Apex Health chapter 7

Dating
Spending your free time with someone to determine whether you are interested in pursuing a romantic relationship.

Friendship
A close, meaningful relationship between you and an individual.

Relationship
Connections with other people.

anus
Part of the digestive system, the anus is the end of the bowels and the rectum, as well as the opening through which feces is expelled from the body.

axillary hair
Hair under the arms.

breasts
Fatty tissue on the chest that contains mammary glands for lactation (milk production).

cervix
The neck of the uterus, which has a small opening and extends into the inner end of the vagina.

circumcision
The surgical removal of the foreskin on the penis, usually performed shortly after birth.

clitoris
A small, highly sensitive organ located above the vagina and urethral opening that aids in sexual excitement.

corpus luteum
A structure made from old follicle cells that produces estrogen and progesterone.

cowper’s gland
Two pea-sized glands that produce a small amount of clear, slippery fluid that is released from the urethral opening early in the process of sexual arousal. It serves as a lubricant during sexual intercourse.

ejaculation
The release of semen from the penis during orgasm.

endometrium
The inner lining of the uterus where a fertilized egg attaches.

erection
The filling of the penis’s spongy tissue with blood, resulting in an erect, somewhat hard penis.

fallopian tubes
Thin tubes on both sides of the uterus that extend toward the ovaries. The fallopian tubes can also be called oviducts. Eggs, or ova, travel through these tubes to reach the uterus.

genitalia
Reproductive organs, also known as genitals. This term is used to describe the external sex organs in both males (the penis and scrotum) and females (the vulva).

hymne
A thin membrane that partially covers the opening to the vagina.

labia majora
Liplike structures that extend on either side of the vulva and may be covered with pubic hair. They entirely or partially hide the other parts of the vulva and serve to protect them. (Labium is the singular form.)

labia minora
Two soft folds of skin within the labia majora and set to either side of the opening of the vagina. (Labium is the singular form.)

merarche
The onset of the menstrual cycle (or “periods”) in girls.

menopause
The stage in a woman’s life, usually around age 50, when the menstrual cycle stops occurring and she is no longer able to reproduce.

menstrual cycle
The monthly cycle that prepares and refreshes the female reproductive system for pregnancy.

menstruation
The stage of the menstrual cycle in which the uterus sheds its endometrium (and blood) to prepare for a new attempt at pregnancy.

mons pubis
The soft mound of flesh present in both males and females just above the genitals. The raised mound is due to a pad of fat lying just beneath it, which protects the pubic bone. Generally, after puberty, the mons pubis is covered with pubic hair.

orgasm
A series of pleasurable muscular contractions marked normally by ejaculation of semen by the male and by vaginal contractions within the female. Also called climax.

ovaries
Two almond-shaped structures on either side of the uterus that release ova (eggs) and secrete the female hormones estrogen and progesterone.

penis
The external male organ that transfers sperm (in semen) to the female during intercourse or delivers urine during urination.

prostate gland
A walnut-sized gland that wraps around the urethra in the male, just below the urinary bladder and in front of the rectum. It produces about one-third of the fluid in semen, including some nourishment for sperm and chemicals that produce the correct environment to keep sperm healthy.

puberty
The coarse hair that begins to grow at puberty. It covers the pubic region in both males and females, including the mons, upper and inside legs, and labia majora in females; and the mons, upper and inside legs, and scrotum in males.

pubic hair
The coarse hair that begins to grow at puberty. It covers the pubic region in both males and females, including the mons, upper and inside legs, and labia majora in females; and the mons, upper and inside legs, and scrotum in males.

scrotum
A loose pouch of tissue that hangs from the base of the penis and contains the testicles.

semen
The fluid that contains sperm cells and is released from the penis during ejaculation. Also known as ejaculate.

seminal vesicles
The two male glands that create most of the fluid in semen, including fructose, which the sperm cells use for energy.

sperm
Cells that are produced in the testes and contain half the genetic material to create a new organism. Each single sperm has a tail to help it “swim” up through the vagina and uterus to reach a female egg.

testes
Almond-shaped male glands responsible for the production of sperm and male hormones. Also called testicles.

testosterone
Secreted in the testes of men and the ovaries of women. It is the principal male sex hormone and a naturally occurring anabolic steroid. It sets male puberty in motion and is responsible for most secondary male sexual characteristics, such as facial hair.

toxic shock syndrome
An infection caused by an overgrowth of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria in the vagina.

urethra
A thin tube in both men and women that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body. In men, this tube also carries semen and seminal fluids during ejaculation.

uterus
Also called the womb, this is a fist-sized muscular organ that houses the developing fetus during pregnancy.

vagina
A tubular organ leading from the outside of the female body to the uterus; it is the organ for intercourse and an exit for menstrual fluid or a baby.

vas deferens
Ducts or tubes in the male that transport mature sperm cells from the epididymis to the urethra.

vulva
A term for the external female genitalia, including the mons pubis, labia majora, and labia minora.

abortion
Purposeful termination of pregnancy through surgery or drugs that results in the expulsion of an embryo or a fetus that is incapable of survival. Also called induced abortion.

anal sex
Intercourse with the penis penetrating the anus — can be male-female couples or male-male couples.

miscarriage
Loss of a fetus, ending pregnancy, that occurs before 20 weeks. The fetus at this age cannot survive outside of the uterus. Also called spontaneous abortion.

oral sex
Oral stimulation (with the mouth and/or tongue) on the partner’s genitals.

rape
Forced sexual intercourse (oral, vaginal, or anal).

sexual assault
A wide range of intentional attacks or attempted attacks involving unwanted sexual contact, including rape. This may happen between strangers or in a romantic or dating relationship

sexually transmitted diseases
Infectious diseases that are spread through sex or direct genital skin-to-skin contact. STDs are also called sexually transmitted infections, or STIs.

unprotected sex
Sex without an artificial barrier, such as a male or female condom.

vaginal sex
Intercourse with the penis entering the vagina

abstinence
To abstain from something means to not do it. For the purposes of avoiding pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), abstinence means not having vaginal, oral, or anal sex.

barrier methods of birth control
Contraceptives that prevent pregnancy by blocking sperm from reaching the egg.

birth control pill
A hormonal form of contraception, the birth control pill (also called “the Pill” or “BCP”) is an oral contraceptive taken once daily and is 99 percent effective against pregnancy.

cervical cap
A form of barrier contraceptive similar to the diaphragm but less flexible, smaller, thimble-shaped, and designed to fit snugly on the cervix. It is also inserted before having intercourse and used in conjunction with spermicidal jelly.

contraception
Deliberately acting through the use of procedures, devices, or medications to prevent or reduce the likelihood of a woman becoming pregnant. Also called birth control.

contraceptives
Procedures, devices, or chemicals used to prevent conception (pregnancy).

diaphragm
A form of contraceptive barrier that is a small, dome-shaped, flexible plastic cup, which a woman fills with spermicide and inserts into her vagina before intercourse.

douching
An ineffective means of contraception that wrongly suggests that if a woman washes her vagina after intercourse, she can rinse away sperm and avoid pregnancy.

emergency contraception
Also called the “morning-after pill,” or by its brand name, “Plan B,” it is actually a series of pills that prevent the implantation of a fertilized egg. It is used most often when no other form of birth control was used and in instances of brutal trauma like rape.

female condom
A contraceptive barrier made out of plastic and designed to fit inside the vagina to catch sperm after ejaculation.

hormonal methods of birth control
Contraceptives that use synthetic (man-made) hormones and work primarily by preventing ovulation (releasing an egg from the ovaries). They also may work by chemically altering cervical mucus or by preventing the implantation of an egg in the uterus.

implant
A hormonal form of contraception, the implant is a series of usually six capsules that are surgically implanted into a woman’s arm. The implant is 99 percent effective and can last for five or more years.

intrauterine device
Also known as an “IUD,” this form of contraceptive device can take many shapes and be composed of many materials.

male condom
A popular form of barrier contraception. It is made of various materials (latex or plastic being the most effective) and is designed to fit snuggly over an erect penis and worn during a single instance of intercourse

marriage
A very serious commitment made between two people who agree to work to make a life together.

natural family planning
An ineffective means of contraception involving women attempting to track the days they are ovulating and then avoiding having sex on those days.

parent
Someone who brings up and cares for a child while guiding him or her to be a responsible adult.

patch
A hormonal form of contraception, the patch is adhered to a woman’s body (arms, back, stomach, or buttocks) and is 99 percent effective against pregnancy. Each patch lasts for one week.

ring
A hormonal form of contraception, the vaginal ring is a soft, flexible plastic ring that is placed into the vagina every three weeks. The ring is 99 percent effective.

shot
A hormonal form of contraception, the shot is injected into a woman every three months and is 99 percent effective.

spermicidal jelly
A contraceptive made in the form of a jellylike substance that contains a chemical that kills sperm. It is usually used along with one of the other of the barrier methods of contraception.

spermicides
Chemicals, usually nonoxynol-9, that are put in the vagina before sex to kill sperm. They come in a variety of forms, including liquid, gel, jelly, foam, film, and suppositories or capsules. Some condoms are lubricated with a spermicide

sterilization
Permanent surgical methods of preventing pregnancy by tying or blocking off the vas deferens in men (called “vasectomy”) or the fallopian tubes in women (called “tubal ligation”) so that sperm and eggs cannot pass through

tubal ligation
Surgically, this form of sterilization is more complicated than in men. Women’s fallopian tubes, which are more difficult to reach surgically, are cut, tied, or blocked so that eggs cannot reach sperm or the uterus.

vasectomy
A simple and safe surgical procedure in which the vas deferentia leading from both testicles are cut, tied, or blocked by the doctor. This procedure is meant to be a permanent form of male sterilization.

withdrawl
An ineffective means of contraception that wrongly suggests that if a male “withdraws” his penis before ejaculation, no sperm will be deposited in the vagina.

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