The psychological domain concerning the formation, maintenance, and termination of close relationships.

three types of attachment based on security?
secure, anxious-avoidant, anxious resistant

secure attachment
characterized by trust

characterized by indifference

anxious resistant
characterized by ambivalence

Internal working model
develops during childhood, provide a set of expectations we draw from when forming close (intimate) relationships

difference between boys and girls conflict resolution
– Conflicts persist for shorter periods of time
– Typically over issues of power and control
– More likely to escalate into physical aggression – Usually resolved without any explicit effort

– Conflicts persist for longer periods of time
– Typically about betrayal in the relationship
– Only resolved when one of the friends apologizes

What did sullivan hypothesis?
– intimacy with peers replaced intimacy with parents
– Intimacy with peers of the opposite sex replaced intimacy with same-sex friends

what % of teens have abortions

what percentage of American adolescence have had sexual intercourse before the end of 10th grade
more than 40%

Five problems with having sex at the age of 13
Experimentation with drugs and alcohol
• Lower levels of religious involvement
• Minor delinquency
• Lower interest in academic achievement
• Stronger orientation toward independence

relationship between parent-adolscent likelihood of the adolescent being sexual active
• Authoritative parenting is associated with adolescents who are
– Less likely to become sexually active at an early age
– Less likely to engage in risky sexual activity

parent-adolscent communication about sex does…
Stops them from engaging in risky sexual behaviors, but does little to prevent them from being sexually active in general

single parent vs. two parents home
more likely to be sexually activity earlier than their peers especially among girls

Internalizing disorders
problems are turned inward (emotional and cognitive distress)

externalizing disorders
problemsare turned outward (behavioral problems)

Primary Control
taking steps to change the source of stress (usually the best strategy)

secondary control
trying to adapt to
the problem (better when situation is uncontrollable)

top abused
alcohol, cigaretts, weed

substance abuse
the maladaptive use of drugs (legal and illegal)

adolescent relationships with peers
– serve as sounding boards for future plans
– provide advice on a range of identity-related matters – contribute to adolescents’ self-esteem

child friendship
Early: need for adult participation in childs play
Middle: need for peer playmates, need for acceptance into peer society groups

Pre: need for intimacy and consensual validation in same-sec chumships

Early: need for sexual contact, need for intimacy with other-sex partner

Late: need for integration into adult society

Age of onset of sexual intercourse now vs. mid 1990’s
Slightly earlier

The relationship between parent-adolescent communication and the likelihood of the adolescent being sexually active.
It stops them from engaging in risky sexual activities but does not stop them from being sexually active in general

2 diagnoses at the same time

Social control theory
Socialization and social learning prevent us from doing things not socially acceptable

Binge drinking.
Drinking a lot over a short period of time with the intention of intoxication

Gateway drugs
“safer” drugs that lead to harder drugs (alcohol, cannabis, cigarettes)

Substance use
The using of drugs

substance dependence
When the user needs the drug or is addicted

Antecedents of chronic delinquency
Higher risks for trouble with the law later in life

The diathesis-stress model of depression
Depression occurs when someone has a predisposition (diathesis) towards internalizing problems, and is exposed to chronic or acute stressors (stress)

Stress: primarily from having a high-conflict and low cohesion family, being unpopular, or reporting more chronic and acute stressors

Incidence rate of depression among adolescents.

Factors that affect an individual’s vulnerability to the negative effects of stress.
Self-esteem, healthy self-identity, high intelligence
Support from others

risk factors substance abuse
-family beyond with distant hostile of conflict family
-psychological people with certain pesonality characteristics
-social substance abusers have friends who tolerate drugs
-contextual people who become substances live is social context that make substance abuse easier

protective factors
factors the limit individual vulnerability to harm.

types for protective factors
positive mental health- good self esteem
high academic achievement
engagement in school
close family relationships
involvement in religious activities


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