Adverse drug reaction

1. Cell injury (a) Cause and mechanism: Ischemic, Toxic and Apoptosis (b) Reversible cell injury: Types, morphology, hyaline, fatty change (c) Irreversible cell injury: Types of necrosis, gangrene (d) Calcification: Dystrophic and metastatic (e) Extracellular accumulation: Amyloidosis, classification, pathogenesis, morphology 2. Inflammation and repair (a) Acute inflammation: features, causes, vascular and cellular events. (b) Morphological variant of acute inflammation (c) Inflammatory cells and mediators (d) Chronic inflammation: causes, types, non-specific and granulomatous with common examples.

(e) Wound healing by primary and secondary union, factors promoting and delaying the process and complications 3. Immunopathology (a) Immune pathology: organization, cells, antibodies and regulations of immune responses (b) Hypersensitivity: types and examples, antibodies and cell mediated tissue injury with examples. (c) Autoimmune disorders like Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (d) Organ transplantation: immunological basis of rejection and graft versus host reaction 4. Infectious diseases (a) Mycobacterial diseases: tuberculosis and leprosy (b) Bacterial diseases: pyogenic, typhoid, dyptheria, gram –ve infections, bacillary dysentery, syphilis.

(c) Viral: polio, herpes, rabies, measles, rickettsial, chlamydial infections (d) Fungal disease and opportunistic infections (e) Parasitic diseases: malaria, filaria, amoebiasis, kala azar, cysticercosis, hydatid (f) AIDS: etiology, modes of transmission, pathogenesis, pathology, complications, diagnostic procedures and handling of infected materials and health education 5. Circulatory disturbances (a) Oedema: pathogenesis and types (b) Chronic venous congestion: lung, liver, spleen (c) Thrombosis and embolism: formation, fate and effects (d) Infarction: types, common sites, gangrene (e) Shock: pathogenesis, types, morphological chances.

6. Growth disturbances (a) Atrophy, hypertrophy, hyperplasia, hypoplasia, metaplasia, malformation, agenesis, dysplasia (b) Neoplasia: causes, classification, histogenesis, biological behaviour, benign and malignant, carcinoma and sarcoma (c) Malignant neoplasia: grades and stages, local and distant spread (d) Carcinogenesis: Environmental carcinogen, chemical, viral, occupational, hereditary and basics of molecular basis of cancer (e) Tumour and host interaction: systemic effects including para neoplastic syndrome , tumour immunology (f) Laboratory diagnosis: cytology, biopsy, tumour markers.

(g) Tumours and tumour like conditions of soft tissues 7. Miscellaneous disorders (a) Autosomal and sex-linked disorders with examples (b) Protein energy malnutrition and vitamin deficiency disorders (c) Radiation injuries (d) Disorders of pigments and mineral metabolism such as bilirubin, melanin, haemosiderin M. B. B. S. Phase II – SSUHS, Guwahati -28. Haematopathology (a) Anaemia: classification and clinical features (b) Nutritional anaemia: Iron deficiency, folic acid/ vit B 12 deficiency anaemia including pernicious anaemia (c) Haemolytic anaemia: classification and investigation.

(d) Hereditary haemolytic anaemia: thalassemia, sickle cell anaemia, hereditary spherocytosis and G 6 P D deficiency (e) Acquired haemolytic anaemia (f) Aplastic anemia (g) Haemostatic disorders: platelet deficiency, ITP, drug induced, secondary (h) Coagulopathies: coagulation factor deficiency, hemophilia, DIC and anticoagulant control (i) Leucocytic disorders: Leucocytosis, leucopoenia, leucamoid reaction (j) Acute and chronic leukemia: classification and diagnosis (k) Multiple myeloma and dysproteinemias (l) Blood transfusion: grouping and cross matching untoward reactions, transmissible infections including HIV and hepatitis.

(m) Haemolytic anemias: autoimmune, alloimmune, drug induced, microangiopathic and malaria (n) Myelodysplastic syndrome (o) Myeloproliferative disorders: polycythemia, myelofibrosis ***** M. B. B. S. Phase II – SSUHS, Guwahati PATHOLOGY Paper-II 1. Cardiovascular pathology (a) Rheumatic heart disease: pathogenesis and morphology (b) Infective endocarditis: causes and pathogenesis (c) Atheroscelorosis and ischemic heart disease: myocardial infarction (d) Hypertension and hypertensive heart disease (e) Congenital heart disease: ASD, VSD, Fallot’s tetralogy, Biscuspid aortic valve, PDA (f) Pericarditis.

(g) Cardiomyopathy 2. Respiratory Pathology (a) Inflammatory diseases of bronchi: chronic bronchitis, bronchial asthma, bronchiectasis (b) Pneumonias: lobar, broncho, interstitial (c) Lung abscess: etiopathogenesis and morphology (d) Pulmonary tuberculosis: primary and secondary, morphologic types including pleuritis (e) Emphysema: type and pathogenesis (f) Tumors: benign, malignant, squamous cell, oat cell, adeno, etiopathogenesis (g) Structure of bronchial tree and alveolar walls, normal and altered lung function, concepts of obstructive and restrictive lung disorders

(h) Nasopharyngeal and laryngeal tumors (i) Occupational lung disorders: anthracosis, silicosis, asbestosis, mesothelioma (j) Atelectasis and hyaline membrane disease. 3. Urinary tract pathology (a) Basics of impaired function and urinalysis (b) Glomerulonephritis: classification, primary proliferative and non proliferative, secondary (SLE, polyarteritis, amyloidosis, diabetes) (c) Nephrotic syndrome (d) Acute renal failure: acute tubular and cortical necrosis (e) Pyelonephritis, reflux nephropathy, interstitial nephritis (f) Renal cell tumors: renal cell carcinoma, nephroblastoma.

(g) Urinary bladder: cystitis, carcinoma (h) Progressive renal failure and end stage renal disease (i) Renal vascular disorders (j) Urinary tract tuberculosis (k) Nephrolithiasis and obstructive nephropathy (l) Renal malformation polycystic kidney 4. Pathology of Gatrointestinal tract (a) Oral pathology: leukoplakia, carcinoma oral cavity and esophagus (b) Peptic ulcer: etiopathogenesis and complications, gastritis types (c) Tumors of stomach: benign, polyp, leiomyoma, malignant, adenocarcinoma, lymphoma (d) Inflammatory disease of small intestine: typhoid, tuberculosis, Crohn’s disease, appendicitis.

(e) Inflammatory disease of large intestine: amoebic colitis, bacillary dysentery, ulcerative colitis (f) Large and small intestine tumors: polyps, carcinoid, carcinoma, lymphoma (g) Pancreatitis (h) Salivary gland tumors: mixed, adenoids, cystic, Warthin’s (i) Ischemic and pseudomembranous enterocolitis, diverticulitis (j) Malabsorption-coeliac disease, tropical sprue and other causes (k) Pancreatic tumors: endocrine, exocrine and periampullary (l) Liver and Billiary tract pathology (a) Jaundice: types, pathogenesis and differentiation.

(b) Hepatitis: acute and chronic, etiology, pathogenesis and pathology (c) Cirrohosis: etiology, classification, pathology, complications (d) Portal hypertension: types and manifestation (e) Diseases of gall bladder: cholecystitis, cholelithiasis, carcinoma (f) Tumors of liver: hepatocellular, metastatic, tumor markers 5. Lymphoreticular system (a) Lymphadenitis: non-specific, granulomatous (b) Hodgkin’s and Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, classification, morphology (c) Diseases of spleen: splenomegaly and effects 6. Reproductive system.

(a) Diseases of cervix: cervicitis, cervical carcinoma, etiology, cytological diagnosis (b) Hormonal influences and histological appearances of different phases of menstrual cycles and the abnormality associated with it M. B. B. S. Phase II – SSUHS, Guwahati -2- 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. (c) Diseases of uterus: endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma, adenomyosis, smooth muscle tumours (d) Trophoblastic diseases: hydatidiform, choriocarcinoma (e) Diseases of breast: mastitis, abscess, fibrocystic disease, neoplastic lesions, fibroadenoma, carcinoma, phylloides tumors (f) Prostate: nodular hyperplasia, carcinoma (g) Ovarian and testicular tumours.

(h) Carcinoma of penis (i) Pelvic inflammatory disease including salpingitis (j) Genital tuberculosis Osteopathology (a) Osteomyelitis: acute, chronic, tuberculosis (b) Metabolic diseases: rickets/osteomalacia, osteoporosis, hyper parathyroidism (c) Tumors: primary, osteosarcoma, osteoclastoma, Ewing’s sarcoma, chondro sarcoma, (d) metastatic (e) Arthritis: rheumatoid, osteoid and tuberculosis (f) Healing of fractures Endocrine pathology (a) Diabetes mellitus: types, pathogenesis, pathology (b) Non neoplastic lesion of thyroid: Iodine deficiency goiter, autoimmune thyroiditis, (c) thyrotoxicosis, myxoedema.

(d) Tumors of thyroid: adenoma, carcinoma: papillary, follicular, medullary, anaplastic (e) Adrenal disease: cortical hyperplasia, atrophy, tuberculosis, tumors of cortex and medulla (f) Parathyroid hyperplasia and tumors Neuropathology (a) Inflammatory disorders: pyogenic and tuberculous meningitis, brain abscess, tuberculoma (b) CNS tumors-primary glioma and meningioma and metastatic (c) CSF and its disturbances: cerebral oedema, raised intracranial pressure (d) Cerebrovascular disease: atherosclerosis, thrombosis, embolism, aneurysm, hypoxia, infarction and hemorrhage Dermatolopathology.

Skin tumors: squamous cell, basal cell and melanoma ***** M. B. B. S. Phase II – SSUHS, Guwahati MICROBIOLOGY Paper-I 1. General Microbiology: (a) General concepts of infectious diseases prevalent in India (morbidity, mortality data). (b) Significant milestones in history of infectious diseases. (c) Definitions pertaining to infectious diseases. (eg: host, parasite, endogenous, exogenous, transmission, routes, source, reservoir etc). (d) Classification of microbes from clinical view point. (e) Normal human microbial flora of and its importance in health and disease. (f) Bacterial cell: anatomy, physiology and genetics.

(g) Sterilization, disinfections and standard precautions in patient care and disease prevention. (h) Antimicrobials: mode of action, testing, interpretation of results and rational use, mechanism of resistance. 2. Immunology: (a) Immune apparatus, lymphoid organs, Immunobiology (b) Antigen and antibody. (c) Ag+Ab –reactions, serology. (d) Cell and humoral immunity in health and disease. (e) Hypersensitivity. (f) Tumor immunity/transplantation and auto-immunity. 3. Systematic Bacteriology: (a) Gram Positive/Negative Cocci /Bacilli associated with human infections. (i) Vibrio, Campylobacter, Helicobacter.

(ii) Mycobacteria, (iii) Anaerobic bacteria (iv) Spirochaetes (v) Chlamydia, Rickettsia, Mycoplasma (vi) Miscellaneous bacteria of clinical importance. (vii) Legionella,Listeria etc. ****** M. B. B. S. Phase II – SSUHS, Guwahati MICROBIOLOGY Paper-II 1. Virology: (a) General properties, structure, replication, classifications. (b) Antiviral agents. (c) General concepts in laboratory diagnosis of viral infections. (d) Herpes, Adeno, Arbo, Picorna, Orthomyxo, Paramyxo, Rabies, HIV, Hepatitis, (e) Miscellaneous virus of medical importance: (Rota, Corona, etc) (f) Viral vaccines. (g) Pox, slow and oncogenic. 2. Parasitology:

(a) General concepts and definition of key terms, infections of national prevalence. (b) Protozoal infections prevalent in India: (i) Intestinal (ii) Blood (iii) Genital (c) Helminths (Intestinal and tissue) prevalent in India. (i) Cestodes (ii) Nematodes (iii) Trematodes 3. Mycology: (a) General properties and classification of fungal diseases, approach to laboratory diagnosis (sample collection, identification), antifungal agents. 4. Applied Microbiology: (a) CNS Infections: Acute and chronic meningitis, encephalitis and brain abscess. (b) PUO/FUO: Infective and non infective causes and approach to diagnosis.

(c) Diarrhoeal diseases (including food poisoning) (d) Respiratory Tract Infection (Upper & Lower) (e) UTI (f) Wound infection (g) Skin and soft tissue infections (h) Eye and ear infections (i) Sexually transmitted Infections (j) Female genital tract infections (k) Infections in immuno-compromised individuals (l) Bone and Joint infections (m) Hospital Associated Infections and its prevention. (n) Zoonotic diseases. (o) National Programmes of Communicable Diseases. (p) Investigation of outbreaks and notification. ****** M. B. B. S. Phase II – SSUHS, Guwahati PHARMACOLOGY Paper-I 1. General Pharmacology.

(a) Pharmacology: Definition, scope, various branches (b) General principles and mechanism of drug action (c) Concept of therapeutic Index and margin of safety (d) Drug nomenclature (e) Molecular mechanism of drug action 2. Clinical Pharmacology – Basic Concepts (a) Scope and relevance of clinical pharmacology (b) Routes of administration of drugs, drug delivery system (c) Pharmacokinetics – Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Excretion (d) Bioavailability and bioequivalence (e) Factors modifying drug action and drug dosage (f).

Drug interactions Pharmacogenomics (g) Adverse Drug Reactions, Pharmacovigilance, (h) Therapeutic drug monitoring & Adherence (i) Essential drugs and fixed dose drug combinations, Pharmacoeconomics, Drug Regulation & (j) Drug Acts, Legal aspects, Inventory Control 3. Autonomic Pharmacology (a) General principles of autonomic neurotransmission (b) Cholinergic and anticholinergic drugs (c).

Adrenergic drugs and antiadrenergic drugs (d) Skeletal muscle relaxants Cardiovascular system (e) Antihypertensive drugs, their mechanism of action, adverse drug reactions, drug interactions and basis of combining commonly used drugs. (f) Pharmacology of calcium channel blockers. (g) Drugs affecting Renin Angiotensin system.

(h) Approaches to treatment of myocardial Infarction Drugs used in treatment of angina pectoris. (i) Drug treatment of peripheral vascular diseases (j) Pharmacology of vasodilators and cardiac glycosides; usage in CHF (k) Treatment of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia, Atrial dysrhythmias, sudden cardiac arrest and ventricular fibrillation. 4. Respiratory system (a) Drugs used in the treatment of bronchial asthma, mechanism of action,common side effects and precautions to be taken during their use. (b) Antitussives: pharmacological actions, indications, contraindications and common side effects.

(c) Expectorants and mucolytic agents: mechanism of actions, side effects, and precautions to be taken. 5. Drugs affecting blood and blood formation (a) Anti-anaemic drugs : Mechanisms of iron absorption from GIT and factors modifying it, (b) Adverse drug reactions, oral and parenteral preparations, treatment of iron deficiency anaemia (c) Pharmacology of folic acid, vitamin B12, vitamin K, erythropoietin. (d) Anticoagulants: Mechanisms of action of heparin and oral anticoagulants, indications, monitoring of therapy and the treatment of bleeding due to their overdose, drug interactions.

(e) Drugs inhibiting platelet aggregations, their indications and precautions for their use. (f) Properties and indications for the use of plasma expanders. (g) Fibrinolytics and anti fibrinolytics; Indications, adverse reactions. (h) Hypolipoproteinemia drugs: Mechanism of actions, adverse drug reaction and indications. 6. Diuretics (a) Diuretics: mechanism of action, pattern of electrolyte excretion under their influence. (b) Short term side effects and long term complications of diuretic therapy. (c) Therapeutic uses of diuretics. M. B. B. S. Phase II – SSUHS, Guwahati -27.

Chemotherapy (a) General principles of chemotherapy, rational use of antimicrobial agents, indications for prophylactic and combined uses of antimicrobials. (b) Chemotherapeutic agents: penicillins, cephalosporins, aminoglycosides, broad spectrum antimicrobial agents, quinolones, sulphonamides and other newer drugs; their mechanism of actions, side effects, indications, resistance, drug interactions. (c) Antiseptics, disinfectants and their use based on their pharmacological properties. (d) Anticancer drugs, mechanism of actions, indications, side effects, contraindications, precautions.

Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 1. National Health programmes like: (a) Tuberculosis (b) Leprosy (c) HIV and STD (d) Malaria (e) Syphilis and gonorrhea (f) RCH programme (g) Upper and lower respiratory infections (h) Diarrhoea (i) OCP (j) Filariasis (k) Anaemia (l) Diabetes Mellitus 2. Infective/Parasitic conditions (a) Influenza (b) Urinary Tract infections (c) Typhoid and other GIT infections (d) Amoebiasis (e) Worm infestations (f) Fungal Infections 3. Other common conditions (a) Hypertension (b) Angina Pectoris (c) Myocardial Infarction (d) Congestive Cardiac Failure.

(e) Shock and other emergencies (f) Hyperlipidemia (g) Osteoporosis (h) Epilepsy (i) Parkinsonism (j) Asthma and COPD (k) Osteoarthritis and gout (l) Rheumatoid arthritis 4. Other topics: (a) Treatment of pain (b) Treatment of insomnia (c) Treatment of cough (d) Treatment of fever of unknown origin (PUO) (e) Drugs used in labour (f) IV fluids (g) Clinical uses of glucocorticoids (h) P-drug or how to select a drug for a given patient in a given situation (i) Essential drugs (j) Drug therapy in special situations (pregnancy, lactation, children, geriatrics, renal and hepatic diseases). ****** M. B.

B. S. Phase II – SSUHS, Guwahati PHARMACOLOGY Paper-II 1. Antacids and related drugs (a) Histamine receptor antagonists, their pharmacological actions, indications, adverse effects and precautions. (b) Pharmacology of drugs acting on prostaglandins, 5-HT receptors and leukotrienes. 2. Central Nervous System, Psychopharmacology, Drugs used in Anaesthetic practice (a) Drugs used in epilepsy, selection of appropriate drug for various types of epilepsy and adverse effects of drugs. (b) Hypnotics used currently in clinical practice, indications, contraindications, adverse effects, drug interactions.

(c) Opioid and analgesics; Pharmacological actions, indications, contraindications, adverse effects and drug interactions of commonly used analgesics. (d) Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs): Pharmacological actions, indications, contraindications, adverse effects and drug interactions of commonly used drugs. (e) Drugs used in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease: anticholinergic agents, dopamine agonists, (f) MOAI, COMTI; their indications, contra-indications, adverse effects and drug interactions. (g) Disease modifying agents in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

(h) Pharmacology of ethanol and methanol poisoning. (i) Agents used in the treatment of gout (acute and chronic). (j) Drugs used for psychosis, anxiety, depression, and manic depressive illness. (k) Drugs of addiction/abuse and dependence. (l) General anaesthetics; Cardinal features, merits and demerits of commonly used anaesthetics, drug interactions. (m) Pre-anaesthetic adjuvants: uses, indications, contraindications, adverse effects and drug interactions. (n) Local Anaesthetic agents: Pharmacological basis, adverse drug reactions, Indications and complications of spinal anaesthesia.

(o) Neuroleptanalgesia, Disassociative anaesthesia. (p) (Endogenous opioid peptides, and their functions, opioid receptors and their subtypes; Centrally acting muscle relaxants). 3. Gastro-intestinal system (a) Pharmacotherapy of peptic ulcer, mechanism of actions, adverse drug reacti ons, contraindications and precautions. (b) Antiemetic agents: mechanism of actions, uses, side effects. (c) Pharmacological basis of use of drugs in diarrhea. (d) Drugs used in ulcerative colitis. 4. Drugs acting on Endocrine System (a) Thyroid hormones and antithyroid drugs: Pharmacological actions, indications, contraindications and side effects.

(b) Drugs used for pharmacotherapy of diabetes mellitus, mechanism of actions, contraindications, precautions during the use and side effects. Management of iatrogenic hypoglycemia and diabetic ketoacidosis. (c) Sex hormones, their analogues and antagonists, uses in replacements and pharmacotherapy, outlining the rational for such use, contraindications and side effects. (d) Pharmacological approaches to contraception, side effects and precautions during use and contraindications. (e) Uterine relaxants, and uterine stimulants, indications, side effects, contraindications.

(f) Hormones of adrenal cortex, their synthetic analogues, pharmacological actions, therapeutic uses, precautions, side effects and contraindications. (g) Hormones and drugs affecting calcium metabolism, therapeutic indications, contraindications and side effects. (h) Drugs used in the treatment of infertility. M. B. B. S. Phase II – SSUHS, Guwahati -25. Toxicology (a) General principles of treatment of poisoning including snake bite. (b) Heavy metal poisoning and heavy metal antagonists. (c) Management of overdosage with commonly used therapeutic agents. 6. Miscellaneous.

(a) Vaccines, Drugs modulating Immune system. (b) Vitamins. ***** M. B. B. S. Phase II – SSUHS, Guwahati FORENSIC MEDICINE 1. Definition of Forensic Medicine and Medical Jurisprudence. 2. Courts in India and their powers: Supreme Court, High Court, Sessions Court, Additional Sessions Court, Magistrate’s Courts. 3. Court procedures: Summons, conduct money, oath, affirmation, perjury, types of witnesses, recording of evidence, conduct of doctor in witness box. 4. Medical certification and medico-legal reports including dying declaration. 5. Death : (a) Definition, types; somatic, cellular and brain – death.

(b) Natural and unnatural deaths. (c) Suspended animation. 6. Change after death : (a) Cooling of body, lividity, rigor mortis, cadaveric spasm, cold stiffening and heat stiffening. (b) Putrefaction, mummification, adipocere and maceration. (c) Estimation of time of death. 7. Inquest: Inquest by police, magistrate. 8. Identification: (a) Definition (b) Identification of unknown person, dead bodies and remains of a person by age, sex, stature, dental examination, scars, moles, tattoos, dactylography, DNA typing and personal belonging including photographs.

9. Exhumation. 10. Medico-legal autopsies: (a) Definitions of medico-legal and clinical/pathological autopsies. (b) Objectives, procedures, formalities of medico-legal autopsies. (c) Preservation of articles of importance, during autopsy. (d) Preservation of body fluids & viscera in suspected poisoning. 11. Mechanical injuries or wounds: (a) Definition, classification of mechanical injuries; description of blunt force, sharp force and firearm injuries.

(b) Medico-legal aspects of injuries, differences between antemortem and post -mortem injuries, estimation of age of different types of injuries, defence injuries, hesitation cuts; fabricated injuries; simple and grievous hurt, suicidal/ accidental/homicidal injuries; causes of death by mechanical injuries. 12. Regional injuries: Injuries to Head, Neck, Thorax, Abdomen, Pelvis, Genitalia, Vertebral column and Bones. 13. Injuries due to physical agents, and their medico-legal importance; cold, heat, electricity and lightning, explosions and radioactive substances.

14. Asphyxial deaths: Definition, causes, types, post-mortem appearances and medico-legal significance of hanging, strangulation, suffocation and drowning. 15. Deaths due to starvation. 16. Sexual Offences: Virginity, rape, unnatural sexual offences; sexual perversions. 17. Criminal abortion, Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act, 1971. 18. Infant and childhood deaths: Viability, determination of age of foetus, live birth, still birth and dead born child, sudden infant death syndrome, child abuse, medico-legal aspects of precipitate labour. 19.

Biological fluids: (a) Blood – Preservation, dispatch of samples, importance of blood group in disputed paternity, hazards of blood transfusion. (b) Seminal stains – Preservation and dispatch of samples. 20. FORENSIC PSYCHIATRY (a) Definition and brief overview of common mental illnesses. (b) True and feigned mental illness. (c) Civil and criminal responsibilities of a mentally ill person. (d) Indian Mental Health Act, 1987 with special reference to admission, care and discharge of a mentally ill person. M. B. B. S. Phase II – SSUHS, Guwahati -2- 21.

MEDICAL JURISPRUDENCE (a) Indian Medical Council and State Medical Councils; their functions and disciplinary control. (b) Rights and privileges and duties of a registered medical practitioner, Disciplinary proceedings and penal erasure. (c) Professional conduct, Etiquette and Ethics in medical practice. (d) Professional secrecy, privileged communication. (e) Medical Negligence: civil and criminal negligence, contributory negligence, vicarious liability, res ipsa loquitor, prevention of medical negligence and defences in medical negligence suits.

(f) Consent: Types, informed consent, age in relation to consent, consent in relation to mental illness and alcohol intoxication, emergency and consent. (g) The Pre-natal Diagnostic Techniques Act (Prohibition of sex selection). (h) Human Organ Transplant Act, 1994. (i) Consumer Protection Act, 1994. (j) Certification of births, deaths, illness and fitness. 22. TOXICOLOGY General aspects of poisoning: (a) Duties of doctor in cases of poisoning, medico-legal autopsy in poisoning, preservation and dispatch of viscera for chemical analysis. Role of Forensic Science Laboratory in brief.

Types of poisons, diagnosis, principles of therapy and medicolegal aspects of : (a) Corrosive poisons: strong mineral acids and organic acids. (b) Metallic poisons: Lead, Arsenic, Mercury and Copper. (c) Animal poisons : Snake and scorpion bites. (d) Deliriants: Dhatura, Cannabis and Cocaine. (e) Somniferous agents: Opium, Morphine and other opioids. (f) Inebriants : Methyl and ethyl alcohol. (g) Asphyxiant poisons: Carbon monoxide, Carbon dioxide, Methane and cyanides. (h) Anesthetic agents. (i) Cardiac poisons: Cerebra thevetia and Nerium odorum. (j) Miscellaneous: Aspirin, paracetamol, barbiturates, diazepam, antihistaminics, antidepressants and kerosene oil. (k) Insecticides:

Organophosphorus compounds, Carbamates and Organochloro compounds. (l) Food poisoning. (m) Drug abuse and dependence. 23. Desirable to know following poisonings: (a) Inorganic non metallic poisons: Phosphorous. (b) Organic vegetable irritants: Abrus precatorious, Capsicum, Calotropis, Semicarpus anacardium, Croton. (c) Cardiac Poisons: Aconite, (d) Convulsants: Strychnine. (e) Paralytic agents, Curare. (f) War gases and Industrial gases. (g) Chloral hydrate. (h) Mechanical poisons. ***** M. B. B. S. Phase II – SSUHS, Guwahati

1. Cell injury (a) Cause and mechanism: Ischemic, Toxic and Apoptosis (b) Reversible cell injury: Types, morphology, hyaline, fatty change (c) Irreversible cell injury: Types of necrosis, gangrene (d) Calcification: Dystrophic and metastatic (e) Extracellular accumulation: Amyloidosis, classification, pathogenesis, morphology …

Indications| Complete or partial reversal of the central sedative effects of benzodiazepines. It is therefore used in anesthesia and intensive care in the following indications:Anesthesia: Termination of general anesthesia induced and maintained with benzodiazepines in in-patients. Reversal of benzodiazepine sedation …

1. A number of drugs have been used for centuries, either as remedies or in religious ceremonies. Describe how three of these drugs were used by ancient civilization and how they are used today. Include in your answer the improvements …

?Describes the drug’s chemical composition and molecular structure Generic name (nonproprietary name) ?NAME GIVEN BY THE UNITED STATES ADOPTED NAMES Council Trade name (proprietary name) ?THE DRUG HAS A REGISTERED TRADEMARK; USE of the name is restricted by the drug’s …

Background: Polypharmacy is common among older people. The purpose of this study is to describe GPs’ views and beliefs on polypharmacy in order to identify the role of the GP in relation to improving prescribing behaviour. The awareness of these …

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