ap psych meyers chapter 12

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hierarchy of needs
Maslow’s pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs and then psychological needs become active

glucose
the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for the body tissues. When its levels are low we feel hunger.

set point
The point at which an individual’s “weight thermostat” is supposedly set. When the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight.

basal metabolic rate
the body’s resting rate of energy expenditure

anorexia nervosa
An eating disorder in which a normal-weight person diets and becomes significantly underweight, yet, still feeling fat, continues to starve.

bulimia nervosa
An eating disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually of high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise.

sexual response cycle
The four stages of sexual responding described by Masters and Johnson – excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution

refractory period
A resting period after orgasm, during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm

sexual disorder
a problem that consistently impairs sexual arousal or functioning

estrogen
A sex hormone, secreted in greater amounts by females than by males. In nonhuman female mammals, estrogen levels peak during ovulation, promoting sexual receptivity.

testosterone
the most important of the male sex hormones. Both males and females have it, but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty.

sexual orientation
An enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one’s own sex (homosexual orientation) or the other sex (heterosexual orientation)

flow
A completely involved, focused state of consciousness, with diminished awareness of self and time, resulting from optimal engagement of one’s skills.

industrial-organizational psychology
application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces.

personnel psychology
a subfield of I/O psychology that focuses on employee recruitment, selection, placement, training, appraisal, and development

organizational psychology
a subfield of I/O psychology that examines organizational influences on worker satisfaction and productivity and facilitates organizational change

structured interviews
interview process that asks the same job-relevant questions of all applicants, each of whom is rated on established scales

achievement motivation
A desire for significant accomplishment: for mastery of things, people, or ideas; for attaining a high standard

task leadership
goal-oriented leadership that sets standards, organizes work, and focuses attention on goals

social leadership
Group-oriented leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict, and offers support.

emotion
A response of the whole organism, involving (1) physiological arousal, (2) expressive behaviors, and (3) conscious experience.

james-lange theory
the theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli

cannon-bard theory
the theory that an emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers (1) physiological responses and (2) the subjective experience of emotion

schachter two-factor theory
Schachter-Singer’s theory that to experience emotion one must (1) be physically aroused and (2) cognitively label the arousal.

polygraph
A machine, commonly used in attempts to detect lies, that measures several of the physiological responses accompanying emotion (such as perspiration and cardiovascular and breathing changes).

catharsis
An emotional discharge that brings about a moral or spiritual renewal or welcome relief from tension and anxiety

feel-good, do good phenomenon
people’s tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood

subjective well-being
Self-perceived happiness or satisfaction with life. Used along with measures of objective well-being (for example, physical and economic indicators) to evaluate people’s quality of life.

adaptation-level phenomenon
Our tendency to form judgments (of sounds, of lights, of income) relative to a neutral level defined by our prior experience.

relative deprivation
the perception that one is worse off relative to those with whom one compares oneself

epinephrine
adrenaline. a hormone that increases heart rate, blood pressure, and blood sugar levels in times of emergency

Paul Ekman
reported that we have six basic emotions. Culture provides rules for the display of emotions & that culture defines what triggers an emotion

display rule
cultural guidelines for how and when to express emotions

Adaptation level principle
our tendency to judge stimuli relative to our previous experiences; (ex. if your GPA surges, you feel an initial surge of pleasure, then adopt to this new level of achievement and need something more to be happy)

opponent process theory of emotion
every initial emotional reaction triggers an opposing emotion that diminishes the intensity of the initial emotional reaction

motivation
factors that influence the initiation, direction, intensity, and persistence of behavior

instinct theory
A view that explains human behavior as motivated by automatic, involuntary, and unlearned responses.

drive reduction theory
the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need

homeostasis
A tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state

arousal theory
A theory of motivation suggesting that people are motivated to maintain an optimal level of alertness and physical and mental activation.

yerkes-dodson law
An optimal level of arousal helps performance. When arousal is too low, our minds wander and we become bored. When arousal is too high, we become too anxious. People are motivated to seek a moderate level of stimulation that is neither too easy nor too hard.

incentive theory
A theory of motivation stating that behavior is directed toward attaining desirable stimuli and avoiding unwanted stimuli.

lateral nucleus
causes us to start eating and keep eating ATE

ventromedial nucleus
causes us to stop eating and not be interested in food VomitMeal

insulin
when its levels raise we eat less

ceptin
monitors bodyfat

cholecystokinin CCK
regulates meal size, causes people to eat less

intrinsic motivation
A desire to perform a behavior for its own sake

extrinsic motivation
A desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment

theory x
assumes that workers are basically lazy, error-prone, and extrinsically motivated by money and, thus, should be directed from above.

theory y
assumes that, given challenge and freedom, workers are motivated to achieve self-esteem and to demonstrate their competence and creativity.

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy Which of the following most accurately describes emotional arousal? A) Emotions are voluntary reactions to emotion-arousing stimuli. B) Because …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy pupil contraction which of the following is not one of the basic components of emotion indentified in the text …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy motivation a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior. (p. 404) instinct a complex behavior that is rigidly …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy C 1. Although instincts are not common to humans, which of these can be considered an innate tendency for …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy Activation of the sympathetic nervous system decreases salivation and increases blood pressure. If people who have just been aroused …

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy empiricism the view that knowledge comes from experience and that science, therefore, should come from experimentation and observation structuralism …

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