Wender et al. (1986)
Nurnberger and Gershon (1982) [Twins studies]
Burns (2003) [Brain serotonin]
Rampello et al. (2000) [Neurotransmitter Imbalance]
Another biological theory of depression is the cortisol hypothesis. Cortisol is a major hormone in the stress system.
Aaron Beck (1976) [Cognitive distortions and biases in information processing]
Albert Ellis (1962)
Brown and Harris (1978)
Murphy et al (1967) [Cultural considerations]
Marsella (1979) [Individualistic Cultures]
Beck’s theory proposed three factors that contribute to a person’s cognitive vulnerability to depression. These three factors are known as a cognitive triad and it underlies the information-processing style of depressed individuals. The cognitive triad is a cluster of negative thoughts grouped into three categories: the self, the world and the future. A person develops and maintains these negative core beliefs through a set of cognitive bias such as: over-generalization, selective abstraction (focusing on negative aspects of something) and polar reason (not being able to appreciate ambiguity in interpretations of life). These cognitive biases combine to give the person a negative self-schema, which gives them a fundamentally pessimistic attitude about themselves and making it very difficult for a person to see anything positive in life. This can be contributed to parents or peers early on in life.
It is important to remember that the precise role of cognitive processes is yet to be determined. The maladaptive cognitions seen in depressed people may be a consequence rather than a cause of depression.
I. Losing one’s mother at an early age
II. Lack of a confiding relationship
III. More than three young children at home
V. History of child abuse
To investigate the social origins of depression in women
There is a link between recent negative life events and the onset of depression.
– Loss of sexual interest
– Loss of appetite
– Weight reduction
– Self-accusatory ideas