Anatomy and Physiology Ch. 2

A force distributed over area
Pressure

What kind of pressure causes air to enter a chamber that has expanded until the pressure is equalized?
Negative pressure

How many cervical vertebrae are there?
7

How many thoracic vertebrae are there?
12

How many lumbar vertebrae are there?
5

How many sacral vertebrae are there?
5 (fused)

What passes through the vertebral foramen?
Spinal cord

Contraction of the diaphragm increases which dimension of the thorax?
Vertical dimension

Contraction of the accessory muscles of inspiration increases what dimension of the thorax?
Transverse dimension

Do the contraction of the muscles of expiration increase or decrease the volume of the thorax?
Decrease

The exchange of oxygen between an organism and its environment
Respiration

Gas exchange occurs within the minute air sacs of the lungs called
Alveoli

The lungs are housed within the
Thorax

The functional unit of the vertebral column is the
Vertebrae

The channel through which the spinal cord passes
Vertebral foramen

Spinal nerves exit the spinal cord via the
Intervertebral foramen

The odontoid process is only present on which vertebra?
2nd cervical vertebra

C1 is termed the
Atlas

The pelvic girdle is comprised of the ilium, sacrum, pubic bone, and
Ischium

The inferior-most component to the vertebral column
Coccyx

The pectoral girdle consists of
The scapula and clavicle

How many floating ribs?
2

The point of attachment on the sternum for the first rib and clavicle
Manubrium sterni

The inferior-most aspect of the sternum
Xiphoid process (ensiform process)

A flexible tube beneath the larynx, forming the first passageway to the lungs
Trachea

The point of bifurcation of the trachea
Carina

The esophagus is ______ to the trachea
Posterior

Which lung has 2 lobes?
Left

During inspiration, the diaphragm is contracted, which causes it to
Depress

During inspiration, the inspiratory muscles of the rib cage contract, causing the rib cage to
Elevate

When the rib cage becomes smaller during respiration, air will flow ______ the lungs
Out of

The term used for a punctured lung
Pneumothorax

What completely envelops the lungs and the interior thoracic wall?
Pleural lining

Mediastinum
The space holding the heart

Which nerve innervates the diaphragm?
Phrenic nerve

Which tendon is the point of insertion for all muscle fibers of the diaphragm?
Central tendon

Where does the phrenic nerve arise from?
Cervical plexus

What muscle elevates the sternum and clavicle, and also rotates the head?
Sternocleidomastoid

What muscle is actually a muscle of the arm, and elevates the rib cage by means of sternal and clavicular muscular components?
Pectoralis major

Which muscle is a massive muscle of inspiration making up the superficial upper back and neck? It originates along the spinous processes of C2 and T12 by means of fascial connection.
Trapezius

What is the opening of the diaphragm called that permits connection of the pharyngeal region with the stomach?
Esophageal hiatus

The superior-most structure of the sternum
Manubrium sterni

The head of the first rib attaches to this structure
Manubrium sterni

Forms the anterior-most attachmet of the diaphragm
Xiphoid process

The inferior-most component of the vertebral column
Coccyx

Vertebrae that have an opening through which the vertebral artery passes
Cervial vertebrae

Forms the superior aspect of the pectoral girdle
Clavicle

Boyle’s law
As the volume of a container increases, the air pressure within the container decreases

Will negative or positive pressure cause air to enter the container until the pressure is equalized?
Negative pressure

What happens to pressure when volume decreases?
Pressure increases

The spinal column provides the points of attachment for numerous muscles by means of which 2 types of processes?
Spinous and transverse processes

The bony structure of the respiratory system is composed of
The rib cage and vertebral column

What is at the base of the vertebral column?
Pelvic girdle

The pelvic girdle is composed of
ilium, sacrum, pubic bone, ischium

The pectoral girdle is comprised of
Scapula and clavicle (which attach to sternum)

Which structure provides the points of attachment for the lower extremities?
Pelvic girdle

Which structure provides the points of attachment for the upper extremities?
Pectoral girdle

The rib cage is composed of how many ribs?
12 pairs

What permits the ribs to rotate slightly during respiration, allowing the rib cage to elevate?
Cartilaginous attachments

The construction of the rib gives what characteristic shape of the rib cage?
Curved barrel shape

At rest the ribs slope
Downward

The ribs _____ during inspiration
Elevate

What is a critical organ of the respiratory system?
The lungs

Which lung has 3 lobes?
Right

By which means does the communication between the external and internal environments occur?
By the trachea and bronchial tree

The site of gas exchange
Alveoli

What lines the bronchial passageway and removes pollutants entering the respiratory tract through a cleansing action?
Beating epithelia

What conjoins the lungs with the thoracic wall, providing the mechanism for air movement through muscular action?
Pleural linings

What expands the lungs, drawing air into them through the bronchial passageway?
Diaphragmatic contraction

The primary muscle of inspiration
Diaphragm

What is the dividing line between the thorax and the abdomen?
Diaphragm

The fibers of the diaphragm pull on the
Central tendon

The contraction of the diaphragm during inspiration expands the lungs in which dimension?
Vertical dimension

Besides the diaphragm, what other muscles are used for inspiration and expiration. (General term)
Accessory muscles

To inflate the lungs, you need to ____ the cavity that holds them so air can rush in
Expand

What is happening when the thorax pulls down and in and forces the diaphragm higher into the thorax?
Forced expiration

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