AP PSYCHOLOGY Unit 3a

Dendrite
The receiving end of the neuron, it recives the incoming neural signal and it sends it into the cell body.

Axon
This is the long part of the neuron, this sends the neural away from the cell body

Synapse
The “space” between nerve cells

Myelin Sheath
Fatty coating that protects the axon

Neurotransmitters
Acts as chemical messengers

Soma
Cell body

All or Nothing “principle”
Either the nerve cell “fires” or it doesn’t

Action potential
This is the nerve cell firing

Refractory Period
This is the resting phase of the nerve cell. This occurs after neural fighting

Reuptake
This occurs when the neurotransmitter is reabsorbed back by the sending neuron

Inhibitory neurotransmitter
This is a neurotransmitter that stops the next nerve cell from firing

Excitatory neurotransmitter
This is a neurotransmitter that excites the nerve cell into firing

Endorphin
Pain control

Serotonin
Controls mood, lack of it is linked with depression

Acetylchloine
Deals with motor movement, memory, also linked with Alzheimer’s disease

Dopamine
Deals with motor movement and alertness. Lack of this is linked with Parkinson. Too much of this is linked with Schizophrenia.

Neuron
a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system
Ex. if you were driving, the motor neurons would take the message from your central nervous system to your hand telling you to turn the key

Endorphins
“morphine within”-natural, opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure
Ex. Runners also experience the effects of _________ when running long distances which is known as Runners High

Central Nervous System
the brain and spinal cord

Biological Psychology
a branch of psychology concerned with the links between biology and behavior. (some biological psychologists call themselves behavioral neuroscientists, neuropsychologist, behavior geneticists, physiological psychologists or biopsychologists)
Ex. we could ask how prescribed drugs to treat depression affect behavior through their interaction with the nervous system

Sensory Neurons
neurons that carry incoming information from the sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord
Ex. if somebody puts ice on your hand, the _______ neurons send the message from your hand to your central nervous system telling you the ice is cold

Sympathetic Nervous System
the division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations/ controls our fight or flight response
Ex. ___________ system can accelerate heart rate, widen bronchial passages, decrease motility of the large intestine, constrict blood vessels, increase peristalsis in the esophagus, cause pupillary dilation, piloerection (goose bumps) and perspiration (sweating), and raise blood pressure

Somatic Nervous System
Somatic Nervous System
the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body’s skeletal muscles. Also called the skeletal nervous system

Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
Make up the Autonomic and Somatic system

Parasympathetic Nervous System
Parasympathetic Nervous System
automatically calms down our bodies after an emergency has passed /the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy

Nervous System
the body’s speedy, electrochemical communication network, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems
Ex. is responsible for movement of voluntary muscles and the process known as a reflex arc

Nerves
Nerves
bundled axons that form neural “cables” connecting the central nervous system with muscles, glands and sense organs

Motor Neurons
Motor Neurons
neurons that carry outgoing information from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands

Interneurons
Interneurons
neurons within the brain and spinal cord that communicate internally and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs(makeup central nervous system)

Hormones
Hormones
chemical messengers manufactured by the endocrine glands, travel through the bloodstream, and affect other tissues

Endocrine System
the body’s “slow” chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream

Neurotransmitters
chemical messengers that cross the synoptic gaps between neurons. When released by the sending neuron, neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse

Reuptake
Reuptake
a neurotransmitter’s reabsorption by the sending neuron

Threshold
the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse
Ex. Vision – A candle flame 30 miles away

Dendrite
Dendrite
the bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body

Synapse
Synapse
the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron. The tiny gap at this junction is called the synoptic gap or synoptic cleft

Axon
Axon
the extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages pass to other neurons or to muscles or glands

Myelin Sheath
Myelin Sheath
a layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed of neural impulses as the impulse hops from one node to the next

Pituitary Glands
Pituitary Glands
master gland + the endocrine system’s most influential gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands

Reflex
Reflex
a simple, automatic response to a sensory stimulus, such as the knee-jerk resposnse

Autonomic Nervous System
the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs that happen automatically (such as the heart). Its sympathetic division arouses; its parasympathetic division calms
Ex. we do not notice when blood vessels change size or when our heart beats faster

Adrenal Glands
Adrenal Glands
a pair of endocrine glands that sit just above the kidneys and secrete hormones (epinephrine and nonrepinephrine) that helps arouse the body in times of stress/ fight or flight response

Action Potential
a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon
Ex. the first step in the chain of events leading to contraction

Phrenology
19th century theory that bumps on our skull reveal a person’s abilities and traits

GABA
Not enough of this can cause seizures, tremors and insomnia

Autonomic
Sympathetic & Parasympathetic Nervous system are apart of which system?

Agonists
neurotransmitter that is similar enough to the neurotransmitter that it mimics the neurotransmitter ex: morphine mimics the action of endorphins and helps the neuron fire

Antagonists
blocks the neurotransmitters and it prevents the neuron from firing ex: prozac blocks serotonin

The basic unit of the nervous system is a specialized cell called the neuron (Murre, 1992). It is important to understand neurons because they undoubtedly hold the secrets of how the brain works and in turn the nature of human …

neuron a cell that is specialized to conduct nerve impulses neuroglia (glial cells) Cells of the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system that support and protect neurons; also called glial cells WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON …

How does an impulse travel from one neuron to another? Chemical neurotransmitters help the impulse “jump” across the space between the cells. Which part of the brain stem connects with the spinal cord? Medulla oblongata WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM …

Functions of Nervous System 1. Sensory Function 2. transmit info to processing areas of the brain and spine 3. Integration Function 4. Motor Function Sensory Function Gathers information from both inside and outside the body WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM …

Parasympathetic Nervous System the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy-“read and digest” Sympathetic Nervous System division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations-“fight or flight”-raises …

Central nervous system Brain and spinal cord. Structural division. Peripheral Nervous System All the cranial nerves that carry impulses to and from the brain, and all the spinal nerves that carry messages to and from the spinal cord. Structural division …

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