AP U.S. History Unit 8: The Great Depression and WWII

How did the liberalism of FDR’s New Deal on earlier progressive ideas and transformed the United States into a limited Welfare State.
It completely redefined the relationship between government and economy forever, government boards regulated business, wages, and hours ; it was a completion of the progressive goals through recovery, reform, and relief.

Describe the Social Security Act and explain its significance during the Great Depression
(1935) Social Security was an elderly pension program for retired individuals over 65. It was financed by payroll tax. Also aided dependent children/disabled people by giving them money to support themselves. It was significant because now the US government was obligated to protect the weakest members of society. This changes the governments role in the economy and everyday life of the average American permanently.

Describe the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation and it’s significance during the Great Depression.
(FDIC) established by the Glass-Steagall Act, it provided government insurance for bank deposits up to a certain amount. It was significant because it protected those who invested their money in their bank. This greatly increased the public’s confidence in the banking system. It also policed the stock market.

Describe how the New Deal used government power to provide relief to the poor, stimulate recovery, and reform the American Economy.
Relief: Civilian Conservation Corps- run by army, accepted young men to work hard labor jobs and sent majority of their check home.
FERA- state and local funded projects, run by Harry Hopkins.
PWA- gave money to construction companies, hired African Americans to help with racism.
CWA- hired directly on government payroll, built highways and such
Recovery: NRA: boards negotiated rates, prices, wages, and hours.
AAA- agricultural adjustment act; payed farmers not to plant some crops.
Reform: glass-Steagall act- established the FDIC which protected deposited $
Security Exchange Commission- policed stock market.

Describe the National Recovery Administration and it’s significance in the First New Deal.
Modeled after WWI war boards, the economic board was created to guide capitalism; it negotiated prices, codes of practices, upped wages and lowered prices, tried to stimulate economy. Used public opinion to pressure companies into going along and urged the public to buy from stores displaying their blue Eagle.

Describe the Tennessee Valley Authority and it’s significance in the First New Deal.
(TVA) built 20 dams, employed up to 40,000 workers, reforested millions of acres and brought electricity to rural families.

Describe the Federal Art Project and it’s significance in the First New Deal.
Program where the gifted could go and perform and be paid. It was argued that it was laborious enough to be paid for. It was a lasting legacy for his New Deal; portrayed and romanticized men and women at work.

Asses how critics of the First New Deal pushed FDR towards more extensive reforms, even as a conservatives in congress and the Supreme Court sought to limit the New Deal’s scope.
Critics of the New Deal felt that FDR should be doing more to fix the problems that causes the Great Depression like unequal distribution of wealth. (Not enough reform). Some also pushed for a more socialist approach to where the government would own everyday/essential business like power, fuel, and water. Communism also gained ground because capitalist countries were failing but the communist ones were not (they were in their gilded age). At the same time, conservatives thought the New Deal s doing more than it should and that it spent too much money too quickly and thought that FDR had too much power (he did). He was forced to join the more radical lefts in order to keep the Democratic Party from splitting and loosing him the vote.

Who was Huey Long and what were his criticisms of the First New Deal?
Huey “Big Fish” Long was was Roosevelt’s biggest threat. He increased the share of state taxes paid by corporations and also embarked on a public works project including new schools, highways, bridges, and hospitals; he seized almost a dictatorial leadership over the state government; believed that the New Deal wasn’t radical enough.

Who was Fr. Charles Coughlin and what were his criticisms of the First New Deal?
A radio priest in Detroit, Coughlin turned against Roosevelt when he refused to nationalize the banking system and provide free coinage of silver. As the decade progressed, Coughlin turned Anti-Semitic, blaming the Great Depression on international Jewish banking conspirators.

Who was Dr. Francis Townsend and what were his criticisms of the First New Deal?
A doctor who typically saw elderly people as his patients. He wasn’t a politician but he agreed with Long that the Depression was caused by an unequal distribution of wealth, especially amongst the elderly. If response, he made the Townsend Party which proposed an elderly welfare that ended up being completely irrational and impossible to enforce due to it being so radical. It was very popular on the public who didn’t understand how much the tax would cost the economy.

Describe the Supreme Court fight and it’s significance.
FDR thought he was invincible and tried to pass a “Court Packing Plan” and make the 9 Supreme Court justices go up to 15. This only reinvigorated any opposition to him because it looked like he wanted a dictatorship.

Assess the effectiveness of the New Deal in overcoming the Great Depression and revitalizing the Democratic Party.
The New Deal did not end the Great Depression. They adopted the Keynesian theory of “spend now, pay back later”. New Deal liberalism reconstructed capitalism- we started to take care of the weak and expand as a welfare state. FDR also reunited a party of southern farmers and made it into a party that could be accepted on a national level. The level of spending actually needed to end the Great Depression was actually about 5x as much as they actually spend. They needed WWII to bring an official end to the depression.

Describe American Efforts to maintain isolationism in the late 1930’s
They wanted to remain neutral with all the countries that were at war, even though we secretly wanted Britain to win, we tried our best to remain neutral by staying quiet. We didn’t interfere in Europe and kept on our side, following past Foreign policies (Monroe doctrine).

What was the Stimson Doctrine and what was its significance to American Isolationism?
it was a policy of the US Government to Japan and China of non-recognition of international territorial changes that were executed by force. Stimson had stated that the United States would not recognize any changes made in China that would curtail American treaty rights in the area and that the “open door” must be maintained.

What were the Neutrality Acts and what were their significance to American isolationism?
The Neutrality Acts of 1935, 1936, and 1937 banned loans and the sale of arms to nations at war; prohibited American ships from carrying ammunition to belligerents and established ‘cash and carry’ non-military goods.

Describe American attitudes towards WWII before and after the attack on Pearl Harbor.
Before: they didn’t want any part of the war. They supported the “never again” philosophy when it came to foreign affairs.
After: since the Japanese attacked Americans, no one as unwilling to go to war. It was a revenge fueled decision in the populous.

What was the Atlantic Charter and was its significance?
1941, outlined a vision in which a world would abandon their traditional beliefs in military alliances and spheres of influence and govern their relations with one another through democratic process, with an international organization serving as the arbiter of disputes and the protector of every nation’s rights of self-determination.

What was D-Day and how was it significant to the Allied victory.
D-Day was the first day the American and British armies invaded France for the second front Russia has so desperately needed. Rather than crossing the channel at the slimmest part but also with the most fortifications, they went to another beach (Normandy). The siege took around 2 weeks and the Germans brought in reinforcements but we ended up taking the beach. It was significant because from their we were able to march to Paris and take back France. From their, between us and the soviets, we could attack Germany on all fronts.

What was the Manhattan Project and how was it significant to the Allied victory?
The Manhattan Project was the name of the project that created the atom bomb. It was a weapon that only the allies had but they thought they were racing against the Germans to create it firsts. They used it twice on the Japanese.

Analyze how the decision to drop the atom bomb raised questions about American values.
Moral values were questioned because the Japanese were willing to surrender under reasonable conditions. They knew it would kill thousands. We went to war to stop murder, but we ended up just doing the exact same thing.

Explain how the US emerged from the war as the most powerful nation on earth.
They turned the tide of the war by entering; we were technologically advanced; we hadn’t been attacked on our mainland; we had the frickin atom bomb like try and fight us I dare you.

Describe how many Americans migrated during the Great Depression and WWII
The second great migration took place, Native Americans received their tribal lands back; widespread deportation of Mexican Americans. Sharecroppers were kicked off of their land and migrated mostly to California.

Describe why Mexicans were drawn to the US and faced ambivalent government policies in the 1930’s and 1940’s.
Mexicans were drawn to American because more jobs had become available due to the war effort. They faced a lot of hardship because nativism gee during this time period due to all of the foreign threats in the world.

What were Great Depression Era deportations?
Widespread deportation of braceros. This shows a very nativist country and society because they are deporting true, born Americans with a parent of some other descent.

What was the Bracero program and how was it significant?
The Bracero program allowed Mexican nationals to take temporary agricultural work in the United States. More than 4.5 million Mexican nationals were legally contracted for work in the United States. Mexican peasants, desperate for cash work, were willing to take jobs at wages scorned by most Americans. This program fed the circular migration patterns of Mexicans into the US.

Discuss how the mass mobilization of American society ended the Great Depression and provided opportunities for women and minorities to improve the socioeconomic positions.
When the United States mobilized for the war effort, men were sent off to fight and minorities that hadn’t yet had any opportunities to work and develop a skill were now a vital part to the war effort. They now had a value in society that hadn’t before been recognized because never before had a war effort been attempted on their home turf to this magnitude.

What was “Rosie the Riveter” and what was her significance to the war effort and women’s role in society.
Rosie the Riveter was a propaganda campaign trying to get women to help work for the war effort. This was very successful and during the war numbers of women working went from 12 million to 19 million. Women did temporary patriotic work which equated to men’s work overseas on the battlefield.

Describe the Second Great Migration.
African Americans moved north for job opportunities. This caused tensions with the whites of the north. Race riots ensued and destroyed many black communities.

Analyze how wartime experiences challenged civil liberties and created debates over race and segregation.
In the war people noticed that although blacks and whites were segregated they still had all fought for their country and died together so blacks should be treated equally. This issue and the second great migration and race riots at home caused the Double V campaign. (Double victory over Germany and nazi but also over racism.)

Describe Japanese internment camps and their significance during the war.
The Japanese camps housed all of the western Japanese people in the middle of the country. They would first live in small places (like shelves) while the camps were being built and then they would move them in. They had to sell all of their belongings before going in. It was said to be a “Military Decision” so the Supreme Court sided with it.

What was the Double V campaign and what was it’s significance?
A cause for a continued victory after the one in Europe back home against racism. It called for integration and would alter serve as the impetus for the future civil rights movement of the 1960’s.

Discuss the differences between the First and Second New Deals.
First New Deal: temporary, trickle down. Mostly focused on Recovery, had a bit of Reform, and didn’t focus on Relief a lot.

Second New Deal: much more permanent, it was heavy on relief and was more focused on making demands for supplies go up. They adopted the Keynesian Theory

Nye Committee investigated arms manufacturers and bankers of World War I, claimed they caused entry into the war for financial reasons, public opinion pushed congress to pass the Neutrality Acts Stimson Doctrine declared in a note to Japan and China …

What industrial weakness signaled a declining economy in the 1920s? Key basic industries: railroads, textiles, and steel barely made a profit. Railroads lost business due to new transportation – trucks, buses, automobiles Credit An arrangement in which consumers agreed to …

Bonus Army- WWI veterans who marched to Washington DC to demand early payment of a promised bonus; police and army troops force them out at gunpoint. President Hoover’s response to the Depression- Opposed direct federal government relief to poor and …

The Great Depression 1929-1939 Dust Bowl 1932-1941 WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write my sample World War II 1941-1945 Boom and Bust Rise in an economy, followed by a …

Agricultural adjustment act: paid farmers subsidies not to plant part of their land, purpose: reduce crop surplus to raise the value of crops, created Agricultural Adjustment Administration, only pertained to 7 crops AAA (recovery) Civilian Conservation Corps: roosevelt gathered nations …

Marian Anderson Became a symbol representing African Americans by singing at the Lincoln Memorial in 1939 John Collier founded the ambitious program later known as the Indian New Deal WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY …

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