AP Euro Chapter 28

a
Between 1935 and 1940, union membership in the United States
A) doubled.
B) tripled.
C) fell by 25 percent
D) fell by 40 percent.
E) increased by 50 percent.

b
To resolve the economic problems of Germany and international tensions in Europe, the U.S. developed the
A) Agricultural Adjustment Act.
B) Dawes Plan.
C) League of Nations
D) New Deal.
E) Locarno Pact.

c
The parliamentary governments of Germany in the mid- to late 1920s were dominated by
A) Social Democrats.
B) right-wing nationalists.
C) moderate businessmen.
D) conservative aristocrats.
E) Christian Democrats.

e
Because France was ________________, the Great Depression hit France late.
A) well integrated into the world economy
B) highly industrialized
C) less industrialized, but well integrated into the world economy
D) the beneficiary of war reparations from Germany
E) less industrialized and more isolated from the world economy

a
The “middle way” refers to the
A) Scandinavian response to the Great Depression.
B) design philosophy of the Bauhaus.
C) reform of German reparations payments.
D) new literary efforts of writers such as Joyce and Faulkner.
E) British Liberal Party.

a
The composer Arnold Schönberg is known for
A) his creation of “twelve-tone” music that abandoned traditional harmony and tonality.
B) his composition of nationalistic German operas.
C) his symphonies composed for broadcast to popular audiences on the German Deutsche Welle radio network.
D) his use of pulsing dissonant rhythms in the ballet Rites of Spring.
E) his composition of musical background for the first “talkies.”

c
At its height during the Great Depression, unemployment in the United States reached
A) 10 percent.
B) 25 percent.
C) 33 percent.
D) 50 percent.
E) 75 percent.

e
According to the text, Britain was more ready to conciliate Germany than France following the Versailles peace settlement because
A) the British and Germans shared a common cultural heritage.
B) the British feared the growth of French military power.
C) the British wanted a strong Germany as a bulwark against Bolshevism.
D) the British hoped to purchase new ships for their battle fleet in Germany.
E) the British had depended heavily on the German market for their exports before World War I.

d
All of the following artistic styles emerged in the Age of Anxiety except
A) surrealism.
B) cubism.
C) dadaism.
D) impressionism.
E) extreme expressionism.

b
The British political party that emerged during the 1920s as the champion of the working class and the main opposition to the Conservative party was the
A) Liberal party.
B) Labour party.
C) Social Democratic party
D) Communist party.
E) Christian Democratic party.

c
All of the following statements about the Bauhaus movement are accurate except that it
A) combined fine and applied arts.
B) stressed functional design.
C) combined expressionism and cubism to form surrealism.
D) was led by Walter Gropius.
E) had a great and continuing impact.

d
Authors such as Marcel Proust, James Joyce, and William Faulkner wrote about
A) societal problems.
B) utopian escapist themes.
C) romantic themes of love and personal fulfillment.
D) the complexity and irrationality of the human mind.
E) Christian salvation.

c
One of the earliest full-length feature films produced in the United States was
A) The Great Train Robbery.
B) Gone with the Wind.
C) Birth of a Nation.
D) What the Butler Saw.
E) Metropolitan.

a
The logical empiricism espoused by Ludwig Wittgenstein argued that
A) philosophy is only the logical clarification of thoughts.
B) individuals must become “engaged” in modern life.
C) one must search for moral values and then act on those values.
D) the concept of God could be adapted to fit within the Einsteinian universe.
E) angst zeit was the fundamental reality of the modern age

a
Challenges to the centrality of rational thought to understand the human condition came from all of the following philosophers except
A) Ludwig Wittgenstein.
B) Henri Bergson.
C) Georges Sorel.
D) Friedrich Nietzsche.
E) Søren Kierkegaard.

e
JeanPaul Sartre stressed
A) the role of emotion in understanding reality.
B) the remoteness of God.
C) the role of religion in human behavior.
D) that philosophy is only the study of language.
E) that individuals must give meaning to life through actions

a
Friedrich Nietzsche maintained all of the following except that
A) religious belief provided stability in an absurd world.
B) conventional morality was suffocating self-realization and excellence.
C) rationality had been overemphasized.
D) a few superior beings could rise above the masses to become heroes.
E) Christianity was a “slave morality.”

d
The Christian revival after World War I depended heavily on which of the following earlier philosophers and theologians?
A) Friedrich Nietzsche.
B) Gabriel Marcel.
C) Jean-Jacques Rousseau.
D) Søren Kierkegaard.
E) Ignatius Loyola.

d
Albert Einstein’s greatest contribution to the destruction of the Newtonian universe was his
A) discovery of quanta.
B) principle of uncertainty.
C) discovery of the radioactive properties of radium.
D) theory of special relativity.
E) deconstruction of atomic theory

b
In The Decline of the West, Oswald Spengler argued that
A) rampant homosexuality was destroying Western culture.
B) the West would soon be conquered by “the yellow race.”
C) decolonization was a moral imperative for Europe.
D) traditional Christian morality was weakening the West.
E) only socialism could save the West.

c
The first major public broadcasts of special events by radio were made in
A) 1938.
B) 1933.
C) 1920.
D) 1912.
E) 1901.

a
The British Broadcasting Corporation is representative of
A) a middle path between private networks in the U.S. and direct control on the continent.
B) the role of private corporations in the development of radio entertainment.
C) propaganda value of radio broadcasts.
D) Britain’s direct control of the airwaves.
E) the failure of publicly owned radio to reach the masses.

d
With Russia hostile and communist, France turned to a defensive alliance with
A) the United States.
B) Italy and Austria.
C) the Soviet Union.
D) the “little Entente.”
E) Spain.

a
With the U.S. failure to ratify the Versailles Treaty, many French leaders placed their hopes for future security on
A) strict implementation of the treaty.
B) the alliance with Great Britain.
C) the League of Nations.
D) a closer relationship with Germany.
E) Bolshevik pressure on Germany.

e
When Germany refused to make its second reparations payment, France and Belgium
A) declared war.
B) established a naval blockade of German ports.
C) appealed to the League of Nations.
D) declared the Versailles Treaty null and void.
E) occupied the Ruhr district.

a
German government printing of money to pay unemployment benefits to workers striking in the Ruhr against the Franco-Belgian occupation of 1923 led to
A) hyperinflation.
B) French withdrawal from the Ruhr.
C) a rise in the Ruhr workers’ standard of living.
D) the crash of the U.S. stock market.
E) buying up of German currency by French speculators.

d
The slide into depression from 1929 to 1933 is best explained by the lack of leadership in the international economy and
A) poor national economic policy in Britain.
B) poor national economic policy in Germany.
C) poor national economic policy in the United States.
D) poor national economic policy in almost every country.
E) poor national economic policy in the Soviet Union.

e
In the 1920s support for Adolf Hitler’s National Socialist party
A) was strongest among wealthy businessmen and aristocrats.
B) was broad throughout the German population.
C) was stronger than that for any political party other than the Social Democrats.
D) declined until the party had no seats in the Reichstag.
E) was weak and confined to a few anti-Semites, ultranationalists, and angry veterans.

d
Buying stocks “on margin” refers to the practice of
A) buying stocks and selling them as soon as any gain is realized.
B) buying stocks in high-risk businesses.
C) buying stocks with loans secured against high-risk bonds.
D) buying stocks with loans from stockbrokers.
E) buying stocks with retirement funds.

c
According to the text, the American stock market crash of October 1929 was primarily the result of
A) nationalist economic policies in Europe.
B) too much overseas investment.
C) an imbalance between real investment and speculation.
D) the government’s Keynesian economic policies.
E) failure of Germany to keep up reparations payments.

a
President Franklin Roosevelt’s Works Progress Administration attempted to
A) plan and control the U.S. economy.
B) solve the problem of unemployment.
C) establish a social welfare system.
D) nationalize banks, railroads, and heavy industry.
E) set up a comprehensive program of wage and price controls for the U.S. economy

a
The Swedish response to the Depression involved
A) increasing state spending on public works projects and increasing social welfare benefits.
B) increasing military spending.
C) balancing the government budget by cutting government programs.
D) erecting trade barriers and putting the currency on the gold standard.
E) taking out loans from American banks.

a
The most fundamental commitment of the New Deal was to
A) reform the capitalist system.
B) concentrate political power in the federal government.
C) resuscitate free trade economics and balanced budgets as soon as possible.
D) use the federal government to provide for the welfare of all Americans.
E) reduce the United States’ international trade deficit.

c
According to the text, the Great Depression did not hit Britain as hard as the United States or Germany in part because
A) Britain had a tradition of deficit spending by the government.
B) the British government followed the recommendations of economist John Maynard Keynes.
C) the British economy gradually reoriented away from international markets and toward production of consumer goods for the domestic market.
D) the United States provided Britain with substantial economic assistance.
E) British colonies served as a constant market for British goods.

e
The Popular Front was formed in response to
A) the occupation of the Ruhr.
B) U.S. isolationism.
C) the threat of Soviet intervention in the Spanish Civil War.
D) the growth of communism.
E) the growth of fascism.

a
Which of the following events occurred first?
A) French and Belgian armies occupy the Ruhr.
B) Kellogg-Briand pact signed.
C) Franklin Roosevelt elected U.S. president.
D) Popular Front is formed in France.
E) Germany joins League of Nations.

d
Which of the following events occurred last?
A) French and Belgian armies occupy the Ruhr.
B) Kellogg-Briand pact signed.
C) Franklin Roosevelt elected U.S. president.
D) Popular Front is formed in France.
E) Germany joins League of Nations.

b
Georges Sorel saw Marxian socialism as
A) the science of history.
B) an inspiring, but unprovable religion.
C) the enemy of human freedom.
D) a dark and sinister fantasy.
E) the apex of human reason.

d
For ____________, the basic fact about human beings was that they are imperfect.
A) Georges Sorel
B) Max Planck
C) Ludwig Wittgenstein
D) Karl Barth
E) Jean-Paul Sartre

a
According to Freud, ingrained moral values, the ____________, specify what a person should do.
A) superego
B) ego
C) id
D) sex drive
E) irrational mind

e
Ulysses is an example of
A) realism.
B) expressionism.
C) naturalism.
D) post-modernism.
E) the stream-of-consciousness technique.

c
According to the principle of ____________, buildings should serve the purpose for which they were made.
A) post-modernism
B) modernism
C) functionalism
D) utilitarianism
E) purposefullism

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