APUSH Chapter 15 (cont.)

Between 1929 and 1932, U.S. gross domestic production fell by
No answer provided
a. one-third.
b. one-quarter.
c. one-half.
d. two-thirds.
c

Question 2
What percentage of the U.S. labor force was unemployed by 1933?
No answer provided
a. Ten percent
b. Twenty-five percent
c. Five percent
d. Fifty percent
b

Question 3
Which of the following countries was the first to fall into a depression at the end of the 1920s?
No answer provided
a. Sweden
b. Norway
c. Germany
d. The Soviet Union
c

Question 4
Which of the following rendered the international monetary supply inflexible in the Great Depression during the 1930s?
No answer provided
a. The outflow of capital
b. The trade deficit
c. The gold standard
d. Rising prices
c

Question 5
Which of the following American philosophies influenced Herbert Hoover’s initial response to the economic downturn in the early 1930s?
No answer provided
a. Businesses have a responsibility to take care of the needs of their loyal workers.
b. The market is self-regulating and government should not intervene during a downturn.
c. Government should provide an economic safety net for the poorest of Americans.
d. The legislative branch, not the executive branch, should take responsibility for the economy.
b

Question 6
Herbert Hoover asked Americans to do which of the following in response to the economic downtown in 1929?
No answer provided
a. Tighten their belts and work hard.
b. Ask not what their country could do for them, but what they could do for their country.
c. Fear nothing but fear itself.
d. Live a moral and righteous life.
a

Question 7
Which tariff, passed in 1930, raised rates to an all-time high, further deepening the worldwide depression?
No answer provided
a. Mellon-Hoover
b. Kellogg-Briand
c. National Recovery
d. Smoot-Hawley
d

Question 8
Which of the following organizations did President Hoover create in 1931 to stimulate the economy through federal loans to major businesses in 1931 and 1932?
No answer provided
a. Works Progress Administration
b. National Industrial Recovery Act
c. The Economic Recovery Association
d. Reconstruction Finance Corporation
d

Question 9
Hoover was hated during the Depression, partially because of the public perception that he
No answer provided
a. was insensitive to people’s suffering and was a do-nothing president.
b. had caused the stock market crash through his fiscal policies.
c. refused to give the federal government a role in stabilizing agriculture.
d. led the nation deeply into debt.
a

Question 10
In the Bonus Army incident in Washington, D.C., in 1932, federal troops
No answer provided
a. joined in sympathy with the gathered World War I veterans.
b. arrested the demonstrators who burned their bonus checks to protest Hoover’s inaction.
c. forcefully evicted the assembled veterans and burned their encampment.
d. beat the veterans who rioted and tried to march on the White House property.
c

Question 11
Which of these protests caused Hoover’s popularity to plunge dramatically in 1932?
No answer provided
a. Farm holiday protests
b. Rent riots
c. Hunger marches
d. Bonus Army
d

Question 12
Which American ideal caused many Americans to blame themselves for their plight?
No answer provided
a. The self-made man
b. Democracy
c. Republicanism
d. Protestant work ethic
a

Question 13
During the 1932 presidential campaign, Franklin Roosevelt promised
No answer provided
a. “a chicken in every pot.”
b. bold, persistent experimentation.
c. a government takeover of the banks.
d. the firing of all radicals in government.
b

Question 14
Ratified in 1933, the Twentieth Amendment
No answer provided
a. allowed for the direct election of senators.
b. set subsequent inaugurations for January 20.
c. ended Prohibition.
d. created Social Security.
b

Question 15
President Roosevelt differed from President Hoover because of
No answer provided
a. his personal charisma and willingness to experiment.
b. his belief in the basic morality of a balanced budget.
c. his commitment to maintaining the nation’s basic institutions.
d. a belief in the value of hard work, cooperation, and sacrifice.
a

Question 16
Who were Harold Ickes and Bernard Baruch?
No answer provided
a. Photographers who chronicled the faces of the Depression
b. Union activists who lobbied Congress for reform
c. New Deal congressional representatives who worked diligently with Roosevelt
d. Two of Franklin Roosevelt’s chief Brains Trust advisors
d

Question 17
What was the first action Roosevelt took to address the nation’s economic crisis?
No answer provided
a. Put people to work in the WPA
b. Closed all banks in a banking holiday
c. Gave states money for relief
d. End Prohibition
b

Question 18
The Emergency Banking Act of 1933
No answer provided
a. created a national banking system of savings and loan associations.
b. forced all banks to join the Federal Reserve System.
c. permitted banks with sufficient cash reserves to reopen.
d. put U.S. banks under temporary federal control.
c

Question 19
To avert further banking panics, during which accountholders raced to withdraw funds, the New Deal
No answer provided
a. created the Home Owners Loan Corporation in 1933.
b. declared a bank holiday in 1933.
c. passed the Glass-Steagall Act in 1933.
d. created the Securities and Exchange Commission in 1934.
c

Question 20
The Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)
No answer provided
a. provided federal subsidies to farmers who cut farm production.
b. increased farm production to aid the hungry.
c. froze the prices of farm products.
d. required new, higher income taxes on wealthy businesspeople.
a

Question 21
For southern black sharecroppers, the New Deal’s AAA often meant that
No answer provided
a. they received significant federal support.
b. more were able to farm.
c. they were pushed off their land.
d. they received more land to farm.
c

What was Franklin Roosevelt’s attitude toward the federal government’s provision of welfare payments to the unemployed?

a. He opposed it vigorously and saw to it that New Deal programs never involved direct cash subsidies.
b. He had strong reservations about it, preferring to provide federally funded jobs over cash subsidies.
c. He was indifferent to the means by which those who needed it received help, whether by cash subsidies or by work relief.
d. He welcomed it as an opportunity to help those in need and to ensure their votes for the Democratic Party.

b

Question 23
The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
No answer provided
a. displaced as many as two hundred thousand black tenant farmers from their land.
b. hired 250,000 young men to perform reforestation and conservation work.
c. enlisted equal numbers of young men and young women for its projects.
d. provided labor for the Tennessee Valley Authority’s (TVA’s) projects.
b

Question 24
By the time Congress recessed in June 1933, it had
No answer provided
a. founded agencies that were models of efficiency.
b. established policies that were supported by all.
c. halted the downward spiral of the economy.
d. broke the grip of the depression.
c

Question 25
What was the purpose of the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), which Roosevelt Congress empowered in 1934?
No answer provided
a. To protect radicals and immigrants from unfair investigation and deportation
b. To regulate and rationalize the U.S. stock market
c. To oversee the process of taking the United States off the gold standard
d. To provide oversight for the Federal Reserve System
b

Question 26
In 1934, the Liberty League was organized by
No answer provided
a. liberals and moderate Republicans who favored the rights of labor.
b. civil libertarians who wished to protect freedom of speech.
c. business leaders and conservative Democrats who opposed New Deal reforms.
d. radicals who thought that the New Deal needed to be pushed farther to the left.
c

Question 27
On what basis did the U.S. Supreme Court strike down the National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) in the Schechter v. United States decision?
No answer provided
a. The NIRA illegally regulated commerce within individual states.
b. It used taxpayer money to benefit one interest group over others.
c. The program acted as a trust administered and funded by the federal government.
d. It violated the age-old moral and legal codes set for businesses.
a

Question 28
Deciding that Roosevelt had not done enough to alleviate suffering, Francis Townsend called for
No answer provided
a. an old-age revolving pension plan.
b. taking money from the rich and giving it to the poor.
c. bringing electricity to rural areas.
d. public works programs.
a

Question 29
Senator Huey Long from Louisiana became a major political threat to Roosevelt when he called for
No answer provided
a. a national Share Our Wealth movement to redistribute income fairly.
b. Roosevelt’s impeachment on the basis that the New Deal was communistic.
c. more government funding to provide jobs for the unemployed.
d. a revival of the Populist Party and its demands.
a

Question 30
Which New Deal program offered tremendous encouragement and support to the labor union movement?
No answer provided
a. National Industrial Recovery Act, especially Section 7(a)
b. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
c. Tennessee Valley Authority’s hiring practices
d. Securities and Exchange Commission
a

Question 31
Why did Roosevelt drop a provision for national health insurance from the Social Security Act in 1935?
No answer provided
a. He did not support national health care.
b. He proposed an additional bill to expand health care to all people.
c. The bill’s compulsory pension and unemployment were already controversial.
d. He did not want to give satisfaction to his opponents, who supported national health insurance.
c

Question 32
Which of the following was enacted by Democrats in order to disable Francis Townsend’s support?
No answer provided
a. Job creation programs
b. Implementation of Keynesian economic policies
c. The Good Neighbor Policy
d. Creation of the Social Security Administration
d

Question 33
By the 1960s, what part of Social Security had become the most controversial?
No answer provided
a. Compensation for unemployed workers
b. Aid to Families with Dependent Children
c. Financial assistance for the blind, deaf, and disabled
d. Payments to widowed mothers
b

Question 34
As a result of Roosevelt’s embrace of the economic policies of John Maynard Keynes and the need for social welfare legislation, the term liberalism came to be associated with
No answer provided
a. strong businesses that provide services to ensure workers’ welfare.
b. strong government and state ownership of industry.
c. weak government and an unregulated free market.
d. government intervention to guarantee citizens’ basic welfare.
d

Question 35
Between 1935 and 1943, the Works Progress Administration (WPA)
No answer provided
a. spent more than $100 billion on extravagant luxuries for political insiders.
b. reached 90 percent of the unemployed, easing their suffering.
c. paid civilians to build bridges, public buildings, parks, and airports.
d. supplied federal grants to hundreds of relief programs run by the states.
c

Question 36
Roosevelt’s Democratic coalition included
No answer provided
a. business and organized labor.
b. black northerners and white southerners.
c. the National Association of Manufacturers and American communists.
d. black and white voters in the South.
b

Question 37
In the 1936 presidential election, Franklin D. Roosevelt
No answer provided
a. won by a small margin.
b. was unopposed.
c. won by a landslide.
d. lost.
c

Question 38
Which of the following was Roosevelt’s initial response to the Supreme Court’s declaration that the NRA, the AAA, and other New Deal legislation were unconstitutional?
No answer provided
a. He ignored it and moved on, making sure subsequent laws were worded more carefully.
b. He asked Congress to impeach several justices.
c. Roosevelt attempted to pack the Court with his own nominees.
d. He attempted to change those parts of the legislation the Court found objectionable.
c

Question 39
Why did New Deal legislation pass scrutiny by the Supreme Court more easily in Roosevelt’s second term?
No answer provided
a. Congress and the states passed some important amendments to the Constitution.
b. President Roosevelt succeeded in temporarily enlarging the Court to fifteen justices.
c. Conservatives on the Court altered their views of the Constitution.
d. Liberals replaced several elderly conservative justices who retired.
d

Question 40
Which of the following caused the severe recession in 1937 and 1938?
No answer provided
a. The Federal Reserve made it easier for Americans to borrow money.
b. Congress increased funds for the WPA.
c. Roosevelt embraced deficit spending.
d. Roosevelt, Congress, and the Federal Reserve cut spending and attempted to balance the budget.
d

Question 41
Roosevelt heeded John Maynard Keynes’s advice and
No answer provided
a. balanced the budget.
b. improved the Federal Reserve.
c. created the Good Neighbor Policy.
d. practiced deficit spending.
d

Question 42
Which of the following groups greatly benefitted from the reforms of the New Deal?
No answer provided
a. Single mothers
b. Tenant farmers
c. Domestic workers
d. The unemployed
d

Question 43
Which of the following social movements grew tremendously as a result of the New Deal?
No answer provided
a. Industrial unionism
b. The movement for immigration reform
c. Feminism
d. The civil rights movement
a

Question 44
Who was the first woman cabinet member, who served as Secretary of Labor?
No answer provided
a. Mary McLeod Bethune
b. Frances Perkins
c. Marion Anderson
d. Jane Addams
b

Question 45
Which New Deal agency was the most accommodating to women?
No answer provided
a. The Civilian Conservation Corps
b. The Civil Works Administration
c. The National Recovery Administration
d. The Works Progress Administration
d

Question 46
Which of the following was true of minorities during the New Deal?
No answer provided
a. Discrimination was not allowed in New Deal programs.
b. African Americans outside the South shifted their voting to the Democrats.
c. Mexican Americans increasingly clung to their heritage and refused to Americanize.
d. New Deal programs treated women and men equally.
b

Question 47
The Indian Reorganization Act of 1934
No answer provided
a. significantly improved the economic status of Native Americans.
b. dismantled reservations and forced Native Americans to assimilate.
c. intensified efforts to persuade Native Americans to assimilate into white society.
d. reversed the Dawes Severalty Act and promoted tribal self-government.
d

Question 48
The Tydings-McDuffie Act of 1934
No answer provided
a. limited immigration from the Philippines to fifty thousand per year.
b. rescinded the Chinese Exclusion Act.
c. granted independence to the Philippines.
d. granted citizenship to all legal Filipino residents in the United States prior to 1934.
c

Question 49
The largest New Deal project in the West was the construction of the
No answer provided
a. Grand Coulee Dam.
b. Hoover Dam.
c. Blue Ridge Parkway.
d. canals of San Antonio.
a

Question 50
What was the significance of the New Deal?
No answer provided
a. The policies made the United States the largest creditor nation in the world.
b. It saved the nation’s institutions from extinction.
c. The programs expanded the federal government’s presence both in the economy and in people’s lives.
d. It ended the Jazz Age.
c

“What made the depression so catastrophic for Chicago’s working-class families was not simply the loss of a job, home, or insurance. It was that these losses called into question the sustaining institutions of the 1920s, threatening the patterns of loyalty that working people had taken for granted, in their families . . . communities, and at work. . . . [C]hurches, banks . . . stores . . . employers, and paternalistic families . . . could no longer sustain the . . . support on which people had relied. For workers . . . loss of faith in these traditional organizations and authority figures . . . created a crisis. . . . [I]n the course of the depression, workers would look in new directions for . . . security.”

— Lizbeth Cohen, historian, Making a New Deal:
Industrial Workers in Chicago, 1919-1939, published in 1990

The trend Cohen describes in the excerpt led to which of the following developments?

a. Large-scale outbreaks of anti-immigrant riots
b. The destruction of urban political machines
c. Workers’ abandonment of labor movement organizations
d. Widespread support for the expansion of federal power

d

Question 52
The following questions refer to the following excerpt.

“What made the depression so catastrophic for Chicago’s working-class families was not simply the loss of a job, home, or insurance. It was that these losses called into question the sustaining institutions of the 1920s, threatening the patterns of loyalty that working people had taken for granted, in their families . . . communities, and at work. . . . [C]hurches, banks . . . stores . . . employers, and paternalistic families . . . could no longer sustain the . . . support on which people had relied. For workers . . . loss of faith in these traditional organizations and authority figures . . . created a crisis. . . . [I]n the course of the depression, workers would look in new directions for . . . security.”

— Lizbeth Cohen, historian, Making a New Deal:
Industrial Workers in Chicago, 1919-1939, published in 1990

Which of the following developments most directly supports the argument Cohen makes above?
No answer provided
a. World War I veterans’ formation of the Bonus Army in 1932
b. The growing strength of the Ku Klux Klan during the 1930s
c. Franklin D. Roosevelt’s attempt to enlarge the U.S. Supreme Court
d. Herbert Hoover’s efforts to mount a federal response to the crisis

a

“What made the depression so catastrophic for Chicago’s working-class families was not simply the loss of a job, home, or insurance. It was that these losses called into question the sustaining institutions of the 1920s, threatening the patterns of loyalty that working people had taken for granted, in their families . . . communities, and at work. . . . [C]hurches, banks . . . stores . . . employers, and paternalistic families . . . could no longer sustain the . . . support on which people had relied. For workers . . . loss of faith in these traditional organizations and authority figures . . . created a crisis. . . . [I]n the course of the depression, workers would look in new directions for . . . security.”

— Lizbeth Cohen, historian, Making a New Deal:
Industrial Workers in Chicago, 1919-1939, published in 1990

The developments described in the excerpt were most similar to which of the following developments in earlier periods of U.S. history?

a. Southern states’ secession from the Union after Lincoln’s election in 1860
b. Americans’ creation of the Populist Party in Nebraska in 1892
c. Colonial protests against Britain’s imperial policies in the 1760s and 1770s
d. English Puritans’ creation of Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1630

b

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