A&P nervous system – autonomic hmwk

the synaptic knobs of postganglionic adrenergic neurons contain
norepinephrine

what are the four sympathetic pathways
-spinal nerve pathway
-postganglionic sympathetic nerve pathways
-spanchnic nerve pathway
-adrenal medulla pathway

postganglionic sympathetic nerve pathway
extends from spinal cord to internal organs of the thoracic
– esophagus , heart , lungs and thoraicic blood vessles

celiac ganglia
adjacent to the orgin of the celiac artery
– innervate stomach spleen liver gallbladder and proximal part of the duodenum and part of the pancreas

________ and __________ are the two main neurotransmitters used in the autonomic nervous system ?
acetylcholine/ norepinephrine

cranial nerves

in response to a specific stimulus, autonomic reglex arcs can trigger the following responses (3)
-secretion by glands
-cardiac muscle contraction
-smooth muscle contraction

parasympathetic innervation from vagus nerve causes airways to ..
decrease in diameter

pelvic splanchnic nerves
innervate several organs. Parasympathetic stimulation by these nerves causes an increase in secretion and motility in the distal part of the large intestine and rectum
,contraction of the urinary bladder, a nd erecton of the penis in the male and clitoris int he female

parasympathetic innervation causes ____________ of the female clitoris and male penis
erection

the somatic nervous system
includes processes that are perceived or controlled consciously

somatic sensory
portion includes detection of stimuli and transmission of nerve signals formthe spanlo senses ,skin proprioceptors tot he CNS

somatic motor
involves initaiton and transmission of nerve signals from CNS to control skeletal muscles

autonomic nervous system
visceral nervous sysem, includes processes regulated elwo the conscious level
-more reflexive than awith awareness

the autonotmic nervous sytem helps maintain homeostasis through the involuntary activity of _____________ reflexes or ___________ reflexes
autonomic; visceral

dual innervation –
when an effector is innervated by postganglionic axons from both parasympathetic and sympathetitc divisions
this dual innervation can results in effects that are antaognistc or cooperative

which autonomic nervous system effector undergoes opposing effects without dueal innervation?
blood vessles

all preganglionic axons int he autonomic system release the neurotransmitter _________________
acetylcholine

___________ is the neurontransmitter released by all other postganglionic that do not release ACh
norepineprhine

which gland receives parasympathetic innervation from the glossopharyngeal nerve ( CN IX)
parotid salivary gland

parasympathetic
this division is primary concerned with maintaining homeostasis at rest, and is functionally considered the ‘rest and digest’ division

sympathetic division
fight or flight – primarly concerned with preparing the body for emergencies . , referred to fight or flight because increased sympathetitc actigvty results int he increased alertnessa nd metabnolic activity needed to coordinate and direct body response in stressful or frighting situatuionso.

three Es
emergency, exersice or excitement

which organs receive postganglionic axons from the superior mesenteric ganglion ?
proximal ureters, kidneys
jejunum of small intestine

which organs receive postganglionic axons from the inferior mesenteric ganglion?
reproductive organs, rectum, urinary bladder and distal parts of the ureters

brain sections/ parts
brain sections/ parts

the continuous activity of both the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system is called __________ ____________
autonomic tone

not automatic

which division of the autonomic nervous system is also known as a thoracolumbar division?
sympathetic division

why? because the anatomic orgigin of the preganglionic neurons betweent he first thoracic ( t1) and the second lumbar ( L2_)

molecules, such as NT, which bind speicifically to receptors are called __________
ligands

parasympathetic innervation from the vagus nerve has the following effectso n the digestive tract organs
increased smooth muscle motility
– increased secretory activity

axons that reelase acetylcholine are called ________
cholinergic and the receptors that receives them are called cholinergic receptors

cranial nerves and parasympathetic pathways
cranial nerves and parasympathetic pathways

the branch of the nervous system most closely associated with maintaining homeostasis is the ___________ nervous system
parasympathetic

which division of the autonomic nervous system is called the ‘fight or flight’ division?
sympathetic

the somatic nervous system is under _________- control while the autonomic nervous system is under _____________ control
conscious, subconscious

automic – regulated below the conscious level, functions reflexively without our awareness

an organ receiveing innervation from postganglionic axons from both divisions of the autonomic system has _______ innervation
dual

norepinephrine fits into the following categories
catecholamine , monoamine, biogenic amine

generally, the effects of parasympathetic and sympathetic innervation of the same organ are _______, meaning they oppose each other and produce different results
antagonistic

what systemic changes would accompany sympathetic stimulation?
increased blood pressure, heart rate and breathing rate

fight or fight needs more blood flow, oxygen and energy

which cranial nerve prodivdes parasympathetic innervation to control he production and secretion of tears, nasal secretions and saliva ?
facial nerve ( CN VII )

somatic nervous system
somatic nervous system

parasympathetic innervation causes _________ of the female clitoris and male penis
erection

which neurotransmitter may be produced by adrenergic neruons ?
dopamine , norepinepjhrine , epinephrine

this particular areas of gray matter of the spinal cord in segments T1- L2 houses the cell bodies of the sympathetic preganglionic neruons
lateral horn

what are the two types of adrenergic receptors?
A1 and B2

these receptors receive NT , bioamines or monoamines which are basically dopamine, epinephrine and norepinephrine

these can also be further subdivided into a1, a2, b1, b2

what connects to the spinal nerves of each sympathetic trunk?
rami communicatnes

white rami are made of preganglionic sympathetic axons from the t1- l2 while the gray rami carry post ganglionic axons fromt he sympathetic trunk tot he spinal nerve

gray are unmyelinated

mass activation
during an emergency or crisis situation , the sympathetic nervous system can trigger this in which many effectors respond together

autonomic tone
the continuous activity of both the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system

stimuli associated with blood vessles or internal organs are detected by the ______________ sensory structures q
visceral sensory structures
– sometimes also referred to autonomic

in response to a specific stimulus , autonomic reflex arcs can trigger the following
cardiac muscle contraction, smooth muscle contraction, secretion by glands

the synaptic knobs of postganglionic adrenergic neurons contain
norepinephrine

which part of the cervical portion of the sympathetic trunk distributes axons to structures within the head and neck ?
superior cervical ganglion

sympathetic trunk ganglia – composed of the superior , middle and inferior cervical ganglia
superior – head and neck
– middle –

What are the effects of the gastrointestinal reflex on the gastrointestinal tract?
increased secretion from gastic glands
-vigorous contraction of the rectal smooth muscle

clinical symptons seen in Horner syndrome
ptosis – drooping of the superior eyelid

miosis – constricted pupil

anhydrosis – lack of sweat

adrenal medulla pathway
adrenal medulla pathway

the abdominal aortic plexus is made of three subdivisions. What are they?
superior mesenteric plexus, inferior mesenteric plexus, celiac plexus

which organs receive parasympathetic innervation from pelvic spalnchninc nerves
which organs receive parasympathetic innervation from pelvic spalnchninc nerves
uterus , urinary bladder , reproductive parts, and rectum

which type of neurotransmitter is released by all preganglionic axons in the autonomic nervous system?
acetylcholine

pelvic splanchnic
the distal portion of the large intestine, rectum most of the reproductive organs, urinary bladder and distal part of the ureter receive parasympathetic innervation from the _______ _________ nerves

which division of the autonomic nervous system is also known as the thoracolumbar division /
sympathetic division

which axons could be found within an autonomic plexus ?
-parasympathetic preganglionic axons
-sympathetic postgangliconic axons
-visceral sensory

ganglionic neurons in the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system located within the wall of the target organ are known as
intramural ganglia

the _________ division of the autonomic nervous system is also called the craniosacaral division because of the location of the preganglionic neurons .
parasympathetic

which events occur as a result of parasympathetic innervation from the pulmonary plexus to the bronchial tree?
bronchoconstriction
increased secretion of mucus

which receptors would provide stimulus inrofmarion to a somatic sensory neuron?
tactile receptor in the skin

the facial nerve contains axons that exit the _______
pons

which type of sympathetic pathway is shown in the figure ?
which type of sympathetic pathway is shown in the figure ?
postganglionic sympathetic nerve pathway

the preganglionic neurons of the parasympathetic division originate in the
brainstem
-lateral gray matter of s2-s4

the middle of the three pre vertebral ganglia is the ______ ________ ganglion
superior mesenteric

the adrenergic receptor is responsible for lipolysis in adipose tissues
beta – 3

which statements describe the autonomic motor nervous system?
-it uses two neurons in signaling pathway
– it is under involuntary control
-the effector organs are the cardiac muscle fibers, smooth muscle fibers and glands

how many motor neurons are needed to stimulate cardiac muscles contraction in the autonomic nervous system ?
two

which effector structures have alpha 1 receptors
which effector structures have alpha 1 receptors
uterus , arrestor pili muslces –

in which structures will you find nicotinic receptors
postganglionic neurons, skeletal muscles, adrenal medulla

in the somatic nervous system a single motor neuron extends uninterrupted from the _____ _______ to the effector muscle
spinal cord

postganglionic sympathetic axons are carried from the sympathetic trunk to all spinal nerves through _______ _______ __________
gray rami communicantes , which are unmyelinated , connect to all spinal nerves, including cervial, sacral, and coccygeal spinal nerves. , exit ramps from the hay.

While white rami communicates are composed of preganglionic sympathetic axons from T1 – L2 spinal nerves . Preganglionic = myelinated , which is why they are white , white rami are ‘entrance ramps’ to the hwy.

Characteristics of sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system vs parasympathetic
sympathetic
– preganglionic neuron cell bodies in t1-l2 of spinal cord
-autonomic ganglia close to vertebral column
-fight or flight division
-short pregangliionic axons and long post ganglionic axons

parasympathetic
– long preganglionic axons and short postganglionic axons
-preganglionic neuron cell bodies in the brainstem and s2-s4 of the spinal cord
-rest and digest division

the ganglion indicated by the arrow is the _______ ganglion
the ganglion indicated by the arrow is the _______ ganglion
inferior mesenteric

during times of relaxation , the _______ division of the autonomic nervous system utilized discrete and localized innervation , stimulating only one or a few structures at a time.
parasympathetic – relaxation

the sympathetic can do a blast all function essentially but that is the opposite of this question

functions of the alpha 2 adrenergic receptors
facilitate blood clots and inhibit insulin secretion

the renal medulla , secretes __________ and ____________
epinephrine and norepinephrine

which branch of the autonomic nervous system would be expected to increase gut motility?
parasympathetic –

there are both parasympathetic ( smooth muscle contraction to accelerate digestion ) and sympathetic to decrease motility

muscarinic receptors
respond to muscarine, a mushroom toxin, found in all target plasma membranes of the parasympathetic division and few selected sympathetic target cells ; blood vessels in skeletal muscle, sweat glands and in the SA and AV node cells in the heard but no where else in the heart, including cardiac muscle cells

splanchnic nerve pathway
the abdominal and pelvic organs receive their sympathetic innervation via this pathway

What does dual innervation mean? Dual innervation means that a body organ receives neural innervation from both sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons on the ANS. Which division, sympathetic or parasympathetic, has longer preganglionic axons? Why? Most parasympathetic preganglionic axons are longer …

Sympathetic nervous system mobilize the body’s fight-or-flight response & constantly active at a basic level to maintain homeostasis. Parasympathetic nervous system responsible for stimulation of “rest-and-digest” or “feed and breed” WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC …

Autonomic Nervous System v. Sensory Somatic Nervous System •peripheral nervous system divided into sensory somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system •sensory somatic nervous system controls voluntary actions of skeletal muscle •autonomic nervous system controls involuntary actions of cardiac muscles, …

Cholinergic Drugs Affecting the Autonomic Nervous System Basic Functions of the Nervous System • Recognizes the changes in the internal environment and the external environment. • It processes and integrates environmental changes that are perceived. • It also reacts to …

Two divisions of the Nervous System Central Nervous System (brain and spinal cord) Peripheral Nervous System (outside of brain and spinal cord) Two divisions of the Peripheral NS Efferent Division (consists of the neurons that carry signals AWAY from the …

Overview The autonomic nervous system (ANS), along with the endocrine system, coordinates the regulation and integration of bodily functions. The endocrine system sends signals to target tissues by varying the levels of blood-borne hormones. In contrast, the nervous system exerts …

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