Abnormal Psychology: Chapter 9 and 10

Chapter 9
Chapter 9

About what percentage of clients with unipolar depression receive treatment from a mental health professional each year?
50 percent

Which of the following is an example of an aspect of psychodynamic therapy for depression?
A therapist questions a client about losses she may have suffered in her past

If a therapist asked you to say whatever came to mind, then suggested interpretations designed to help you work through grief over real or imagined losses, your therapist would be using:
psychodynamic therapy

The best evidence for the effectiveness of the psychodynamic approach comes from:
case study reports

Among the reasons cited for so many college students experiencing emotional problems are all of the following EXCEPT:
a lack of sensitivity to the issue by admissions counselors

Increasing pleasant activities is MOST likely to be a part of a ____________ therapy program.
behavioral

Behavioral therapy for the treatment of unipolar depression may include:
reinforcing nondepressed behavior

Which of the following is the BEST example of the therapy technique known as behavioral activation?
adding positive activities to the patient’s life

A therapist turns on a buzzer when a client speaks slowly and laboriously. She turns it off when the client speaks more rapidly. In other cases the therapist instructs the client’s spouse to ignore his mate when she complains or acts in a self-deprecating manner. This is an example of:
behavioral therapy

The contingency management approach is an example of of the application of ________ to the treatment of depression.
reinforcement

Focusing on the addition of positive activities to a depressed patient’s life is a behavioral technique known as:
behavioral activation

Jose is depressed. His therapist told him that reading a book each month would help. He should also visit friends, go bowling, do the laundry, mow the lawn, and eat meals with his wife. In short, he should increase his positive activity. His therapist MOST likely reflects the _________ orientation.
behavioral

A therapist treating a patient for depression first finds out what activities the client once found pleasurable. These activities are then reintroduced into the patient’s daily schedule. Which type of therapy is this therapist using?
behavioral therapy

If your therapist concentrated on helping you recognize and change negative thoughts and thus improve your mood, your therapist would be using:
cognitive therapy

The “increasing activities and elevating mood” phase of Beck’s treatment for depression:
makes the therapy cognitive-behavioral rather than purely cognitive

Which of the following is NOT a part of Beck’s cognitive therapy for unipolar depression?
discussion with family members about their maladaptive thoughts

“I do not know why you think you are a terrible surgeon. You have no lost a patient during an operation in two years. No one else in the city has that kind of record.” Which of the following orientations is MOST likely to describe the therapist who made this statement?
cognitive

Clients who test their assumptions about what is causing their depression are working in which phase of Beck’s treatment program?
changing primary attitudes

Which of the following is true about the research on the effectiveness of cognitive therapy in treating unipolar depression?
It nearly eliminates depression symptoms in 50 to 60 percent of the cases

Many of today’s cognitive-behavioral therapists would agree that:
negative cognitions should be accepted, not necessarily eliminated

If you are a minority, you are:
likely to benefit from culturally sensitive therapy

Why is interpersonal psychotherapy considered to be a sociocultural approach?
Depression is thought to result from disrupted social interactions and role expectations

A woman who is in conflict with her husband over whether she should have a career or stay at home full-time to care for their children is experiencing:
interpersonal role dispute

Which interpersonal problem area identified by interpersonal psychotherapists is MOST like the cause of depression suggested by psychoanalysis?
interpersonal loss

Tomas has withdrawn from most social contacts because he never seems to be able to say the right thing. He just doesn’t seem to fit in. His comments are always misinterpreted. He feels alone and is depressed. This is an example of what interpersonal psychotherapists refer to as an:
interpersonal deficit

Which of the following is TRUE about the research on the effectiveness of interpersonal psychotherapy in treating unipolar depression?
It nearly eliminates depressive symptoms in 50 to 60 percent of cases

About what percentage of people receiving treatment for depression are in dysfunctional relationships?
50 percent

If you are receiving therapy designed to teach you and your spouse specific communication and problem-solving skills, your therapist is practicing:
behavioral marital therapy

Which of the following is not an example of a biological treatment for depression?
contingency management

Typical consumers of nutraceuticals:
have easy access to a variety of products

The nutraceutical SAM-e:
is used in treating depression

St. John’s wort:
is inexpensive compared to pharmaceuticals

If you were treated with ECT, you would experience a(n):
brain seizure

Which patient group was the first treated with ECT?
psychotic patients

ECT (electroconvulsive therapy) has changed over the years. Patients given this treatment now may receive:
muscle relaxants

One of the side effects of ECT is:
memory loss

People who take MAO inhibitors and want to decrease the risk of negative side effects would make the greatest changes in which aspect of life?
what they eat

Corrina took an antidepressant and then ate a meal. Shortly thereafter her blood pressure skyrocketed and she felt faint. Which of the following is MOST likely to be true?
She ate something containing tyramine

MAO inhibitors work by:
blocking MAO from breaking down norepinephrine

Which of the following is MOST likely to elevate the mood in a depressed person?
an increase in the levels of norepinephrine

Researchers were searching for drugs to treat schizophrenia when they came across imipramine, which alleviated the symptoms of depression, although it was not effective against schizophrenia. It became the first of a class of drugs, all sharing a similar molecular structure, called:
tricyclics

In order to effectively reduce the chances of relapse of depressive symptoms, patients should:
continue to take tricyclics after they are symptom-free

“Second-generation” antidepressant medications include:
Anafranil and Eldepryl

Which of the following best represents how tricyclics work?
tricyclic ingested, smaller amounts of norephinephrine and serotonin released, normal amounts of norephinephrine and serotonin released, reuptake triggers more neuronal firing

Second-generation antidepressants:
target specifics neurotransmission reuptake

A clinician says at a workshop, “I prefer the most recently developed antidepressant medications, because they’re harder to overdose on, and they don’t require dietary restrictions.” This statement is:
accurate

Therapists who treat African American clients for depression need to be aware that their clients are:
less likely to receive newer second-generation drugs

How likely are Medicaid recipients to be prescribed antidepressant medication?
White Americans more often than Hispanic Americans; Hispanic Americans more often than African Americans

Vagus nerve stimulation is MOST similar to:
ECT

In which of the treatments for depression is a stimulating current sent through a patient’s prefrontal cortex?
TMS

What do ECT, vagus nerve stimulation, and transcranial magnetic stimulation have in common?
They suggest that brain stimulation is effective in treating severe forms of depression

Conclusions from extensive studies of the effectiveness of various forms of treatment for depression show that:
cognitive, cognitive-behavioral, interpersonal, and biological treatments are the best, and about equally effective

The key to long-term treatment of depression is:
some sort of maintenance therapy

Recent research indicates that behavioral therapy is the treatment of choice only:
over placebo treatment

Your BEST advise to a friend who is experiencing severe depression would be:
“Try combining cognitive therapy with drug therapy.”

What would be your BEST recommendation (i.e., MOST scientifically valid) about behavioral therapy for an adolescent experiencing depression?
Use a combination of drug therapy and cognitive therapy

Which of the following treatments produces the fastest results in the biological treatment for unipolar depression?
electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)

What is currently true about pharmaceutical companies regarding their ads for medications in the United States?
They must recommend that patients consult with their doctors about taking the drugs in their ads

The effects of lithium were discovered during the investigation of:
the effect of toxic levels of uric acid

At least _________ of manic patients treated with lithium improve.
60 percent

A person with bipolar disorder is taking a commonly used drug to stabilize mood in the manic episodes. What else might also happen as a result of taking this drug?
The person might experience at least partial relief from depressive episodes

Lithium appears to affect:
neuron’s second messengers

You would expect to see the biggest impact of lithium on which part of the neuron?
the firing of the receiving neuron

Which one of the following is the BEST example of adjunctive therapy?
A patient is receiving both drug therapy and interpersonal therapy with his or her family

Which one of the following is a likely reason for using adjunctive therapy to treat bipolar disorder?
People stop taking lithium because they feel more productive and creative without taking it

Chapter 10
Chapter 10

About how many suicides are committed annually in the United States?
36,000

About how many suicides are attempted annually in the United States?
600,000

Estimates of the number of suicides that occur in the United States probably underrepresent the total because of all of the following EXCEPT:
Parasuicides are often included in the number of suicides

What is a parasuicide?
a failed attempt to commit suicide

In his definition of suicide, Edwin Schneidman includes all of the following factors EXCEPT that it:
results from depression or emotional distress

The critical way in which the death seeker differs from the death darer, according to Edwin Shneidman, is:
death seekers intend to end their lives with their action

Cecil and Jeanne, teenagers, made a love pact, jumping from a cliff in order to be with each other for eternity. Cecil and Jeanne are examples of what Edwin Shneidman refers to as:
death ignorers

Ernest Hemingway was a physically strong, proud man who developed great concerns about his failing body. Depressed about his progressive illness, he intentionally ended his life. Edwin Shneidman would term Hemingway a:
death initiator

According to Edwin Shneidman, how do death ignorers primarily differ from other categories?
They believe death will not end their existance

According to Edwin Shneidman, people who are ambivalent about their intent to die and whose actions leading to death do not guarantee death (e.g., swimming in shark-infested waters) are called:
death darers

Knowing she was terminally ill, Bonnie swallowed a handful of barbiturates in order to save herself and her family from the final painful months of life. Bonnie is an example of what Edwin Shneidman refers to as a:
death initiator

A teenager’s hands and arms are covered with self-inflicted burns, and the teenager seems almost addicted to this destructive behavior. The self-inflicted burns would MOST likely be classified as:
self-injury, a variety of Edwin Shneidman’s “subintentional death” classification

Retrospective analysis of suicide typically would include:
interviews with people who knew the person who committed suicide

Which of the following is the BEST example of retrospective analysis?
Therapists who had patients who committed suicide are interviewed to gain information on suicide

One of the factors that is believed to account for differences in the suicide rates of different countries is:
religious affiliation and beliefs

Which of the following statements MOST accurately the relationship between religion and suicide?
The degree of one’s devoutness is a more important predictor of suicide than one’s specific religion

Which of the following statements is NOT true regarding gender and suicide?
Women succeed at committing suicide more often than men

Which of the following would be the MOST surprising example of suicide because it does not fit into the pattern that current research results have identified?
a woman who stabbed and then hanged herself

According to current estimates, the suicide rate is highest in the United States among:
Native Americans

Assume that a community is made up of almost exactly equal numbers of these four groups: African Americans, Asian Americans, Hispanic Americans, and white Americans, and that everyone is of the same socioeconomic status. Approximately what percent of suicides would you expect to be committed by white Americans?
40 percent — about double the rates for the other groups

How likely are women to use a gun to commit suicide?
About 40 percent of women who commit suicide use guns

Commonly observed triggers for suicide include all of the following EXCEPT:
being in therapy

All of the following are examples of immediate stress EXCEPT:
serious illness

Long-term stressors particularly common among those who attempt suicide include all the following EXCEPT:
divorce

Which of the following occupants has a particularly high rate of suicide?
psychologists

A person who sees life in “right or wrong,” “all or none” terms is engaging in:
dichotomous thinking

If you were assessing a person for suicidal potential, which of the following is MOST critical to notice since it is likely related to suicide risk?
feelings of hopelessness

Which of the following is the BEST example of dichotomous thinking?
There’s only one thing to do and nothing else matters

Based on the available research, we can conclude that:
sometimes listening to particular kinds of music is related to suicide attempts

About what percentage of people who commit suicides use alcohol just prior to the act?
70 percent

Which is TRUE about alcohol use and suicide?
Most people who attempt suicide drink alcohol just before the act
About one-fourth of people who commit suicide are legally drunk
Alcohol impairs judgment and lowers inhibitions

ALL THE ANSWERS ARE CORRECT

Which mental disorders have been found to contribute to the greatest number of suicides?
mood disorders

Of the following alternatives, the LEAST common predictor of suicide is:
physical illness

“Why is there such a strong connection between alcohol abuse and suicide risk?” asks a friend of yours. Based on the best available research, you reply,
“No one really knows for sure.”

Research indicates that suicides by people with schizophrenia are in response to:
feelings demoralization

When a rash of suicides occurs in the aftermath of a celebrity’s suicide or a case that has been highly publicized by the media, behavioral theorists believe it is attributable to:
modeling

“How can we reduce suicide risk for our kids?” asks the high school counselor, the day after one of the school’s star athletes commits suicide. Your BEST answer, based on research, is:
“Postvention often helps.”

Media coverage that included the “Don’t do it” message, phone numbers for suicide prevention centers, and interviews with suicide experts, occurred after the suicide of:
Kurt Cobain

Which of the following is the BEST example of the social contagion effect?
If you had a close relative or friend who committed suicide, your risk of committing suicide is greater

If a student at your school commits suicide, the staff might offer counseling sessions for the other students. If so, the staff is engaging in:
postvention

The leading theories designed to explain suicide:
are not supported by a significant body of research

Research supporting a Freudian view of suicide has shown that later suicidal behavior is related to:
both real and symbolic losses in childhood

If the psychodynamic explanation for suicide is correct, then suicide rates should:
be higher in nations with low murder rates

Emile Durkheim’s theory of suicide fits into the:
sociocultural model

A society that loses its basic family and religious core values, experiences large-scale immigration of people with very different values, and fails to provide meaning for the life of its people is in danger of an increase in what Durkheim calls:
anomic suicide

Juan is an atheist, does what he wants, and is alienated from others. He feels life isn’t worth living and kills himself. According to Emile Durkheim, he would be classified as an:
egoistic suicide

Carlos died by intentionally stepping in front of a bullet that was intended for another young man, for whom Carlos, as head of a platoon of soldiers in the Persian Gulf War, was responsible. Emile Durkheim would call this an example of:
altruistic suicide

A young man whose father and uncle committed suicide at about his age also commits suicide. Which explanation of suicide MOST easily explains the young man’s suicide?
biological

The strongest direct support for a biological explanation for suicide comes from:
studies of neurotransmitter levels

Biological researchers have found a link between suicide and:
low levels of serotonin

Of the following individuals, the one MOST likely to commit suicide would be a:
40-year-old with low serotonin activity

Based on the evidence about suicide rates, which of the following intervention strategies should prevent the MOST suicides?
intervention focused on middle-aged adults — they have a fairly high suicide rate, and it is rising relatively rapidly

You are asked to speak before a local elementary school’s Parent Teacher Association (PTA) about suicide attempts by the very young. You should be sure to mention that suicide attempts by the very young often occur when they have:
run away from home

Which of the following would you be MOST surprised to learn had committed suicide because his or her action is inconsistent with research results of studies of child suicide?
a child who had no understanding of death

Which of the following represents the greatest risk of death to teenagers; in order from least concern to most concern?
accidents, homicide, suicide

The finding that more than 90 percent of adolescents who attempt suicide know someone who has attempted suicide provides a case for what process in suicidal actions?
modeling

A U.S. teenager just attempted suicide. MOST likely, the teenager has:
not succeeded, but may try again

All of the following have been linked to increased suicide risk among teenagers, EXCEPT:
access to pro-suicide sites on the Internet

A developing body of research shows that antidepressant use in children and adolescents:
increases suicide risk for some individuals, but decreases the overall suicide risk

Over the past couple of decades, the correlation between number of antidepressant prescriptions and younger patient suicide rates has been:
negative; as the number of antidepressant prescriptions increases, the younger patient suicide rate decreases

For teenagers, the highest suicide rates are found among:
white Americans and American Indians

The percentage of successful suicide attempts among the elderly is about:
50 times as high as the percentage of successful suicide attempts among adolescents

A couple has been married for almost 50 years, then one of them dies. The probability that the surviving spouse will commit suicide:
is much higher than normal

The spouse of an elderly individual in the United States has recently died; the individual was experiencing clinical depression before the spouse’s death. The suicide risk for this individual is:
very high — both death of a spouse and depression are related to an elevated suicide risk

In 1997, Oregan passed the “Death with Dignity Act,” which allows doctor-assisted suicide for persons with terminal illnesses. Since 1997, on average, how many Oregonians with terminal illness have ended their lives each year?
a few dozen

Some believe that allowing terminally ill elderly people to legally commit suicide will lead to a perceived “duty to die,” involving:
elderly people committing suicide because they think they should

Treatment for suicide attempters:
typically involves medical and psychological care

Suicide prevention centers:
may deliver services over the phone using paraprofessionals

At a suicide prevention center, you hear the following from the counselor. “Can you tell me what you think are the most important factors that are making you feel hopeless right now? If you could change three things about your life, what would they be?” Which of the goals and techniques of suicide prevention do these questions BEST represent?
understanding and clarifying the problem

At a suicide prevention center, you hear the following from the counselor. “Have you ever tried to commit suicide in the past? [If yes] How did you try to do it?” Which one of the goals and techniques of suicide prevention do these questions BEST represent?
assessing suicide potential

At a suicide prevention center, you hear the following from the counselor. “Who can you think of who might be able to come over and stay with you for a few hours?” Which of the goals and techniques of suicide prevention does the quote best represent?
assessing and mobilizing the caller’s resources

When talking with a potentially suicidal individual on a suicide hot line, the final step for the counselor is to:
formulate a plan

A typical caller to an urban suicide prevention center is:
young, female, African American

Which statement about the successes of suicide prevention programs is most accurate?
Of those who call, fewer commit suicide than those who don’t call who are in a similar risk group

The MOST well-developed understanding of the causes of suicide come from the:
sociocultural model

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