AP US History – Chapter 23

Between 1929 and 1932, U.S. gross domestic production fell by what percentage?
45% (almost half)

What percentage of the U.S. labor force was unemployed by 1933?
25%

Which country was the first to fall into a depression at the end of the 1920s?
Germany

What American philosophy influenced Herbert Hoover’s initial response to the economic downturn in the early 1930s?
People’s fate was in their own hands

Herbert Hoover asked Americans to do what in response to the economic downtown in 1929?
“tighten their belts and work hard”

Hoover was hated during the Depression, partially because of the public perception that he…?
was a “do nothing” president

In the Bonus Army incident in Washington, D.C., in 1932, federal troops did what?
Forcefully evicted veteran protesters and burned down their main encampment

Which protest caused Hoover’s popularity to plunge dramatically in 1932?
Bonus Army – because citizens saw the U.S. army fighting it’s own veterans

During the 1932 presidential campaign, Franklin Roosevelt promised…?
“take vigorous action”

What was the first action Roosevelt took to address the nation’s economic crisis?
government-sponsored work programs and financial assistance

The Emergency Banking Act of 1933 permitted banks to do what?
reopen if proven financially stable through inspection – validated “bank holiday”; permitted Reconstruction Finance Corporation to buy stocks of banks in trouble, thereby giving the banks an infusion of new capital, an example of “pump priming”

The Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) provided what for farmers?
Cash subsidies in return for cutting back on production of seven major commodities: wheat, cotton, corn, hogs, rice, tobacco, and dairy.

For southern black sharecroppers, the New Deal’s AAA often meant that…?
they received only a few dollars in relief payment – because the plantation owners often cut production by reducing the amount of land they rented to tenants and sharecroppers.

What was Roosevelt’s attitude toward the federal government’s provision of welfare payments to the unemployed?
He had strong reservations about the “dole” (government welfare payments (wanted to provide work opportunities rather than cash subsidies) – He wanted to avoid a budget deficit but he asked Congress to provide relief for millions of unemployed Americans.

The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) hired young men to do what?
reforestation and conservation work

What was the purpose of the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), which Roosevelt Congress empowered in 1934?
regulate the stock market

In 1934, the Liberty League was organized by…?
Republican business leaders and conservative Democrats

Senator Huey Long from Louisiana became a major political threat to Roosevelt when he called for…?
100% tax on income over $1 million and inheritances over $5 million

By the 1960s, what part of Social Security had become the most controversial?
Aid to Dependent Children (ADC)

As a result of Roosevelt’s embrace of the economic policies of John Maynard Keynes and the need for social welfare legislation, the term liberalism came to be associated with…?
Roosevelt’s idea that to preserve individual liberty government must assist the needy and guarantee the basic welfare of citizens.

Between 1935 and 1943, the Works Progress Administration (WPA) paid civilians to do what?
Construct or repair roads, bridges, public buildings, parks, and airports.

What was Roosevelt’s initial response to the Supreme Court’s declaration that the NRA, the AAA, and other New Deal legislation were unconstitutional?
Asked for fundamental changes including the addition of a new justice for every member over the age of 70

What caused the severe recession in 1937 and 1938?
cuts in federal spending that halted the regrowth of the economy – Roosevelt’s cut in the federal budget and Congress’s cut of the WPA and Federal Reserve funding

Roosevelt heeded John Maynard Keynes’s advice and practiced what?
government interventions in business – while preserving capitalism and liberal individualism

Which of the following social movements grew tremendously as a result of the New Deal?
Organized labor

What political group did minorities during the New Deal start voting for?
Democratic party

The Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 did what?
Reversed the Dawes Act of 1887 by promoting self-government through formal constitutions and democratically elected tribal councils.

The largest New Deal project in the West was the construction of the…?
Hoover Dam

What was the significance of the New Deal concerning its impact on the federal governments role?
Direct assistance to the population through a social-welfare state

welfare state
industrial democracies that adopted various government-guaranteed social-welfare programs

Social Security Act
(1935) three main provisions: old-age pensions; a joint federal-state system of unemployment compensation; and a program of payments for widowed mothers and the disabled.

Keynesian Economics
The theory that government intervention in the economy can affect overall economic activity, preventing severe depressions and runaway inflation – by British economist John Maynard Keynes

dust bowl
a series of dust storms from 1930 to 1941 during which a severe drought afflicted the semiarid states of Oklahoma, Texas, New Mexico, Colorado, Arkansas, and Kansas.

Tennessee Valley Authority
An agency funded by Congress in 1933 that integrated flood control, reforestation, electricity generation, and agricultural and industrial development in the Tennessee Valley area.

Which tariff, passed in 1930, raised rates to an all-time high, further deepening the worldwide depression? Smoot-Hawley Which of the following organizations did President Hoover create in 1931 to stimulate the economy through federal loans to major businesses in 1931 …

how did FDRs background and artions help build confifence among the American people? he had high eductions, strong self-confidence, he thought the frederal government should help people. what action did Roosevelt take during his first hundred days in office? Push …

Franklin Delano Roosevelt US president in 1932 and pledged the New Deal to help American society Brain Trust nickname given by the press to a diverse group of men and woman whom Roosevelt sought out to help him with the …

How did Franklin Roosevelts background and actions help build confidence among the american people? he had self confidence because of his educated background. he believed that federal government should/could help people what actions did FDR take during the first hundred …

what economic problems lurked beneath the general prosperity of the 1920s? agricultural overproduction, uneven distribution of wealth, underconsumption, and growing credit what happened on October 29, 1929? more than 16 million shares were sold as the stock market crashed. This …

Which group experienced an early depression in the 1920s? famers During the 1920’s, the United States economy moved through which phase of the business cycle? expansion WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR …

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