AP Psych Test

Which theory describes how we explain others’ behavior as being due to internal dispositions or external situations?
Attribution Theory

Two neighboring nations are stockpiling weapons. Each sees its neighbor’s actions as an act of aggression and its own actions as self defense. Evidently, these nations are victims of
The fundamental attribution error

When male students in an experiment were told that a woman to whom they would be speaking had been instructed to act in a friendly or unfriendly way, most of them subsequently attributed her behavior to
her personal disposition

Professor Washington’s students did very poorly on the last exam. The tendancy to make the fundamental attribution error might lead her to conclude that the class did poorly because
students were unmotivated

Which of the following is true?
Attitudes predict behavior under certain conditions

Which of the following is an example of the foot-in-the-door phenomenon?
After agreeing to wear a small “Enforce Recycling” lapel pin, a women agrees to collect signatures on a petition to make recycling required by law

Before she gave a class presentation favoring gun control legislation, Wanda opposed it. Her present attitude favoring such legislation can best be explained by
Congnitive dissonance theory

Which of the following situations should produce the greatest congnitive dissonance?
A student volunteers to debate an issue, taking the side he personally disagrees with

According to cognitive dissonance theory, dissonance is most likely to occur when
An individual does something that is personally disagreeable

Which of the following phenomena is best explained by cognitive dissonance theory?
The foot-in-the-door phenomenon

Conformity increased under which of the following conditions in Asch’s studies of conformity?
All of theses conditions increased conformity

Subjects in Asch’s line-judgment experiment conformed to the group standard when their judgments were observed by others but not when they were made in private. This tendancy to conform in public demonstrates
Normative social influence

Which of the following is important in promoting conformity in individuals?
Whether an individual’s behavior will be observed by others in the group

Jose is the one student member on his school’s board of trustees. At the board’s first meeting, Jose wants to disagree with the others on several issues but in each case decides to say nothing. Studies on conformity suggest all expcept one of the following factors in Jose’s not speaking up. Which one is not a factor?
The board members are already aware that Jose and the student body disagree with them on these issues

Maria recently heard a speech calling for a ban on aerosol sprays that endanger the earth’s ozone layer. Maria’s subsequent decision to stop using aerosal sprays is an example of
Informational social influence

In his study of obedience, Stanley Milgram found that the majority of subjects
Complied with the experiment until the “learner” first indicated pain

Based on findings from Milgram’s obedience studies, participants would be less likely to follow the experimenter’s orders when
They see another subject disobey instructions

Which of the following conclusions did Milgram derive from his studies of obedience?
Even ordinary people, without any particular hostility, can become agents in a destructive process

Which of the foloowing most accurately states the effects of crowding on behavior?
Crowding usually weakes the intensity of people’s reactions

Which of the following would most likely be subject to social faciliation?
Running quickly around a track

The phenomenon in which individuals lose their identity and relinquish normal restraints when they are part of a group is called
Deindividuation

Concluding her presentation on deindividuation, Renee notes that deindividuation is less likely in situations that promote
Increased self-awareness

Which of the following statements is true?
A group that is like-minded will probably not change its apinions through discussion

Jane and Sandy were best friends in their first year of university. Jane joined a sorority; Sandy didn’t. By the end of their last year, they found that they had less in common with each other than the other members of their respective circles of friends. Which of the following phenomena most likely explains their feelings?
Group polarization

Which of the following is most likely to promote groupthink?
Group polarization is evident

Which of the following best summarizes the relative importance of personal control and social control of our behavior?
Situational and personal influences interact in determining our behavior

Research has found that for a minority to succeed in swaying a majority, the minority must
Be able to convince a key majority leader

Alexsis believes that all male athletes are self-centered and sexist. Her beliefs are an example of
Stereotypes

(Close-Up) Which of the following is an example of implicit prejudice?
Jake, who is White, gives higher evaluations to essays he believes to be written by Blacks than to Whit-authored essays

We tend to preceive the members of an ingroup as_____ and the members of an out group as_____.
Different from one another; similar to one another

Given the tendancy of people to categorize information according to preformed schemas, which of the following stereotypes would Juan, a 65-year-old political liberal and fitness enthusiast, be most likely to have?
“Young people today have no sense of responsibility.”

Ever since their cabin lost the camp softball competition, the campers have become increasingly hostile toward oe camper in their cabin, blaming her for every problem in the cabin. This behavior is best explained in terms of
The scapegoat theory

Students at State University are convinced that their school is better than any other; this most directly illustrates
An ingroup bias

People with power and status may become prejudiced because
They tend to justify the social inequalities between themselves and others

Which of the following is NOT mentioned in the text discussion of the roots of prejudice?
People’s tendancy to assume that exceptional, or especially memorable, individuals are unlike the majority of members of a group

The belief that those who suffer deserve their fate is expressed in the
Just-world phenomenon

Violent criminals often have diminished activity in the____of the brain, which play(s) an important role in_____.
Front lobes; controlling impulses

Aggression is defined as behavior that
is intended to hurt another person

Which of the following is true about aggression?
It varies too much to be instinctive in humans

Research studies have found a positive correlation between aggressive tendencies in animals and levels of the hormone
Testosterone

Regarding the influence of alcohol and testosterone on aggressive behavior, which of the following is true?
Consumption of alcohol and injections of testosterone both promote aggressive behavior

Summarizing his report on the biology of aggression, Sam notes that
Hormones and alcohol influence the neural systems that control aggression

After waiting in line for an hour to buy concert tickets, Teresa is told that the concert is sold out. In her anger she pounds her fist on the ticket counter frightening the clerk. Teresa’s behavior is best explained by
The frustration-aggression principle

Research studies have idicated that the tendancy of viewers to misperceive normal sexuality, devalue their partners, and trivialize rape is
Increased by exposure to pornography

Research studies have shown that frequent exposure to sexually explicit films
May produce all of these effects

Which of the following factors is the most powerful predictor of friendship?
Physical Proximity

Most researchers agree that
Media violence is a factor in aggression

The mere exposure effect demonstrates that
Familiarity breeds fondness

Most people prefer mirror-image photographs of their faces. This is best explained by
The mere exposure effect

Ahmed and Monique are on a bllind date. Which of the following will probably be most influential in determining whether they like each other?
Their physical attractiveness

Having read the chapter, which of the following is best borne out by research on attraction?
Birds of a feather flock together

In one experiment, college men were physically aroused and then introduced to an attractive woman. Compared with men who had not been aroused, these men
Reported mor positive feelings toward the woman

Opening her mail, Joan dicovers a romantic greeting card from her boyfriend. According to the two-factor theory, she is likely to feel the most intense romantic feelings if, prior to reading the card, she has just
Completed her daily run

The deeo affection that is felt in long lasting relatioships is called_____love; this feeling is fostered in relationships in which_____.
Companionate; there is equity between the partners

Research studies indicated that in an emergency situation, the presence of others often
Leads to all of these behaviors

Increasing the number of people that are present during an emergency tends to
Decrease the likelihood that anyone will help

Which of the following is associated with an increased tendency on the part of a bystander to offer help in an emergency situation?
Being in a good mood

Mr. and Mrs. Samuels are constantly fighting, and each perceives the other as hard-headed and insesitive. Their conflict is being fueled by
Mirrior-image perceptions

Which of the following strategies would be most likely to foster positive feelings between tow conflicting groups?
Have the groups work on a superordinate goal

Which of the following best describes how GRIT works?
The two sides engage in a series of reciprocated conciliatory acts

Psychologist who study how we think about, influence, and relate to one another are called Social psychologist Heifers theory of how we explain others behaviors is the Attribution theory WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY …

Examine the effects of social variables and cognitions; attempts to understand behavior within its social context Social Psychology the external environument, or the behavioral context, can have both subtle and forceful effects on people’s thoughts, feelings and behaviors. situationism WE …

Social Psychology How we relate to other people Attributional Style How we explain behavior WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write my sample Attribution How we explain other people’s behavior …

Who used the method of introspection to scientifically basic elements of mind? Edward Titchener The self-reflective observation of one’s own sensations and feelings is called… introspection WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR …

psychopathology the study of abnormal behavior situational context the social or enviromental setting of a person’s behavior WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write my sample subjective discomfort emotional distress …

gender roles The expectations within a society about how males and females are suppose t o be knows as __________. D) all of the above Girls who were exposed to high levels of prenatal testosterone A) tend to prefer playing …

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