A) To escape the drought conditions in Oklahoma
B) To plant, cultivate, and harvest crops in the state’s agricultural fields
C) To call attention to the difficult conditions endured by the state’s migrant workers
D) To organize the state’s agricultural workers
election of 1932?
A) He had served as the Republican mayor of New York City.
B) He had gained political experience as he worked his way through college.
C) He had served as governor of New York.
D) He had been lieutenant governor and then a two-term the governor of New Jersey.
A) appeal to the wealthy for financial support.
B) choose a city boss as his running mate.
C) make difficult concessions to labor unions in the East and Midwest.
D) unite the warring factions of the Democratic party.
A) The New Freedom
B) The Square Deal
C) The Works Progress Program
D) The New Dea
A) Roosevelt won with only a bare majority of the popular and Electoral College votes.
B) For the first time in American history, the Socialist and Communist party candidates
made a huge showing.
C) Roosevelt won 57 percent of the popular vote, and Democrats swept both houses of
D) It was the first time that a majority of African Americans cast their votes for a
A) Members united around specific policies.
B) Members came together to defeat an expansion of the welfare state.
C) Members came together around an anti-capitalist ideology.
D) Members expressed faith that government would change things for the better.
A) Fascist aggression in Germany
B) Nationalist expansion in Japan
C) His paralysis from polio
D) The terror caused by the Depression
A) Experiment, Energy, and Employment
B) Workers’ rights, unemployment relief, and civil rights
C) Relief, recovery, and reform
D) Coalition, compromise, and capitalism
A) Margaret Sanger
B) Jane Addams
C) Mary McLeod Bethune
D) Eleanor Roosevelt
A) Socialism held the solution to the nation’s economic crisis.
B) Overconsumption was the greatest flaw in America’s capitalist economy.
C) Government intervention in big business was bad business.
D) Capitalism held the solution to the nation’s economic crisis.
A) bringing back the gold standard.
B) ending their dependence on holding companies.
C) nationalizing U.S. savings and loan associations.
D) releasing federal funds to bolster their assets.
A) It was one of Herbert Hoover’s only effective responses to bank failures.
B) It guaranteed bank customers that the federal government would reimburse them for
deposits if their bank failed.
C) It was an emergency measure Roosevelt passed to close the nation’s banks until they
were solvent again.
D) It was a system through which the federal government would deposit money into
regional banks to strengthen them.
and the private banking system?
A) He held daily press conferences at the White House.
B) He broadcast his reassuring fireside chats on the radio.
C) He strong-armed Congress to pass all the bills his administration proposed.
D) He issued unemployment checks to needy families.
relief to more than four million households?
A) Federal Emergency Relief Association (FERA)
B) Security and Exchange Commission (SEC)
C) Social Security Administration (SSA)
D) National Recovery Administration (NRA)
A) It provided work for young women so that they could help their families.
B) It gave young men government jobs conserving natural resources.
C) It made use of surplus food donated by farmers to pay the working poor.
D) It established federally funded recycling programs to conserve natural resources.
A) It was created to establish a successful partnership between private utilities and the
B) It helped supply jobs and power to impoverished rural communities.
C) It was a financial aid program that made low-interest loans available to small
D) It was an agricultural assistance program designed to help farmers recoup their losses.
A) expanding railroad lines to make travel and trade easier for rural Americans.
B) establishing programs to facilitate the opening of new overseas markets for farmers’
C) initiating federal oversight to ensure that sharecroppers and tenant farmers received a
fair share of government benefits.
D) providing electricity to rural communities through the Rural Electrification
A) They established programs that accelerated the rate of farm foreclosures to eradicate
B) They initiated programs to pay farmers for their surplus crops so they could be used
to feed people in developing countries.
C) They paid farmers not to grow crops and provided long-term credit on mortgaged
D) They provided benefits to sharecroppers and tenant farmers who were being squeezed
by their landlords.
A) Large businesses that employed more workers were excluded from the agency’s
B) The codes written by industry leaders tended to serve the interests of corporations
C) The code system was so complicated that neither the government nor the
corporations could interpret it effectively.
D) The government’s NRA public relations campaign actually discouraged Americans
from patronizing NRA businesses.
A) some labor leaders.
B) the League of Women Voters.
C) western farmers.
D) workers in the Civilian Conservation Corps.
A) Business leaders withdrew their companies from the NRA.
B) The Supreme Court ruled that the agency was unconstitutional.
C) Labor leaders marched on Washington to protest the agency.
D) Congress refused to fund the agency’s budget.
Agricultural Adjustment Act, the Commodity Credit Corporation, and the Farm Credit
A) The farmers’ loan applications were not processed correctly.
B) Southern states did not participate in these New Deal programs.
C) The programs benefitted large farmers rather than tenant farmers who rented land.
D) Tenant farmers did not qualify for these assistance programs because they didn’t own
the land they farmed.
typically look for work in the 1930s?
D) New England
A) He believed that Roosevelt had enlarged the federal government too greatly.
B) He criticized Roosevelt for providing too much support for blacks.
C) He believed that the New Deal was the handmaiden of business elites.
D) He viewed the New Deal as infringing on the rights of business.
economic crisis on
A) Franklin Roosevelt and the Democratic party.
B) Communists, bankers, and capitalists.
C) impoverished immigrants who taxed cities’ resources.
D) Prohibition, which weakened the liquor industry.
A) Huey Long
B) John Steinbeck
C) Francis Townsend
D) Charles Coughlin
A) reduce government involvement in business.
B) enact new programs to desegregate the South.
C) enact major new social welfare programs.
D) reduce government involvement in social welfare.
A) Civil Works Administration
B) Works Progress Administration
C) National Labor Relations Board
D) American Humanities Commission
1934, was to
A) guarantee workers the right to organize.
B) protect workers’ right to strike by making it impossible for corporations to fire
C) give the president the right to intervene in labor disputes.
D) raise workers’ standards of living by guaranteeing a minimum wage.
A) The American Federation of Labor
B) The Committee for Industrial Organization
C) The National Labor Union
D) The National Association of Manufacturers Workers
A) holding the managers of the plant hostage.
B) destroying the plant’s assembly lines.
C) staging a sit-down strike.
D) organizing a massive walkout.
A) Republic Steel made the United Steelworkers Union the sole bargaining unit for all of
the company’s workers.
B) Steelworkers won the biggest wage increase ever recorded in the industry.
C) Steelworkers’ frustrations led them to tear up the railroad tracks that led to the plant.
D) Strikers halted their organizing campaign after the police attacked and killed ten of
A) through a progressive tax on workers.
B) with tax contributions from workers and their employers.
C) by raising income taxes on the wealthiest Americans.
D) through the federal government’s general tax fund.
A) Benefits were based on workers’ contributions and years of work.
B) Workers took a means test to prove they were needy.
C) All workers in all occupations received Social Security benefits.
D) Domestic and agricultural workers received extra benefits.
during the 1930s?
A) They reduced the average national unemployment rate to 5 percent by 1935.
B) They created millions of jobs but had little effect on unemployment because layoffs
continued throughout the decade.
C) They reduced the average unemployment rate, but it remained high, at about 17
percent, through the 1930s.
D) They allowed the federal government to serve as the employer of last resort, thereby
reducing average unemployment rates to near zero.
A) He was too busy with programs for workers and farmers.
B) He could not afford to lose the support of southern Democrats for his New Deal
C) He was unmoved by African Americans’ circumstances and not concerned about civil
D) He was afraid of creating disorder in the South by disturbing the balance of power
between blacks and white landowners.
A) They found it easy to integrate into American society.
B) They experienced substantially less discrimination in New Deal programs than did
other minority groups.
C) They experienced a dramatic increase in wages through employment in New Deal
D) Thousands were deported, many with their American-born children.
A) It provided economic aid and other forms of assistance to help Indians in poverty.
B) It forced Native Americans back onto the reservations they had left after passage of
the Dawes Act in 1887.
C) It restored Indians’ right to own land communally and have greater control over their
D) It strengthened the federal government’s policy of assimilation by dispersing
concentrated populations of Indians.
respond to the New Deal?
A) They denounced it for failing to serve the interests of workers and their families.
B) They pronounced it fascist and called for the impeachment of President Roosevelt.
C) They dismissed it as inadequate and openly called for the overthrow of capitalism.
D) They had begun to support the New Deal’s relief programs and its encouragement of
A) Balancing the federal budget
B) Maintaining the New Deal
C) Expanding Social Security
D) Increasing defense spending
term of office
A) was extremely popular with conservatives.
B) was popularly known as court-packing.
C) was widely accepted by Congress and the American public.
D) would allow Roosevelt to take his ideas directly to the American people.
A) became unnecessary when four conservative judges retired.
B) faced great opposition but was ultimately successful.
C) was ruled unconstitutional by the sitting Supreme Court justices.
D) was ratified by Congress but not by the required number of states.
A) He made it easier for Americans to borrow money.
B) He decreased deficit spending.
C) He made the difficult decision to maintain the gold standard.
D) He increased funding for relief projects to help unemployed women and their
A) Unemployment figures dropped.
B) The country returned to normalcy.
C) The country suffered a recession.
D) Conservative opposition to the New Deal lessened.
A) Government intervention is needed in bad economic times to pump enough money
into the economy to revive production and increase consumption.
B) A balanced budget is an absolute prerequisite for stopping inflation and creating longterm
C) The principle of laissez-faire failed in the nineteenth century but is essential to a
healthy U.S. economy in the twentieth.
D) The theory of supply and demand can be used to revive production and increase
consumption throughout the nation.
A) help farmers invest in the lucrative securities market.
B) help tenant farmers become independent landowners.
C) take the place of the Agricultural Adjustment Act.
D) encourage crop surpluses of nonperishable grains to be stored in case of national
A) It met most cities’ needs for affordable housing.
B) It provided free housing for over half a million Americans.
C) It made 160,000 residences available to poor people at affordable rents.
D) It symbolized the federal government’s retreat from providing decent urban housing.
A) It provided jobs for all able-bodied workers.
B) It was often called the Time and Money Act.
C) It set standards for wages and hours.
D) It explicitly exempted women.
A) The public reacted to new social programs with apathy.
B) There was a nearly 60 percent turnover in President Roosevelt’s cabinet.
C) Republicans made gains in Congress.
D) Roosevelt was unable to gain support for his plan to nationalize banking and
A) It prevented the United States from turning toward authoritarian solutions to the
nation’s economic crisis.
B) It ended the Depression and eliminated the class hierarchy in the United States.
C) It weakened presidential power and strengthened the military-industrial complex.
D) It ended the Depression and led directly to the United States’ involvement in World