Abnormal Psychology Final

Rorschach inkblot test
A psychoanalytic therapist who wants to assess the unconscious thoughts and feelings of a patient would be most likely to use the ______ test.

Mental illness was due to an undiscovered brain pathology and was incurable
In the late 1800s, the emphasis on a biological cause of mental disorder resulted ironically in reduced interest in treatments for mental patients because it was thought that ________.

Combined drug and psychological treatment, psychological treatment alone, and placebo alone.
In a major double-blind NIMH research study looking at the separate and combined effects of both psychological and drug treatments, patients were randomized into five different treatment conditions, including:

55%
At the time of the assessment of an anxiety disorder, _____ of the patients should have at least one other anxiety or depressive disorder.

Increased anxiety
Extremely low levels of GABA are associated with ______.

The inkblots have been changed many times since the test was developed
The Rorschach test is considered controversial because of all the following concerns EXCEPT that:
— Until recently there were no standardized procedures for administering the test
— the inkblots have been changed many times since the test was developed
— there is little or no data regarding its reliability or validity
— the test is based on psychoanalytic theory

Creating aversive stimuli (such as electrical shocks to the foot) that the animal cannot control
Learned helplessness is demonstrated in laboratory animals by _____.

Has been shown to be valid with a range of psychological problems
The MMPI is a notable measurement instrument because it _____.

It ignores the contributions of psychological and sociocultural factors to the disorder, it ignores any environmental influences on the disorder, and it ignores any interactions with other contributing factors
One of the problems with adapting a one-dimensional biological causal model of abnormality is _______.

Psychoanalytic
The projective type of psychological tests is based on ________ theory.

If a psychological disorder might be present
As part of a psychological assessment, a mental status exam is used to find out how a person thinks, feels, and behaves; its primary purpose, however, is to determine ____

Decrease startle response and chronic under-arousal
Individuals suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) display a characteristic set of symptoms including all of the following EXCEPT

Reliable
A measurement is consistent is considered to be ______.

Have a 58% change of recovery after having the disorder for 12 years
People with GAD

Despite the fact that we have little knowledge of how it works
Although electroconvulsive therapy is controversial, we still use it today. It is interesting that it is used______

Rewarding successive approximations to the desire behavior
Shaping a behavior in operant conditioning refers to _____.

Prefrontal cortex
Which of the following brain area is NOT closely associated with anxiety?

Many clinicians use the TAT to encourage people to talk more openly about their lives
Which of the following is an accurate statement about the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)

Impaired functioning
According to the authors of your textbook, the definition of a psychological disorder is associated with ____

The physical sensations experienced during exercise had become an internal cue for panic to occur
A teenage girl had recently been having panic attacks while shopping at the mall. She was sitting in her room feeling very depressed. To cheer her up, a friend suggested that they both go to an exercise class. Shortly after the warm-up started, however, she had another panic attack. What is the best explanation for this occurrence?

The pattern of responses is evaluated in the MMPI
If you were asked to compare and contrast the MMPI and Rorschach inkblot test, you could say correctly that _______

Adaptability
IQ tests measure all of the following abilities EXCEPT

10
According to the DSM-IV-TR criteria, the symptoms of a panic attack develop abruptly and reach a peak within _____ minute(s).

Phobia
Disorder characterized by an intense fear reaction to a specific object or situation (such as spiders, dogs, or heights); the level of fear is usually inappropriate to the situation, and is recognized by the sufferer as being the irrational.

Significantly improve
Cognitive behavioral therapy when added to patients taking medication tends to _____ the condition of patients with panic attacks.

Future-oriented; immediate
Anxiety is thought to be a ______ state, while fear is more ______.

GAD
Disorder characterized by excessive, unrealistic worry that lasts 6 months or more.

It makes us double check that we have thought of everything before leaving on a trip, it makes sure we are prepared for a task, it helps us plan for the future
In what way is worry useful?

OCD
Disorder in which individuals are plagued by persistent, intrusive, recurring thoughts that reflect exaggerated anxiety or fears. Individuals may perform rituals or routines to relieve the anxiety

Ego
According to psychoanalytical theory, the _____ develops early in life to ensure that we can adapt to the demands of the real world while finding ways to meet our basic needs

11%
In the general population, approximately ______ of people have specific fears severe enough to be diagnosed as phobias

The greater the individual’s socialization, the lower the chances of contracting a cold.
Research exposing subjects to the virus that causes the common cold demonstrated that ________.

Panic disorder
Disorder characterized by severe attacks of intense anxiety which may make people feel like they are having a heart attack or are going crazy-for no apparent reason.

Emotional experiences, expressions, impulse control, and basic drives such as aggression, sex, hunger, and thirst
Functions of the limbic system include control or regulation of _____

Typically seen as a disorder when they impair function
Behaviors that deviate from the norm are

A mental compulsion developed to neutralize his bad thoughts
Tony has thoughts about hating his younger brother and wished he would die. He becomes very anxious about these thoughts because he has developed the idea that if anything really happened to his brother, it would be his fault. For no explainable reason, Tony starts mentally counting by odd numbers each time he walks past his brother’s room and discovers that his activity makes him less anxious. Tony’s behavior can be described as ______.

Positive reinforcements
B. F. Skinner believed that behavior is best influenced by the use of _____.

Reliability
Treminitia, who had recurrent headaches, fatigue, and loss of appetite, received different diagnoses from several psychologists. In terms of assessment, this indicates a problem with ______.

Social phobia
Disorder characterized by extreme anxiety about being judged by others or behaving in a way that might cause embarrassment or ridicule.

False Positive
When an assessment strategy shows a problem when none exists, it is referred to as _____.

The compulsions have no logical relation to the obsessions
In regard to OCD, when the term “magical” is used to refer to compulsive acts, it means _______.

Reducing agoraphobic avoidance by exposure to feared situations
Which of the following procedures is NOT part of Barlow’s panic control treatment (PCT)

Is influenced by other dimensions
The basis of the multidimensional integrative approach to understanding psychopathology is that each dimension (psychological, biological, emotional, etc.)

A little anxious
People behave best when they are ______.

Sympathetic nervous system
The part of the autonomic nervous system primarily responsible for our “fight or fight” response to stress is the _______.

Neurotransmitters
GABA, dopamine, and norepinephrine are all examples of _____.

PTSD
Disorder that emerges following an exposure to an event such as a sexual or physical assault, witnessing a death, the unexpected death of a loved one, or natural disaster

Uncued
Lawanda was walking down the street on a bright sunny day when, all of a sudden, she had an abrupt attack of intense fear that totally surprised her. This is what type if panic attack?

Reciprocal gene-environment model
The idea that our inherited tendencies influence the probability that we will encounter stressful life events is a characteristic of the _______.

Depression
Anxiety is closely related to which of the following psychological disorders?

Changes in appetite or weight
The physical or somatic symptoms or a major depressive disorder include ______.

An inability to experience pleasure
One of the symptoms of a mood disorder is called anhedonia, which means _______.

Major depressive disorder
Mood disorders can range from mild to severe; the most severe type of depression is called _____.

Grandiosity
Which of the following is a symptom of the mood disorder known as mania?

Rapid speech expressing many exciting ideas at once
When used in connection with mood disorders, “flight of ideas” means _____.

Probably have several episodes throughout their lives
Most individuals who experience a single episode of major depressive disorder will ______.

Longer-lasting
Dysthymic disorder differs from major depressive disorder because people diagnosed with dysthymia have symptoms of depression that are _____.

Double depression
Jack has experienced recurrent episodes of major depressive episodes. In the intervals between the episodes, he does not seem to return to “normal”. In fact, during those periods, he has been diagnosed as dysthymic. Jack’s condition is referred to as _____.

Catatonic
Katie has been diagnosed with major depressive disorder. Most recently, she has been lying immobile for long periods. If she moves one of her arms to a different position, it just stays there. Katie has stopped speaking and does not appear to hear what is being said to her. What specifier would you apply to her diagnosis of major depressive disorder?

Produces phase advances of the melatonin rhythm
Morning light is thought to help with seasonal affective disorder because it ______.

A grief reaction
Symptoms of severe depression are generally NOT considered a psychological disorder when they are associated with ______.

Manic
If a friend of yours stops sleeping and suddenly claims that he is going to go to law school and medical school simultaneously so he can change the world, you might suspect he is _____.

Depression with hypomanic disorders
Bipolar II disorder consists of ______.

4
The “rapid cycling” specifier is added to the diagnosis of bipolar disorder when a patient has had at least _____ manic or depressive episodes within a year.

Struggle with depression as well
A child raised by depressed parents is likely to _____.

Aggression
A common characteristic of depression in boys is _____.

The learned helplessness theory
Martin Seligman’s theory that people become anxious and depressed because they believe that they have no control over the stress in their lives is call ______.

In people in general
Negative cognitive styles are associated with a vulnerability to subsequent depression.

Their past
In Aaron Beck’s depressive cognitive triad, individuals think negatively about all of the following EXCEPT _____.

Dry mouth, constipation, and weight gain
Common side effects of antidepressants are ________.

Lithium
A relative of yours has been diagnosed with bipolar (manic-depressive) disorder. Your family is impressed when you mention that the preferred drug for this condition is _______.

Stop taking the medication in order to bring on a manic state
One of the problems encountered by psychiatrists who prescribe medication for patients with bipolar disorder is that patients often _______.

Patient response to antidepressant medication is poor
Although electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has been a controversial issue for decades, it is an effective treatment for depression especially when _______

For teenagers, suicide is the 3rd leading cause of death after auto accidents and homicide
Statement about suicide

Suicide is often associated with psychological disorders, especially depression.
In regard to the relationship between disorders and suicide, this statement reflects the current thinking on this issue.

Laughing
During the final interview with Mary on the “Abnormal Psychology Live” CD for Chapter 7, she is clearly in a manic state with an affect that can be considered inappropriate due to her _______.

Hypomanic episodes; mania
Bipolar II disorder is characterized by major depressive episodes alternating with _________, while bipolar I disorder is characterized by alternating episodes of major depression and ________.

Rapid cycling pattern
Richard, who has not responded well to medication, experiences six or more manic and depressive cycles in a year. Diagnosed with bipolar disorder, Richard is displaying _______.

Cultural stereotypes encourage women to develop interpersonal styles of dependency and passivity
Women are more frequently diagnosed with mood and anxiety disorders than are men. A proposed explanation for this described in the text is _______.

Are universal and experienced by everyone occasionally
Feelings of depression _____.

In both her manic and depressive state
In the CD-ROM “Abnormal Psychology: Live!”, the client Mary displayed relatively rare psychotic features associated with the bipolar disorder.

Normal bodily sensations are interpreted by the patient as a sign of a serious illness.
Hypochondriasis exists when _____

Conversion disorder
George has completely lost his sight during the past year, but medical experts can find no physical reason for his blindness. This could be an example of _______

young, white, female, upper socioeconomic status, socially competitive environment
The typical profile of a patient with either anorexia or bulimia is _______.

Whether eating gets to be out of her control
Jody sometimes eats more than just about any other girl that you know. You wonder if her eating sometimes could be considered binging. In order to determine this, you would have to know ______.

binge eating followed by compensatory behavior
The most significant feature of bulimia is ________

Can be any weight
Individuals with bulimia

Intentional weight loss reaching 15% or less of expected body weight
The core diagnostic factor in anorexia is _________.

Severe trauma; retrospective case studies
Dissociative identity disorder has been linked to posttraumatic stress disorder. People suffering from both disorders have usually experienced ____________, as indicated by _____________.

In each of the disorders, individuals are pathologically concerned with an appearance or functioning of their bodies.
What is the common link among somatoform disorders?

To assume the sick role; to manipulate the system to gain a desired end
While both factitious disorders and malingering have feigned symptoms that are under voluntary control, they differ in that the goal of factitious disorders is _________, where as the goal of malingering is __________.

Clients are urged to exaggerate the negative impact of events upon their lives in the hopes of invoking a catharsis
Which of the Following is NOT a component of a comprehensive stress-reduction program?

An active interest in resuming work and leisure activities
While jogging last week, Ignacio was hit by a car. He felt pain in his left hip and was taken to the hospital. Now, he is displaying pain behavior. Which of the following is NOT characteristic of pain behavior?

Affected by stress, psychological factors, behavioral choices
Many diseases that are biological in nature are ________.

Psychological, biological, and social factors are all implicated in the cause and maintenance of each type of disorder.
Current data suggests that, with physical disorders and mental disorders _________.

The stress of final exams left Judy more susceptible to colds.
Every year during finals week in December, Judy came down with a severe cold. It was the only cold she got each year. Which is the most likely explanation for this pattern of colds?

Joan has hypochondriasis; Fred has somatization disorder
Joan and Fred both experience physical symptoms of pain and discomfort. Both have been examined by physicians and declared healthy. Joan is concerned that her pain is a sign of serious illness, while Fred is not worried that he is sick. However, Fred is so focused on his pain that he finds it hard to participate in normal life activities. Which of the following statements is true?

Both meditation and relaxation
Comprehensive pain management programs usually include programs for teaching patients about _______.

Pain, headaches, and hypertension
Although the improvement is only moderate, relaxation techniques have been shown to have a positive effect on _______.

Even if the stressful event lasts as little as 2 hours
Stress acts immune function

Men are less accepting about homosexuality than women
Data from research studies on gender differences in human sexuality reflects all of the following themes EXCEPT ______.

Men and women focus equality on the romantic aspects of their sexual experiences.
Which of the following is TRUE regarding sexuality?

A person’s physical gender is inconsistent with the person’s gender identity
Gender identity disorder is diagnosed when _______

Mark, who feels like a woman trapped in a man’s body.
Of the following, the individual who should be diagnosed with gender identity disorder is:
— Joe, who gets sexually aroused by wearing women’s bras
— Lisa, who is gay and has many traditional masculine traits
— Mark, who feels like a woman trapped in a man’s body
— Sid, who can only become sexually aroused while dressed like a woman

Equally common in heterosexuals and homosexuals
Sexual dysfunctions are _______.

Inability to achieve or maintain an erection in males and a lack of lubrication in females.
Sexual arousal disorders are diagnosed when there is an _____.

Seek treatment or inhibited orgasm disorder
Jody and Howard have been happily married for several years. Howard reports that in spite of being sexually aroused and having an erection, he only reaches orgasm from intercourse about half the time. Howard wonders if something is “wrong” with him. Howard should:
— Seek treatment for inhibited orgasm disorder
— realize that his problem means that he does not really love his wife
— relax and realize that this is normal
— seek treatment for sexual aversion disorder

Certain aspects of the treatment such as two therapists and daily therapy are not necessary
Treatment effectiveness studies of Masters and Johnson’s sensate focus therapy have indicated that ______.

Explicit training in masturbation procedures
The specific treatment found effective in treatment of female orgasmic disorders is ______.

Fetish
Charles gets very sexually excited by women’s shoes. While he used to fantasize about women wearing particular shoes, he now focuses almost exclusively on the shoes themselves. Charles has a(n) __________.

Replace the immediate reinforcement of the behavior with the unpleasant consequences
The basic concept behind the covert sensitization method if treating unwanted sexual arousal is to ______.

Masturbate to their usual fantasies but to substitute more desirable ones just before ejaculation
Patients undergoing the procedure called orgasmic reconditioning are instructed to ______

Substance use
Cameron has a cup of coffee every morning, smokes 10 cigarettes a day, and has a beer with dinner. This is an example of _______.

Both tolerance and withdrawal
A person who is physiologically dependent on a drug will experience ______.

Nicotine
Experts in the field of substance abuse were asked about the relative addictiveness of various drugs. At the top of the list, as the most addictive, was __________.

Depressants
Alcohol and the drugs Seconal, Halcion, and Valium are all classified as _________.

Cocaine
All of the following analgesic substances are classified as opiates EXCEPT:
— Cocaine
— Codeine
— Heroin
— Morphine

Alcohol
The condition called delirium tremens, also known as the “DTs,” involves hallucinations and body tremors during withdrawal from _____.

Mescaline
The most commonly consumed of all the psychoactive drugs are the stimulants, which include all the following EXCEPT:
— caffeine
— cocaine
— nicotine
— mescaline

Rapid and irregular heartbeat
Which of the following effects is associated with cocaine use?

Caffeine
The most common of the psychoactive substances, used by 90% of Americans, is _____.

Heroin
Angus had been “hooked” for a while before he decided to “go clean”. Within 6 to 12 hours, he started to experience excessive yawning, nausea and vomiting, chills, muscle aches, diarrhea, and insomnia. His behavior disrupted his work and social relationships. These symptoms persisted for 3 days. After a week, he felt better. Angus is probably withdrawing from ______.

Wards of nausea, eases glaucoma symptoms, and contains as many carcinogens as tobacco smoke.
Health-wise, marijuana _____

Acceptance
Prochaska’s (1977) transtheoretical model of behavior change includes all the following stages EXCEPT:
— Precontemplation
— Acceptance
–Action
–Contemplation

How sensitive a person is to the positive effects of alcohol when it is first ingested and to the negative effects after a few hours
Trying to understand why some people continue to use drugs until they become dependent on them and others are able to stop before this happens, it is important to consider ______

Failing to monitor the child’s behavior, making drugs available to child, and creating an environment where peers use drugs.
Drug-addicted parents may contribute to their child’s drug use by _____.

Assumes that dependence is caused by psychological disorder
The disease model of dependence ______

The use of methadone to treat heroin addiction and a nicotine patch or nicotine gum to treat addiction to cigarette smoking
Which of the following are examples of agonist types of treatment for substance abuse?

Providing education about the effects and consequences of his/her substance abuse
According to the transtheoretical model of behavior change, the strategy that would be most effective for someone in the precontemplation stage would be to:

AA advocates controlled drinking in which former alcoholics can become social drinkers
Which of the following is NOT an accurate statement about Alcoholics Anonymous (AA)?
— AA is clearly an effective treatment for some people with alcohol dependence
–More than 9% of the adult population of the United States has attended an AA meeting
— AA advocates controlled drinking in which former alcoholics can become social drinkers
— Develop strategies for coping with cravings

A failure of cognitive and behavioral coping skills
Relapse prevention refers to a treatment mode that views relapse as ______

Stimulant; depressant; opioid
Nicotine is a(n) _______, alcohol is a(n) ______, and morphine is a(n) ______.

Physiological; psychological
The text differentiates two types of substance dependence. The type associated with tolerance and withdrawal is referred to as _____ dependence, whereas the type associated with drug-seeking behaviors is referred to as _____ dependence.

Onset in childhood that is difficult to pinpoint
The characteristic features of personality disorder tends to develop with _______.

Odd/eccentric, dramatic/emotional, and anxious/fearful
Which set of adjective pairs correctly describes the clusters into which DSM-IV-TR personality disorders are grouped?

Patient feelings of distress
All of the following are necessary conditions for diagnosis of a personality disorder EXCEPT
— Patient feelings of distress
— Pervasive pattern of behavior
— Maladaptive functioning
— Chronic course of behavior

The person may believe there is nothing wrong
When someone has a personality disorder _____

He would not be diagnosed with a personality disorder
A woman demonstrating very stereotypical female traits probably would be diagnosed with histrionic personality disorder. Which of the following would probably occur if a man demonstrates very stereotypical masculine traits?

His fears are justified
An individual presents for treatment and keeps talking about how gangsters are “out to get him.” Before diagnosing paranoid personality disorder, we must determine whether ______.

Not motivated to begin therapy and effectiveness is not get determined
Patients diagnosed with schizoid personality disorder are usually ______.

Dramatic
Cluster B personality disorders tend to be characterized by ______ behavior

Conduct disorder
An adult diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder is most likely to have met the criteria for _____ as a child.

Borderline
Nicole has difficulty maintaining relationships because she goes back and forth from being a best friend to hating people in her life quite often. Her romantic relationships are always characterized by incredible loving passion alternating with episodes of horrible fighting, and sometimes she becomes violent. At times Nicole becomes so upset that she cuts herself and reports that this makes her feel better emotionally. Nicole suffers from ________ personality disorder.

Dialectical behavior therapy
Research regarding psychological treatment for borderline personality disorder suggests that ________ appears to be helpful in improving mood and reducing suicidal and self-injurious behaviors.

DBT includes aspects of mindfulness
Which of the following statements is TRUE about treatment for borderline personality disorder?
— DBT includes aspects of mindfulness
— DBT encourages embracing your negative emotions and judging them as harmful and wrong
–DBT teach individuals to avoid thoughts that are upsetting and those settings which might trigger them

Narcissistic
Thomas was an elementary school principal who would meet with a team of professionals to discuss various children’s problems within the school. He would tell them his philosophy of education, discipline, interacting with staff and children, etc. and why this was the best way to run the school. After his lengthy dissertation, the school psychologist wanted to discuss a child who appeared to have a learning disability. Thomas immediately excused himself to take inventory. Which type of personality disorder best typifies Thomas’ behavior?

Avoidant
Individuals who keep to themselves because they are anxious and fearful of rejection are likely to be diagnosed with ______ personality disorder.

Dependent
Harold lives with his mother with whom he is very close and agrees with everything she says. When he started seeing a young woman and the relationship became serious, his mother convinced him that his girlfriend was not good enough for him, so Harold stopped the relationship. He has two close friends who have been his friend since they met in kindergarten. Whenever they do something, it is always one of his friends who decides what they do. Harold just follows along. Harold suffers from ________ personality disorder.

Obsessive-compulsive
Henry is viewed by many as a workaholic and not very social. He is at his desk very morning at 7:30 and takes few breaks (although these breaks are always at the same time every day). Henry is known to be a perfectionist. The problem is that he does not seem to get must accomplished since he spends so much time making sure that everything is perfect before moving on to the next task. Henry appears to suffer from _________ personality disorder.

People with the disorder usually have a high self-image
Which of the following statements is NOT true about borderline personality disorder?
— It is one of the more common personality disorders
— People with this disorder tend to improve during their 30s and 40s
— Women are affected by the disorder more often than men
— People with the disorder usually have high self-image

At a workshop about multiple personality disorder, a therapist says, “In my experience, once integration begins, the need for therapy is practically over, and later dissociations just don’t happen.” This therapist’s experience is: Very unusual; most successful therapies last well …

schizophrenia The term dementia praecox once referred to the disorder now known as: prefrontal cortex Research has found that lower levels of dopamine produced by the ________ are associated with attention deficits and poor organization of thought, two negative symptoms …

A short attention span is an early warning sign of schizophrenia One cluster of personality disorders marked by anxiety is exemplified by the ________ personality disorder. avoidant WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU …

Subjective Discomfort Emotional distress while engaging in a particular behavior or thought process. Maladaptive A person finds it hard to adapt to the demands of day-to-day living. WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON ANY TOPIC SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU …

reexposure to the tramatic event Jane has been diagnosed with PTSD and has begun seeing a psychotherapist. Which of the following will be the most important strategy for her therapist to employ to achieve long-term benefit? reintegrate the different personalities …

Nature, Nurture Today’s psychologist recognize that all behavior arises from the interaction of _____ and _____ Little Studies have shown that labeling has (little or a significant) effect on our interpretation of individuals and their behaviors. WE WILL WRITE A …

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