Administer medication to individuals
1. 1 The current legislation, guidelines policies and protocols relevant to the administration of medication are: the Health and Safety at Work Act, Control of Substances Hazard to Health, the Medicines Act, the Misuse of Drugs Act, the Health and Social Care Act and Essential Standards, the RPS Handling Medicines in Social Care Guidelines, Health Act 2006. 2. 1 The most common type of medication would be: Analgesics: analgesics are used ease mild and moderate pain, such as head-aches or body-aches. The most known one would be Paracetamol (Acetaminophen).
The possible side effects are light-headedness, dizziness, nausea, shortness of breath. It can also cause allergic reactions such as abdominal pain, constipation, rash, itching, irritation to the stomach, liver damage and sleep disturbances. Antibiotics: Antibiotics fight bacteria in the human body. It is used to treat different types of infections such as ear infection, bladder infection, pneumonia and salmonella. Some individuals might be allergic to penicillin so they have to take non based penicillin antibiotic.
The possible side effects of antibiotics are: fungal infection such as thrust, sores on your mouth,fever, swollen glands, joint pain, muscle weakness, severe blistering, peeling and red skin rash, yellow skin, yellowing of eyes, dark coloured urine, confusion or weakness, easy bruising, vaginal itching. Anti-hypertensive: medicine used to lower blood pressure, also effective in the treatment of congestive heart failure and to improve survival after an heart attack. Possible side effects of anti-hypertensive: feeling faint, restricted urination, stomach swelling, flu like symptoms, heart palpitations, chest pains, skin rash, depressed mood, vomiting and diarrhoea.
Ferrous Sulphate (iron supplements): These iron supplements are to replace the minerals That the body needs to produce red blood cells. The possible side effects are that these iron supplements don’t mix well with other medications. Bendroflumethiazide tablets (water tablets): Medicine used to reduce fluid retention and increase the flow of urine or blood pressure. The possible side effects are that this medication may severely impair kidneys, liver functions, high blood levels of calcium, low blood levels of sodium, low blood levels of potassium and gout.
Omeprazole capsles (anti-acids): These belong to the group of medicines that work by reducing the amount of acid that the stomach produces. Its also used to prevent or stop ulcers from forming. Possible side effects: It should not be taken when taking certain medicines. 2. 2 There are certain medication that will demand the measurements of physiological before their administration. We have medication like insulin, where blood has to be taken so that glucose can be measured, before the insulin can be given to the individual. There’s also medication like digoxin.
Before using this medication the blood pressure must be checked. Warfarin is a type of medication that is used to thin the blood levels must be checked regularly 2. 3 describe the common adverse reactions to medication, how each can be recognised and the appropriate actions required As referred on question 2. 1, many medications could have possible side effects. For example with penicillin, when taking it someone could have an adverse reaction leading to an anaphylactic shock. The symptoms could start with the difficulty with swallowing, skin rash, difficulties with breading or even stop breading.
If not treated with adrenalin it could lead to total system collapse and ultimately, death . That is why it is so important to keep individual’s medical records up to date. When abnormal reactions occur when taking medication it is important to warn responsible staff, like nurse or manager. They will then inform the individual’s GP and seek advice. If the reactions to the medication are too severe then it is important too call and ambulance immediately. All adverse reaction and course of action taken must be recorded in full in the individual’s care plan.
2. 4 There are different routes of medication like: Oral – It’s the type of medication that you take with you mouth, like tablets or capsules. In certain group ages, like a small child, we have liquids, syrups ans oral suspension. There is one type of medication called sublingual that the tablets are palced under the tongue to dissolve quickly. Inhalation- when there is a respiratory condition inhalers and nebulisers are used to deliver the medication directly to the lungs. Topical- used to treat skin conditions these medication come in the form of creams or gel Instillation – this type of medication comes in the form of drops or ointment and are used to treat eye and ear conditions.
Transdermal – this type of medication comes in the form of patches and are applied in to the skin, on the upper arm or chest. The following medication routes can only be administrated by a doctor or a trained nurse. Intravenous – it’s the type of medication that enters into the veins and it’s absorbed quickly Rectal or vaginal – medication like suppositories, that are absorbed very quickly by the body Subcutaneous – this medication is injected just beneath the skin( insulin ).
Intramuscular – this medications are injected in to the large muscles in the body 3. 1 There are different types of materials and equipments needed for the administration of medication via different routes. The equipment that can be used when administrating can be a medicine trolley, medicine pots, spoons, syringes, nebulisers, containers, drinking glasses, water jugs, medication administration records. When administrating medication the hands must be washed priorly and gloves must be worn When inhalers are being used they can only be handled by the individual. They can be set of automatically when breathing in.
With nebulisers a liquid is placed in to a chamber at the base of the mask and then placed on the individuals air ways. Everything must recorded on the individual medication administration record sheets/ charts. Oral medication, like tablets, should be administered using non-touch techniques by using spoons and cups. Unless is necessary, tablets should not be crushed. Everything must recorded on the individual medication administration record sheets/ charts. When administrating transdermal medication gloves should be worn and wipes to clean the skin before applying the transdermal patches.
Transdermal patches come with specific instructions of how to change them and the locations that it should be applied. Everything must recorded on the individual medication administration record sheets/ charts. Topical medication comes in the form of creams and gels and they also have specific instructions to follow. When applying topic medication gloves must worn all the time. Everything must recorded on the individual medication administration record sheets/ charts.
Instillation medications come in the form of drops or ointments and can be instilled via eyes, nose, or ears. Instructions should be followed when applying such medications. Gloves must be worn. Everything must recorded on the individual medication administration record sheets/ charts. Intravenous medications involves medication applied into the veins via injection. For that syringes, gloves and wipes are needed. There should be a container to dispose of the used syringes. Medication should only be administered this way by doctors or trained nurses. Everything must recorded on the individual medication administration record sheets/ charts.
Rectal medication comes in the form of suppositories and vaginal medication comes in the form of pessaries. When applying this type of medication there should be access to a bed pan, commode or toilet in case of sudden urge to empty bowels or bladder. Everything must recorded on the individual medication administration record sheets/ charts. Subcutaneous medication involves medication that is applied using a syringe in the skin. For that syringes, gloves and wipes are needed. There should be a container to dispose of the used syringes. Medication should only be administered this way by doctors or trained nurses.
Everything must recorded on the individual medication administration record sheets/ charts. 3. 2 The required information from prescriptions/ medication administration charts are the individual’s full name, address, date of birth. The prescription must be dated and still valid, it must signed by the prescriber , complete with their registration number and details regarding the address of their practice. The medication should be named, complete with strength, dose and quantity, route and form, when it should be started and ended. In case of allergies special instruction should be present. 4.
2 Some medications require some time between doses and so it can not be taken together with other medication. There are other medication that will need to be taken with food and others that will require an empty stomach before the first meal of the day. Some medication need time gaps to be taken as it can not exceed a certain amount in 24 hours 5. 3 To report any immediate problems with the administration it is necessary fill the MARS chart to state that the individual as refused medication, or that the medication has been dropped, or that the medication was destroyed. Most MARS charts have codes to record such problems.
If the individual refuses to take any medication it is necessary to record in the individuals personal care plan that same refusal. 5. 5 By confirming that the individual takes his/hers medication it makes it possible to confirm the dosage of medication to be taken, to make sure that the medication hasn’t been passed to some other individual which may cause serious reaction or put them at health risk. If some medication is missed it can cause severe health problems. Documenting that the medication has been taken without actually seeing it means the records as false and can lead to disciplinary action. 5.
7 Each care setting should have a written policy for the safe disposal of unwanted or expired medicines. There should always be a complete record of medicines when care staff are responsible for the disposal. The normal method for disposing should be by returning them to the supplier. The supplier can then ensure that these medicines are disposed of in accordance with the current waste regulations. Care homes should use a licensed waste manager company to return the medicines. Medication that is awaiting pick up needs to be stored in a correct way to ensure that it can not be accessed by unauthorised individuals.