A&P II ch 18 endocrine

all of the following are true of the nervous system, except
function independently of the endocrine system

endocrine cells
release their secretions directly into body fluids

____ are chemical messengers that are released in one tissue and transported in the bloodstream to alter the activities of specific cells in other tissues
hormones

cells can respond to ____ hormones at the same time
a few

hormones known as “catecholamines” are
derivatives of the amino acid tyrosine

peptide hormones are
composed of amino acids

a kinase is an enzyme that performs
phosphorylation

an activated G protein can trigger
-the production of diacylglycerol
-the opening of calcium ion channels in the membrane
-the release of calcium ions from intracellular stores
-a fall in cAMP levels

calcium ions serve as messengers, often in combination with the intracellular protein
calmodulin

hormones can operate on the ____ level of organization
-cellular
-tissue
-organ
-organismic

the functional organization of the nervous system parallels that of the ____ system in many ways
endocrine

the hypothalamus acts as both a neural and an ____ organ
endocrine

a simple endocrine reflex involves ____ hormone
one

which of the following substances activates protein kinases and thus acts as a second messenger
cyclic AMP

all of the following are true of steroid hormones, except
are produced by the suprarenal medulla

each of the following hormones is an amino acid derivative, except
thyroid-stimulating hormone

extracellular membrane receptors are used by which of the following types of hormones
catecholamines, peptide hormones, and eicosanoids

steroid hormones
bind to receptors in the nucleus of their target cells

when a catecholamine or peptide hormone binds to receptors on the surface of a cell, the
second messenger appears in the cytoplasm

hormones can be divided into different groups based on their chemistry. these categories include
-peptides
-steroids
-eicosanoids
-amino acid derivatives

hormonal actions on cells include those that affect
-quantities of enzymes
-activities of enzymes
-synthesis of enzymes
-gating of ion channels

the link between a first messenger and a second messenger in a cell that responds to peptide hormones is
a G protein

when adenyl cyclase is activated
ATP is consumed and cAMP is formed

after a steroid hormone binds to its receptor to form an active complex
gene transcription is initiated

the most complex endocrine responses involve the
hypothalamus

hormone release may be controlled by which of the following factors
-blood level of an ion-like potassium
-blood level of glucose
-blood level of a hormone
-nervous stimuli

which of the following hormones are water soluble and therefore binds to extracellular receptors
insulin and epinephrine

all target cells
have hormone receptors

if the adenyl cyclase activity of liver cells were missing, which of these hormones could no longer stimulate release of glucose
glucagon

increased activity of phosphodiesterase in a target cell would decrease its level of
cAMP

destruction of the supraoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus would have which result
loss of ADH secretion

the primary function of ADH is to
decrease the amount of water lost at the kidneys

if the median eminence of the hypothalamus is destroyed, the hypothalamus would no longer be able to control the secretion of which of the following hormones
TSH, ACTH, PRL

changes in blood osmotic pressure would most affect the secretion of
ADH

the hypothalamus controls secretion by the adenohypophysis by
secreting releasing and inhibiting factors into a tiny portal system

neurons of the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus manufacture
ADH and oxytocin

secretory cells of the adenohypophysis release
-FSH
-TSH
-ACTH
-GH

the hypophyseal portal system
-is a blood connection between the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary
-has two capillary plexuses connected by short veins
-carries neurosecretions to the anterior lobe of the pituitary
-carries ADH and oxytocin

the main action antidiuretic hormone is
increased water conservation by kidneys

excess secretion of growth hormone during early development will cause
gigantism

which of the following hormones may lead to acromegaly if hypersecreted after closure of the epiphyseal plates
growth hormones

which of the following organs contain target cells for oxytocin
-prostate
-ductus deferens
-mammary glands
-uterus

the posterior pituitary gland secretes
ADH

the hormone produced by the pars intermedia of the adenohypophysis during early childhood is
MSH

each of the following hormones is produced by the pars distalis of the adenohypophyis, except
oxytocin

the hormone oxytocin
-promotes uterine contractions
-is responsible for milk expression from the mammary glands
-triggers prostate gland contractions
-is the produced in the hypothalamus

growth hormone does all of the following, except
causes fat accumulation with adipocytes

liver cells respond to growth hormone by releasing hormones called
somatomedins

the pituitary hormone that triggers the release of thyroid hormone from the thyroid gland is
TSH

the pituitary hormone that controls the release of glucocorticoids from the suprarenal cortex is
ACTH

the pituitary hormone that promotes egg development in ovaries and sperm development in testes is
FSH

the pituitary hormones that promotes ovarian secretion of progesterone and testicular secretion of testosterone is
LH

the pituitary hormone that stimulates milk production by the mammary glands is
prolactin

the pituitary hormone that stimulates cell growth and replication by accelerating protein synthesis is
somatotropin

the pituitary hormone that cuases the kidney to reduce water loss is
ADH

after brain surgery, a patient receiving postoperative care in an intensive care unit began to pass large volumes of very dilute urine. the ICU nurse administered a medicine that mimics one of the following hormones. which one?
ADH

the term used to describe excess production of urine is
polyuria

melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) is secreted by the human pars intermedia
-during pregnancy
-in very young children
-during fetal development
-in some disease processes

the two lobes of the pituitary gland together produce how many hormones
9

PRL is to ____ as ACTH is to ____
prolactin; corticotropin

the hormone that may be slowly administered by intravenous drip to accelerate labor and delivery is
oxytocin

which of the following elements is necessary for the production of thyroid hormone
iodine

which of the following cells are target cells for the hormone that causes a decrease in blood-calcium concentration
osteoclasts

which of the following is a known effect of thyroid hormone on peripheral tissues
-increased oxygen consumption
-increased heart rate
-increased sensitivity to adrenergic stimulation
-increased body temperature

thyroid hormone contains the element
iodine

mental and physical sluggishness and low body temperature may be signs of
hypothyroidism

the hormone that plays a pivotal role in setting the metabolic rate and thus impacting body temperature is
thyroxine

a hormone that can lower blood levels of calcium ion is
calcitonin

the condition known as hirsutism can result from too
much androgen production

the C cells of the thyroid gland produce
calcitonin

increased levels of the hormone ____ will lead to increased levels of calcium ion in the blood
PTH

where does the chemical reaction between thyroglobulin and iodine take place
in the lumen of the thyroid follicle

TSH plays a key role in the ____ of thyroid hormones
synthesis and release

the control of calcitonin excretion is a example of direct ____ regulation
endocrine

inadequate iodine in the diet may lead to
-hypothyroidism
-cretinism
-myxedema
high blood levels of THS

thyroxine and calcitonin are secreted by the
thyroid gland

the action of thyroid hormone on a target cell involves all these steps except one. identify the incorrect step
binding to a hormone receptor in the plasma membrane

which of the following is not an action of TSH
inhibits T3 and T4 secretion

before the discovery of these glands, thyroid surgery often led to a rapid drop in blood calcium levels, which triggered muscle contractions and cardiac arrhythmias. what glands are these and which hormone is lacking
parathyroid glands; parathyroid hormone

parathyroid hormone does all of the following, except that it doesn’t
build up bone

the hormone that does the opposite of calcitonin is
parathyroid hormone

the parathyroid glands produce a hormone that
increases the level of calcium ions in the blood

the zona reticularis of the suprarenal cortex produces
androgens

the zona fasciculata of the suprarenal cortex produces
glucocorticoids

the zona glomerulosa of the suprarenal cortex produces
mineralcorticoids

the suprarenal medulla produces
catecholamines

a hormone that promotes gluconeogenesis in the liver is
cortisol

a hormone that helps to regulate the sodium ion content of the body is
aldosterone

Cushing disease results from an excess of
glucocorticoids

reduction of fluid losses at the kidneys due to the retention of Na+ is the action of
aldosterone

the suprarenal medulla produces the hormones
epinephrine and norepinephrine

damage to cells of the zona fasciculata of the suprarenal cortex would result in
decreased ability to convert amino acids to glucose

a rise in cortisol would cause an increaase in each of the following, except
ACTH levels

if a patient is administered a powerful glucocorticoid (such as prednisone) to supress the immune system, what unintended effects might this have on blood chemistry
both an increase of insulin and an increase in blood glucose

too little secretion of cortisol and aldosterone causes
Addison disease

a hormone that is synergistic to growth hormone is
cortisol

cells of the suprarenal cortex produce
aldosterone

which of the following hormones increases and prolongs effects of the sympathetic nervous system
epinephrine

which gland is called the “emergency gland” and helps the body to adjust to stress
adrenal (suprarenal)

which group of hormones cause and an anti-inflammatory action
glucocorticoids

hormones from the adrenal cortex that electrolyte balance are
mineralcorticoids

which of these statements about melatonin is false
exposure to light stimulates production

pinealocytes produce
melatonin

melatonin is produced by the
pineal gland

each of the following is true of the pineal gland, except that it
is a component of the hypothalamus

the condition known as seasonal affective disorder (SAD) may be caused by
increased levels of melatonin

alpha cells are to ____ as beta cells are to ____
glucagon; insulin

if a diabetic patient received too much insulin, the low blood sugar could be corrected by injecting
glucagon

the primary targets of insulin are
-skeletal muscle fibers
-adipocytes
-liver cells
-cardiac muscle cells

the pancreatic hormone that causes blood sugar levels to fall is
insulin

in persons with untreated diabetes mellitus
-blood glucose levels are very high
-excessive thirst is shown
-glucose is present in the urine in large amounts
-a large excretion of urine occurs

which of the following might occur in an overdose of insulin
low blood glucose

Shelly has a hormone-secreting tumor of the suprarenal gland. the tumor is causing her to have a deep voice, to grow extensive body hair, and to stop menstruating. this tumor probably involves cells of the
zona reticularis

when blood glucose levels rise
insulin is released

when blood glucose levels fall
glucagon is released

the beta cells of the pancreatic islets produce
insulin

he delta cells of the pancreatic islets produce
somatostatin

the exocrine portion of the pancreas produces
digestive enzymes

type II diabetes is characterized by
a lack of response by target cells to insulin

which of the following hormones stimulates skeletal muscle fibers to take in glucose from the blood
insulin

which of the following directly regulates the secretion of insulin
blood-glucose concentration

the currently recognized normal range of blood-glucose is
70-110 mg/dl

the pancreatic islets (islets of langerhans)
contain four types of endocrine cells

the pancreatic hormone that causes blood sugar to enter its target cells is
insulin

inability of the pancreas to produce insulin results in
diabetes mellitus

a rise in angiotensin II levels would result in all of the following, except
increased urine production

angiotensin I is converted to angiotensin II by converting enzymes in the
lungs

the enzyme renin is responsible for the activation of
angiotensin

the interstitial cells of the testes produce
testosterone

follicle cells in the ovary secrete ____ when stimulated by FSH
estrogen

a structure known as the corpus luteum secretes
progesterone

the hormone that opposes the release of FSH in both males and females is
inhibin

the hormones that are important for coordinating the immune response are
thymosins

which of these hormones increases production of red blood cells
erythropoietin

the kidneys secrete
-renin
-erythropoietin
-calcitrol
-hormones to regulate sodium ion concentration

cholecalciferol is synthesized within the
epidermis of the integumentary system

the heart is known to secrete all of the following hormones, except
thymosin and thyroxine

increased aggressive and assertive behavior is associated with an increase in which of these hormones
sex hormones

the hormone that dominates during the alarm phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS) is
epinephrine

proper growth requires which of these hormones
-thyroid hormone
-calcitrol
-insulin
-growth hormone

during the alarm phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS) there is
mobilization of energy reserves

if stress lasts longer than a few hours, an individual will enter the ____ phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS)
resistance

hormones that dominate during the resistance phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS) are the
glucocorticoids

during the resistance phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS)
lipid reserves are mobilized

the exhaustion phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS) is characterized by
failure of electrolyte balance

Endocrine cells Release their secretions directly into bodily fluids Steroid hormones diffuse through the plasma membrane and bind to an intercellular receptor. True or false True WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR …

Permissive effect One hormone only works when another hormone is present Synergistic effect When two hormones act together and have a greater effect than the sum of their individual effects WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC …

The nervous system has been compared to an airmail delivery system and the endocrine system to the Pony Express. Briefly explain this comparison. Nervous system uses electrochemical impulses rapid control. Endocrine system more acting system uses chemical messengers. Hormone Steroidal …

Thyroid Gland Located in the throat, bilobed gland connected by an isthmus Adrenal Gland Found close to the kidney WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write my sample Pancreas a …

  Question: WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write my sample How is the level of production of thyroid hormones governed? Include the mechanisms involved in hypothalamus, anterior pituitary, and within …

chemical composition and volume The endocrine system controls the internal environment by regulating what? Endocrine system What responds to environmental changes? WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU FOR ONLY $13.90/PAGE Write my sample …

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