AP US History Gilded Age

Waving the Bloody Shirt
Republican Presidents dominated (supported business, blacks voted for them because of loyalty from civil war); most were civil war vets; first was Ulysses S. Grant (good general, but bad president)

Gilded Age
1869-1896; name given by Mark Twain; known for corruption

Jim Fisk and Jay Gould
devised a plot to drastically raise the price of the gold market in 1869; On “Black Friday,” September 24, 1869, the two bought a large amount of gold, planning to sell it for a profit; in order to lower the high price of gold, the Treasury was forced to sell gold from its reserves

Boss Tweed
employed bribery, graft, and fraudulent elections to milk New York of as much as $200 million; eventually put into prison

Thomas Nast
political cartoonist, constantly drew against Tammany’s corruption

Tammany Hall
AKA Tweed Ring; of NYC, headed by “Boss” Tweed, employed bribery, graft, and fake elections to cheat the city of as much as $200 million

Credit Mobilier
scandal erupted in 1872 when Union Pacific Railroad insiders formed the Credit Mobilier construction company and then hired themselves at inflated prices to build the railroad line, earning high dividends; When it was found out that government officials were paid to stay quiet about the illicit business, some officials were censured

Liberal Republicans
By 1872, a power wave of disgust at Grant’s administration was building, despite the worst of the scandals not having been revealed yet, and reformers organized this and nominated the dogmatic Horace Greeley.

Panic of 1873
In 1873, a paralyzing panic broke out caused by too many railroads and factories being formed than existing markets could bear and the over-loaning by banks to those projects. Essentially, the causes of the panic were the same old ones that’d caused recessions every 20 years that century: (1) over-speculation and (2) too-easy credit.

“hard money”
coin money

“soft money”
greenbacks

Greenback Labor Party
The Republican hard-money policy, unfortunately for it, led to the election of a Democratic House of Representatives in 1874 which spawned to…

Chinese Exclusion Act
in 1882, halted Chinese immigration into America; People of the West Coast attributed declining wages and economic troubles to the hated Chinese workers

Garfield Assassination
Charles J. Guiteau at a Washington railroad station; Guiteau, claiming to be a Stalwart, shot the president claiming that the Conklingites would now get all the good jobs now that Chester Arthur was President; The death of Garfield shocked politicians into reforming the spoils system; The reform was supported by President Arthur, shocking his critics.

Pendleton Act
made campaign contributions from federal employees illegal, and it established the Civil Service Commission to make appointments to federal jobs on the basis of competitive examination; It was basically made to stop political corruption; The civil-service reform forced politicians to gain support and funds from big-business leaders

Blaine-Cleveland Election of 1884
The Republicans chose James G. Blaine as their presidential candidate; The Democrats chose Grover Cleveland; Grover Cleveland was a very honest and admirable man; Cleveland won the election

Mugwumps
James G. Blaine became the Republican candidate, but some Republican reformers, unable to stomach this, switched to the Democratic Party

Grover Cleveland and the tariff
The growing surplus of money in the Treasury coming from the high tariff, which was made to raise revenues for the military during the Civil War, caused President Cleveland to propose lowering of the tariff in order to bring lower prices to consumers; The lower tariff, introduced to Congress in 1887 and supported by Cleveland, tremendously hurt the nation’s factories and the overall economy; Cleveland lost support because of the tariff

Billion Dollar Congress
named for its lavish spendings, gave pensions to Civil War veterans, increased government purchases on silver, and passed the McKinley Tariff Act of 1890

McKinley Tariff
raised tariffs yet again and brought more troubles to farmers; Farmers were forced to buy expensive products from American manufacturers while selling their own products into the highly competitive world markets; The Tariff Act caused the Republican Party to lose public support and become discredited. In the congressional elections of 1890, the Republicans lost their majority in Congress

Populist Party
The People’s Party; formed from frustrated farmers in the agricultural belts of the West and South; demanded inflation through free and unlimited coinage of silver; They also called for a graduated income tax; government ownership of the railroads, telegraph, and telephone, the direct election of U.S. senators; a one-term limit on the presidency, the adoption of the initiative and referendum to allow citizens to shape legislation more directly, a shorter workday, and immigration restriction; nominated General James B. Weaver for the presidential election of 1892; In 1892, a series of violent worker strikes swept through the nation; fell far short of winning the election; One of the main reasons was that the party supported and reached out to the black community; Its leaders, such as Thomas Edward Watson, felt that a black man had every right to vote; counted on many blacks votes from the South; Unfortunately, many Southern blacks were denied the right to vote due to literacy tests; The Southern whites voted against the party due the party’s equal rights views toward blacks

Panic of 1893
the worst economic downturn for the United States during the 19th Century; It was caused by overbuilding and over-speculation, labor disorders, and the ongoing agricultural depression; The Treasury was required to issue legal tender notes for the silver bullion that it had purchased; Owners of the paper currency would then present it for gold, and by law the notes had to be reissued; This process depleted the gold reserve in the Treasury to less than $100 million

Cleveland and J.P. Morgan
The Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890 was created by the administration of Benjamin Harrison in order to increase the amount of silver in circulation; The drastic rise in silver caused the American people to believe that the less expensive silver was going to replace gold as the main form of currency; The American people therefore began to withdraw their assets in gold, depleting the Treasury’s gold supply; Cleveland was forced to repeal the Sherman Silver Act Purchase in 1893;
Cleveland turned to J.P. Morgan to lend $65 million in gold in order to increase the Treasury’s reserve

Railroad Land Grants
Due to the expansion of the country, many new railroads were built; Congress began to advance liberal money loans to 2 favored cross-continent companies in 1862 in response to the fact that transcontinental railroad construction was so costly and risky; Growing railroads took up more land than they were allotted because their land grants were given over a broad path through the proposed route; The railroad owners would then choose the route to build on; President Grover Cleveland ended the land dispute in 1887 when he opened up all the unclaimed public portions of the grants to the public

Cornelius Vanderbilt
The railroad was his enterprise; 2 significant improvements benefited the railroads; the steel rail and a standard gauge of track width; Steel rails were much stronger and safer than the traditional iron rails

Pools
agreements to divide the business in a given area and share the profits, were the earliest form of combinations

Interstate Commerce Act
In 1887, Congress passed this; It prohibited rebates and pools, required the railroads to publish their rates openly, forbade unfair discrimination against shippers, and outlawed charging more for a short trip than for a long one over the same line; It also created the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) to administer and enforce the new legislation; The new laws provided an orderly forum where competing business interests could resolve their conflicts in peaceful ways; The laws tended to stabilize the existing railroad business

Inventions: telephone, telegraph, typewriter,etc.
American ingenuity played a vital role, as such inventions like mass production (from Eli Whitney) were being refined and perfected; The telephone was created in 1876 by Alexander Graham Bell; This invention revolutionized the way Americans communicated; Thomas Alva Edison invented numerous devices; the most well-known is his perfection of the electric light bulb in 1879

Trusts
companies of same industry come as one

Carnegie
was not a monopolist and actually disliked monopolistic trusts; He entered the steel business in the Pittsburgh area and created an organization with about 40 “Pittsburg millionaires”; By 1900, he was producing ¼ of the nation’s Bessemer steel

Vertical Integration
to combine all phases of manufacturing into one organization; Carnegie: He and his business controlled every aspect of production, from mining to marketing; His goal was to improve efficiency

Horizontal Integration
entailed allying with competitors to monopolize a given market; This tactic of creating trusts was used by Rockefeller

J.D. Rockefeller and Standard Oil
organized the Standard Oil Company of Ohio in 1870, attempting to eliminate the middlemen and knock out his competitors; By 1877, he controlled 95% of all the oil refineries in the nation; Rockefeller grew to such a great power by eliminating his competitors

Bessemer Process
allowed for the price of steel to drop dramatically and for its production to be done with relative ease; The process involved blowing cold air on red-hot iron in order to ignite the carbon and eliminate impurities

J.P. Morgan
financed the reorganization of railroads, insurance companies, and banks; expanded his industrial empire and created the United States Steel Corporation in 1901; It was America’s first billion-dollar corporation

Gospel of Wealth
The wealthy proclaimed that they were justified by God to have so much wealth; They claimed that God gave them their money or they were a product of natural selection

Sherman Anti-Trust Act
Hailing to public demand, Congress passed this in 1890; The Act forbade combinations in restraint of trade without any distinction between “good” trusts and “bad” trusts; The law proved ineffective because it contained legal loopholes and it made all large trusts suffer, not just bad ones

The South during the industrial era
Throughout the industrial strive in the North, the South produced a smaller percentage of the nation’s manufactured goods; Southern agriculture received a boost in the 1880s when machine-made cigarettes replaced earlier methods of producing cigarettes; This caused tobacco consumption to shoot up; Northern-dominated railroad companies charged lower rates on manufactured goods moving southward from the North, but higher rates when raw materials were shipped from the South to the North; The South strived in manufacturing cotton textiles; By 1880, northern capital had created cotton mills in the South; Those who worked the cotton mills were in perpetual debt and were paid extremely low wages

Gibson Girl
Women, who had swarmed to factories and had been encouraged by recent inventions, found new opportunities, and this created by Charles Dana Gibson, became the romantic ideal of the age; young, athletic, attractive, and outdoorsy

Knights of Labor
Led by Terence V. Powderly, the Noble and Holy Order of this was formed in 1869 as a secret society and remained secret until 1881; It sought to include all workers in one big union and campaigned for economic and social reform, including and codes for safety and health

American Federation of Labor
was founded in 1886 and was led by Samuel Gompers; The federation consisted of an association of self-governing national unions, each of which kept its own independence; It sought for better wages, hours, and working conditions; The federation’s main weapons were the walkout and the boycott; The greatest weakness of organized labor was that it still embraced only a small minority of all working people

Haymarket Square
Chicago police advanced on a meeting called to protest alleged brutalities by authorities; A dynamite bomb was thrown and killed dozens of people; 8 anarchists were tried and convicted; 5 were sentenced to death while the other 3 were sent to jail. In 1892, the governor of Illinois, John P; Altgeld, pardoned the 3 who were in prison; The Knights of Labor were blamed for incident at Haymarket Square and as a result, it lost public support; Another downfall of the Knights of Labor was that it included both skilled and unskilled workers; When unskilled workers went on strike, they were just replaced

Louis Sullivan
contributed to the development of the skyscraper

Dumbbell tenement
were the worst since they were dark, cramped, and had little sanitation or ventilation

Department Stores
like Macy’s (in New York) and Marshall Field’s (in Chicago) provided urban working-class jobs and also attracted urban middle-class shoppers

New Immigrants
the 1880s came from southern and eastern Europe; They came from countries with little history of democratic government, where people had grown accustomed to harsh living conditions; Some Americans feared that the New Immigrants would not assimilate to life in their new land; They began asking if the nation had become a melting pot or a dumping ground

Nativism
anti-foreignism; blamed immigrants for the degradation of the urban government; These new bigots had forgotten how they had been scorned when they had arrived in America a few decades before

Social Gospel
churches tackle the burning social issues of the day

Jane Addams/Hull House
the most prominent American settlement house; condemned war as well as poverty; offered instruction in English, counseling to help immigrants deal with American big-city life, childcare services for working mothers, and cultural activities for neighborhood residents

Darwin’s effect on churches
Published in 1859 this stated that humans had slowly evolved from lower forms of life; The theory of evolution cast serious doubt on the idea of religion; Conservatives stood firmly in their beliefs of God and religion, while Modernists flatly refused to accept the Bible in its entirety

Progressivism
fought against monopolies, corruption, inefficiency, and social injustice; The purpose was to use the government as an agency of human welfare

Jacob Riis
shocked middle-class Americans in 1890 with How the Other Half Lives which described the dark and dirty slums of New York

Lincoln Steffens
new york reporter that launched a series of articles in McClure’s titled “The Shame of the Cities” which unmasked the corrupt alliance between big business and municipal government

Upton Sinclair
novel //The Jungle** enlightened the American public to the horrors of the meatpacking industry, thus helping to force changes

Ida Tarbell
published a devastating but factual depiction of the Standard Oil Company

Lewis Hine
pictures of child labor

Muckrakers
exposed the corruption and scandal that the public loved to hate

Political Progressivism
sought 2 goals: to use state power to control the trusts; and to stem the socialist threat by generally improving the common person’s conditions of life and labor

Referendum
would place laws on ballots for final approval by the people

Initiative
voters could directly propose legislation themselves, thus bypassing the boss-sought state legislatures

Direct primaries
Direct primary election

17th Amendment
Direct election of Senators

Recall
ould enable the voters to remove faithless corrupt officials

Women’s Suffrage Movement
reconcile the ideas that women are inferior to men and stay at home, but also get the right to vote

Triangle Shirtwaist Fire
fire in factory; changes regulations in factories

Muller v. Oregon
found attorney Louis D. Brandeis persuading the Supreme Court to accept the constitutionality of laws that protected women workers

To fend off Cleveland’s efforts to reduce the tarriff, ___ gave the Republicans over $3 million in the election of 1888 business owners The Independent National party: was more commonly known as the Greenback party WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM …

In the late nineteenth century, the most striking feature of the American party system was its remarkable stability In American politics during the late nineteenth century Republicans usually held a majority in the Senate WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY …

Why were Americans fascinated by politics during the Gilded Age? mass entertainment and favorable sport The grandfather clause waived the literacy requirement for voters whose ancestor had Voted before 1867 WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC …

Despite his status as a military hero, General Ulysses S. Grant proved to be a weak political leader because he… (D) had no political experience and was a poor judge of character Which political emotion motivated the Liberal Republican revolt …

Panic of 1819 Cause: overspeculation of frontiers (by Bank of US), under Monroe Result: Depression, nationalism decreased, foreclosed mortgages on farms Panic of 1837 Cause: speculation, Jacksonian economy, foreign depressions, get-rich schemes, Specie Circular, under Van Buren Result: Banks collapsed, …

All of the following factors helped accelerate economic growth after the civil war EXCEPT The use of prison labor by railroad companies. Interconnected transportation and communications networks were essential to the origins of the second industrial revolution in the US …

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