deal

False
(T/F) Upton Sinclair felt that the New Deal was too aggressive in dealing with the country’s problems

True
(T/F) Senator Huey Long was a powerful opponent of the New Deal

False
(T/F) President Roosevelt was reelected by a narrow margin in 1936

False
(T/F) During his second term, President Roosevelt had no opportunity to appoint justices to the Supreme Court

True
(T/F) One method of protest used by the CIO was the sit-down strike

True
(T/F) The Black Cabinet was a group of black government workers whom Roosevelt consulted

True
(T/F) John Collier was appointed as Commissioner of Indian Affairs

False
(T/F) The Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 relocated thousands of Indians to reservations in the Northwest

True
(T/F) Mexican Americans did not benefit greatly from New Deal measures

True
(T/F) During the New Deal, women made strides in several fields

True
(T/F) Politically, the New Deal is generally considered a great success

True
(T/F) The uneven distribution of income in the US was one cause of the Great Depression

False
(T/F) The availability of easy credit was not a contributing factor to the depression

True
(T/F) The Hawley-Smoot Tariff Act raised US tariffs to their highest level ever

False
(T/F) Herbert Hoover favored direct relief as a way of ending the depression

False
(T/F) Women in the labor force was not affected by the depression

False
(T/F) The national income is the total tax dollars collected

True
(T/F) Farmers began destroying their crops because they were too costly to harvest

False
(T/F) Andrew Mellon, Hoover’s Treasury Secretary, believed that the government should take all necessary steps to end the depression

True
(T/F) Hoover drove the Bonus Army out of Washington DC

True
(T/F) Hoover believes in rugged individualism

True
(T/F) Hoovervilles were places where unemployed people lived during the depression

False
(T/F) The Republican party nominated Hoover for another term because they felt he was the best candidate and would win

True
(T/F) FDR promised the public “a new deal”

True
(T/F) The Reconstruction Finance Corporation was established to make loans to banks, railroads, and industries

False
(T/F) Philosophically, Roosevelt was not a pragmatist; his ideas were often vague and idealistic

True
(T/F) Harry Hopkins was part of the brain trust

True
(T/F) Radical conservatives wanted FDR to nationalize, or take control of, the banking system

True
(T/F) The twentieth Amendment changed the Presidential inauguration date

True
(T/F) Roosevelt appointed Francis Perkins, the first woman cabinet member

False
(T/F) Eleanor Roosevelt followed the traditional role of the First Lady

True
(T/F) Eleanor Roosevelt helped shape policy, particularly as it affected women, African Americans, and other minorities

True
(T/F) FDR declared a bank holiday two days after he was inaugurated

True
(T/F) The Emergency Banking Relief Act forbade the hoarding or Exporting of gold

False
(T/F) The Emergency Banking Relief Act authorized the State Department to inspect the country’s banks

True
(T/F) The Emergency Banking Relief Act, in effect, took the US off the gold standard

A (prevent returning soldiers from flooding the job market)
Besides giving educational benefits to returning veterans, the Servicemen’s Readjustment Act of 1944 (the GI Bill of Rights) was partly intended to:
a) prevent returning soldiers from flooding the job market
b) provide American colleges with a new source of income
c) keep the GI’s military skills in high readiness for the Cold War
d) help to slow down inflationary economy that developed at the end of WW2
e) make sure that veterans’ benefits were spent on education rather than on scarce housing

D (women)
Perhaps the greatest beneficiaries of the post-World War 11 economic boom were:
a) the industrial inner cities
b) farm laborers
c) Labor unions
d) women
e) Mexican Americans

B (military spending and cheap energy)
Among the primary causes of the long postwar economic expansion were:
a) foreign investment and international trade
b) military spending and cheap energy
c) labor’s wage restraint and the growing number of small businesses
d) government economic planning and investment
e) low bank interest rates and foreign investment

D (its financial support of the aerospace and defense industries)
The federal government played a large role in the growth of the Sunbelt through:
a) federal subsidies to southern and western agriculture
b) its policies supporting civil rights and equal opportunity for minorities
c) its lower-costs housing loans to veterans who would settle in that region
d) its financial support of the aerospace and defense industries
e) its promotion of high energy costs that drove people away from the cold-weather North

E (housing-mortgage tax deductions and federally built highways)
Among the federal policies that contributed to the huge postwar migration from the inner cities to the suburbs were:
a) civil rights laws guaranteeing integrated housing in the suburbs
b) public housing and Social Security
c) military and public-works spending
d) direct subsidies to homebuilders for planned suburban communities
e) housing-mortgage tax deductions and federally built highways

C (popular youth culture of the 1960’s)
The postwar baby-boom population expansion contributed to the:
a) sharp rise in elementary school enrollments in the 1950’s
b) strains on the Social Security system in the 1950s
c) Popular youth culture of the 1960s
d) expanding job opportunities of the 1980s
e) more rapid growth of multi-unit rental housing compared with home ownership

C (The Soviets supported an end to European colonialism in the Third World, while the Americans helped their allies put down colonial rebellions)
Which of the following was not among the causes of the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union?
a) The American and Soviets had both relatively isolated from world affairs before WW2
b) The US call for an open world clashed with the Soviets’ insistence on controlling a sphere of interest in Eastern Europe
c)The Soviets supported an end to European colonialism in the Third World, while the Americans helped their Allies put down colonial rebellions
d) The Americans and the Soviets both had a missionary ideology that tried to spread their ideas to other nations
e) The Soviets were resentful of America’s slowness in opening a second front and abrupt cancellation of lend-lease

A (Germany was divided into an East Germany under Soviet control and a pro-American West Germany)
A crucial early development of the Cold War occurred when
a) Germany was divided into an East Germany under Soviet control and a pro-American West Germany
b) American and Soviet forces nearly engaged in armed clashes in Austria
c) the Soviets crushed anticommunist rebellions in Poland and Hungary
d) the pro-Soviet French and Italian Communist parties attempted revolutions against their own governments
e) the Soviet Union announced that it would seek to develop atomic bombs and nuclear missles

E (committed the United States to a permanent military alliance with other nations)
The NATO alliance represented a historic departure from traditional American foreign policy because it
a) departed from the principles of the Monroe doctrine
b) committed the US to guaranteeing the permanent subordination of Germany
c) gave command of American soldiers to officers from other countries
d) meant establishing military bases outside the territory of the continental US
e) committed the US to a permanent military alliance with other nations

A (Turkey and Greece)
The Truman Doctrine originally developed because of the dangerous communist threat to
a) Turkey and Greece
b) France and West Germany
c) Iran and Afghanistan
d) Poland and Hungary
e) Korea and Japan

D (the alleged employment of American communists by the United States government)
Senator Joseph McCarthy’s anticommunist crusade was first directed primarily against
a) Soviet spies inside the US
b) potential internal Communist party takeovers of France and Italy
c) the Chinese communists
d) the alleged employment of American communists by the US government
e) local school boards that employed atheist and homosexual teachers

C (MacArthur wanted to widen the Korean War by bombing communist China and publicly criticized the president)
President Harry Truman fired General Douglas MacArthur from his command of American forces in East Asia because
a) MacArthur had bungled the invasion of Inchon
b) MacArthur refused to accept the idea of American forces being under United Nations control
c) MacArthur wanted to widen the Korean War by bombing Communist China and publicly criticized the president
d) MacArthur was effectively seizing power as the military dictator of South Korea
e) Truman learned that MacArthur was planning to run against him for the presidency in 1952

Herman Goering
Top Nazi official who committed suicide after being convicted in war-crimes trials

Benjamin Spock
Physician who provided advice on child-rearing to baby boomers’ parents after WW2

Richard Nixon
Young California congressman whose investigation of Alger Hiss spurred fears of communist influence in America

Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai-shek)
Chinese Nationalist leader whose corrupt and ineffective government fell to communist rebels in 1949

George C Marshall
Originator of a massive program for the economic relief and recovery of devastated Europe

Douglas MacArthur
American military commander in Korea fired by President Harry Truman

Henry A Wallace
Former vice president of the US whose 1948 campaign as a pro-Soviet liberal split the Democratic Party

Reinhold Niebuhr
Leading American theologian who advocated Christian realism and the use of force if necessary to maintain justice against Nazi or Stalinist evil

Joseph McCarthy
Wisconsin senator whose charges of communist infiltration of the US government deepened the anti-red atmosphere of the early 1950s

J Robert Oppenheimer
Former scientific director of the Manhattan Project who joined Albert Einstein in opposing development of the hydrogen bomb

Joseph Stalin
The tough leader whose violation of agreements in Eastern Europe and Germany helped launch the Cold War

Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-tung)
Leader of the Chinese Communists whose revolutionary army seized power in China in 1949

Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
Americans convicted and executed for spying and passing atomic secrets to the Soviet Union

Strom Thurmond
Southern segregationist who led Dixiecrat presidential campaign against Truman in 1948

George F Kennan
Brilliant US specialist on the Soviet Union and originator of the theory that US policy should be to contain the Soviet Union

GI Bill of Rights
Popular name for the Servicemen’s Readjustment Act that provided education and economic assistance to former soldiers

Sunbelt
Shorthand name for the souther and western regions of the US that experienced the highest rates of growth after WW2

Levettown
New York suburb where postwar builders pioneered the techniques of mass home construction

Baby Boom
Term for the dramatic rise in US births that began immediately after WW2

Yalta
Big Three wartime conference that later became the focus of charges that Roosevelt had sold out Eastern Europe to the Soviet Communists

Cold War
The extended post-WW2 confrontation between the US and the Soviet Union that stopped just short of a shooting war

Bretton woods
Meeting of Western Allies during WW2 that established the economic structures to promote recovery and enhance FDR’s vision of an open world

United Nations
New international organization that experienced some early successes in diplomatic and cultural ares but failed in areas like atomic arms control

Neuremburg Trials
Allied-organized judicial tribunal that convicted and executed top Nazi leaders for war crimes

Marshall Plan
American-sponsered effort that provided substantial finds for the economic relief and recovery of Western Europe

NATO
The new anti-Soviet organization of Western nations that ended the long-time American tradition of not joining permanent military alliances

Nationalists
Jiang Jieshi’s (Chiang Kai-shek’s) pro-American forces, which lost the Chinese civil war to Mao Zedong’s (Mao Tse-tung’s) communists in 1949

NSC-68
Key US government memorandum that militarized American foreign policy and indicated national faith in the economy’s capacity to sustain large military expenditures

House of American Activities Committee
US house of Representatives committee that took the lead in investigating alleged procommunist agents such as Alger Hiss

38 parallel
The dividing line between North and South Korea, across which the fighting between communists and United Nations forces ebbed and flowed during the Korean War

Which act or organization barred commercial banks from becoming involved in the buying and selling of stocks? the Glass-Steagall Act The Social Security Act of 1935: included old-age pensions WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY …

What legacy did World War I leave behind? anger and resentment especially in Germany How did Stalin and Mussolini maintain their power? Stalin killed or terrorized his enemies, Mussolini used censorship and fear tactics to keep his people in line …

The most striking characteristics of the stock market in 1929 was investors’ obsession with speculation By 1932, what percentage of American workers were unemployed? 25 WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY …

Causes of the Great Depression – Factories and farms produce more goods than people can buy. – Banks make loans that borrowers cannot pay back. – After the stock market crash, many businesses cannot find people who will invest in …

What rendered the international monetary supply inflexible in the great depression during the 1930’s? gold standard Which American philosophies influenced herbert hovers initial response to the economic downturn in the early 1930’s? people’s fate was in their own hands WE …

Dawes Plan (1924) Negotiated by Charles Dawes, (Coolidge’s VP) was a compromise that settled war debts. Established payment cycle for US/Germany/Allies. US would lend to Germany (who would use it to rebuild economy/ pay back Brits/French) and Britain/France would use …

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