Abnormal psychology Ch 6 Corrections

an important difference between mood disorders and normal mood fluctuation is
the severity and duration of the problem

In the United States, the prevalence of unipolar depression in boys is
the same as it is for girls, but the prevalence for men is lower than it is for women

What is the current incidence of severe unipolar depression in the United States?
8 percent

Research shows that crying is most likely to be perceived as acceptable public behavior if
a man cries a little bit about something important

A politician decides to use tears to try to manipulate public opinion, by crying at a news conference. research shows that the politician’s use of tears will be MOST effective if the politician is a
man, and he cries a little

Which of the following would be an emotional symptom of depression?
experiences of sadness and anger

the experience of feeling like weeping constantly would be considered a(n) ______ symptom of depression
emotional

The experience of a lack of desire to engage in sexual activity with one’s spouse would be MOSTLy considered a _____ symptom of depression
motivational

A person displaying sadness, lack of energy, headaches, and feelings of low self worth is showing all of the following symptoms EXCEPT
behavioral symptoms

which of the following would be a behavioral symptom of depression
staying in bed for hours during the day

having frequent headaches disturbances in sleep and loss of appetite are ________ symptoms of depression
physical

which of the following would be a physical symptom of depression
sleeping poorly

to be classified as having a major depressive episode depression must last for a period of at least
two weeks

To receive a diagnosis of dysthymic disorder, an individual must have experienced smptoms for at least
two years

Sohila has been deteriorating for more than a year. She is always tired, she is losing weight, she is sad, feels terrible and feels like it will never get any better. When asked, it is clear that nothing in particular has happened. Based onn these data, the diagnosis would MOST likely be
endogenous depression

Family pedigree and twin studies have been used to look for a genetic predisposition for uniploar depression. These studies have found
a higher than chance rate of depression among the families of depressed patients

2**** Family pedigree and twin studies have been used to look for a predisposition for unipolar depression within families. Which theoretical framework encompasses these studies?
biological

Recent studies show about what proportion of those experiencing major depressive disorder receive treatment for that disorder
50 percent

Seasonal affective disorder is associated with fewer hours per day of daylight during the winter months. Less daylight or, more accurately, more darkness, may cause the release of:
melatonin

If people with unipolar depression were found to have higher levels of cortisol , such a finding would support the influence of:____
biochemical orientation

one problem with analogue studies of depression is that
one cannot be sure depression-like symptoms in lab animals reflect human depression

The belief that the prefrontal cortex has a very important part to play in the development of depression
is probably correct: lower activity in the prefrontal cortex is associated with depression

As a result of taking antidepressant drugs, a person is experiencing increased production of new neurons in the hippocampus. This is:
normal, and is one indication of successful treatment

Recent research indicates that all of the following brain structures or regions are part of the brain circuit involved in unipolar depression, EXCEPT
the corpus callosum

what is the average length of time for the treatment of major depressive disorder with ect
2-4 weeks

Assume that a new study suggests the corpus callosum may cause unipolar depression by moving messages too slowly from one cerebral hemisphere to the other. This study would be:
very unusual; previous studies have most strongly connected other brain areas to depression.

Which of the following statements MOST accurately reflects current research findings?
Stress produces dysregulated immune systems, which may then produce unipolar depression

A friend with unipolar depression is considering ECT as a form of therapy. Your most accurate comment would be:
It might help, although you might experience permanent loss of some memories

ECT has changed over the years. Patients given this treatment now may receive:
anesthetics

what do ect vagus nerve stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation have in common
They suggest that brain stimulation is effective in treating severe forms of depression

Today, electroconvulsive therapy :
also involves the use of muscle relaxants.

one of the side effects of ect is
memory loss

People who take MAO inhibitors and want to decrease the risk of negative side effects should make the greatest changes in which aspect of their life?
what they eat

If you had high blood pressure, you would want to be especially careful when using
MAO inhibitors

MAO inhibitors are biochemical agents that alleviate depressive symptoms in approximately half of the clinically depressed patiets who take them. What is the mechanism of action of these drugs?
They interfere with the destruction of norepinephrine

mao inhibitors appear to work in the treatment of depression by
increasing norepinephrine activity

A person who is recovering from depression continues to take tricyclic medication for several months after most symptoms are gone. This is called:
maintenance therapy, and is often necessary to keep symptoms from reappearing

Second generation antidepresant medications include;
Anafranil and Eldepryl

apparently tricyclics work by
blocking the reuptake of norepinephrine and serotonin

compared to earlier antidepressant drugs second-generation antidepressant drugs
do not work either faster or more effectively

A person taking antidepressant medication is starting to gain weight, and reports decreasing interest in sexual activity. These changes are MOST common among people taking what kind of antidepressant medication?
second-generation antidepressaants

some so-called second-generation antidepressants appear to act by
selectively blocking the reuptake of serotonin

second generation antidepressants
target specific neurotransmission reuptake

Despite trying several kinds of antidepressants, a person with depression reports no relief of symptoms. This person’s experience is:
somewhat uncommon, around 60 percent of those with depression do show symptom relief with drugs alone

Publication bias regarding drug treatments for depression means that
Studies showing the effectiveness of the drug are more likely to be published than studies failing to show its effectiveness

The impact of publication bias regarding drug treatments for depression MOST likely means that:
we overestimate the potential effectiveness of medications for depression

if a study shows that an antidepressant medication is effective that study is
more likely to be published than a study showing an antidepressant medication is not effective

White Americans receiving Medicaid are
more likely than African Americans to be prescribed antidepressant medication by may be less likely to respond to the medication

how likely are medicaid recipients to be prescribed antidepressant medication
White Americans more often than Hispanic Americans; Hispanic Americans more often than African Americans

among the biological treatments for depression the one that uses an implanted pulse generator is
vagus nerve stimulation

Studies show that individuals with severe depression who have not benefited from more conventionl treatments are about how likely to improve from using vagus nerve stimulation?
40 percent

In which of the treatments for depression is/are a stimulating current sent through a patient’s prefrontal cortex?
TMS

according to freudian theory depression results in part from
regression to the oral stage

the clinician who would be most likely to say tell me about any early losses you experienced is a
psychodynamic clinician

Which theoretical model is supported by the finding that monkeys separated from their mothers at birth show signs of depression?
psychodynamic

Which of the following statements about psychodynamic therapy in treating unipolar depression is MOST accurate?
Long term therapy is only occasionally helpful to those with unipolar depression

increasing pleasant activities is most likely to be a part of a ______ therapy program
behavioral

Behavioral therapy for the treatment of unipolar depression may include;
reinforcing nondepressed behavior

a behavioral therapist is most likely to use which of the following in treating a patient with unipolar depression
praise for engaging in positive activities

Behaviorist would be MOST likely to say that depressed people must improve their social skills because:
positive reinforcement is given to people who exhibit positive social behavior

The type of clinician would would MOST likely say, What are some things you enjoy doing, and how often do you do them? it would be a:
behavioral clinician

Current research regarding the effectiveness of behavioral therapy for depression is MOST consistent with which of the following statements?
Using a combination of behavioral techniques works better than using just one

Martin Seligman has developed a theory based on the idea that depression results from:
a belief that one has no control over the events in one’s life

According to Martin Seligman’s theory, who of the following would be MOST likely to develop learned helplessness?
someone who had experienced uncontrollabel negatie events and then a controllabel negative event

A woman who was frequently but unpredictable beaten by her husband was finally taken to a shelter by the police. While there, she did not take advantage of educational and job training opportunities. How would cognitive theorist explain her behavior?
learned helplessness

Many victims of spousal abuse stay with their abusers, even though it is obvious to others that they should, and actually could, leave. A good explanation for their behavior is:
learned helplessness

Darius thinks that his poor performance in math was due to a bad teacher. He also believes that he is good in language based subjects. Darius is sure that he will do better in math next year. This is an example of:
external,specific, and unstable attribution.

The clinician who would be MOST likely to ask, Do you believe you will always feel like this in all situations it is a
cognitive clinician

the individual associated with developing a cognitive theory of depression that is based on negative and maladaptive thinking was
Aaron Beck

which of the following is a correct match of person and approach
Aaron Beck and cognitive therapy

All of Aaron Beck’s cognitively based explanations for depression have received research support, EXCEPT for:
All of these explanations have received research support

Which of these research findings provides the MOST direct support for Aaron Beck’s cognitive theory of depression?
Depressed women make even more errors in logic when interpreting a paragraph than do nondepressed women

IF I’m in a depressed mood and all I do is think about my mood, without trying to change it, Im making what kind of response?
ruminative

Your aunt says, I know I’m depressed, and I think and worry about my depression constantly. However, I never actually do anything about it. Your aunt is:
making a ruminative response

The increasing activities and elevating mod phase of Aaron Beck’s treatment for depression:
makes the therapy cognitive behavioral rather than purely cognitive

which one of the following statements is most consistent with the use of acceptance and commitment therapy for depression
Accepting negative thoughts and working with them is preferable to rejecting them entirely

CLients who test their assumptions about what is causing their depression are using which phase of Aaron Beck treatment program?
changing primary attitudes

Which of the following is TRUE about the research on the effectiveness of cognitive therapy in treating unipolar depression?
it neraly eliminates depressive symptoms in 50 to 60 percent of the cases

One who looks at the influence of race, living conditions, marital status, and roles on the development of depression would MOST likely represent which theoretical orientiation?
sociocultural

A decrease in social rewards, especially a decrease in social support such as the support found in a happy marriage, may precede the onset of depression, providing evidence supporting which of the following theoretical perspectives?
behavioral and sociocultural

A recently divorced individual who swears off dating for fear of experience another failed relationship has an increased risk of developing a depressive disorder, providing direct support for which theoretical explanations of depression?
behavioral and sociocultural

A friend of yours who has been diagnosed with depression asks you, I’m concerned about my child; is there anything I should especially be aware of? Of the following, your BEST answer would be, Yes, most people with depression don’t
read to their child

in the united states the highest depression rate is found in
divorced people

after a couple divorced you learn that one of them is suffering from depression. most likely
a troubled marriage led to the depression

Interpersonal psychotherapy was developed within which theoretical perspective?
sociocultural

If your therapist encouraged you to explore your roles in life- how they might be changing or how your expectations might be different from someone else’s- your therapist would MOST likely be using:
interpersonal psychotherapy

A friend of yours who has recently married reports what may be symptoms of unipolar depression. A therapist using interpersonal psychotherapy would MOST likely say this is because of your friend’s
interpersonal role transition

I think I need some therapy for depression, a friend says, but I don’t like drugs. Should I go with a cognitive behavioral approach, or interpersonal psychotherapy? Based on current research, your BEST answer is:
interpersonal role transition

An individual with unipolar depression is reporting a great deal of conflict in a marital relationship and is considering behavioral marital therapy. Is this a good idea?
marital therapy works about as well as any other form of theraphy

Which of the following is the BEST example of interpersonal role transition?
going away to college for the first time

A woman who is in conflict with her husband over whether she should have a career or stay at home full time to care for their children is experiencing:
interpersonal role dispute

Which of the following is true about the research on the effectiveness of interpersonal psychotherapy in treating unipolar depression?
It is similar to cognitive therapy in effectiveness

According to research, the success rate for interpersonal therapy is about the same as that for:
cognitive therapy

Depression is more common in women because they experience more taxing life situations, such as poverty and discrimination than men do.
life stress theory

Arifact theory differs importantly from other sociocultural theories of depression because it suggests:
women and men are equally likely to develop depression

A friend is curious about something. I hear that women are more likely to be diagnosed with depression than men are. Why? Your BEST answer, based on the research, is:
There are several theories, but every theory has its strengths and weaknesses

A woman who has just given birth is anxious, has trouble sleeping, and feels sad. These symptoms diminish in the next couple of weeks. What she has experienced i MOST likely :
the baby blues, something experienced by over half of new mothers

For women experiencing postpartum depression, which of the following is TRUE regarding psychotherapy for their depression?
Many women with postpartum depression find self help support groups particulary helpful

An individual diagnosed with depression is tired, weak, and losing weight, but it guilt-free, with reasonably high self-esteem. The symptoms this individual shows are MOST like those of depressed persons in:
China or Nigeria

Compared to African Americans, white Americans are:
about as likely to be diagnosed with depression, but less likely to have recurrent episodes

Which of the following is NOT a goal of the cultural sensitive therapy movement?
therapy for minority clients delivered exlusively by minority therapist

Of the following, the MOST accurate description of the symptoms of mania would be that they:
don’t include a sense of the impact of one’s actions on others

A person experiencing mania goes out with friends, looking for adventure. Additionally, the individual talks loudly, runs rather than walks, and has given away a lot of money to random people on the street. These symptoms are primarily:
motivational and behavioral

the most common cognitive definition of someone exhibiting mania is that the person is
excessively optimistic, with poor judgment

On an impulse, David decides to throw a huge party. It takes four days of round- the clock work to get everything ready, then David welcomes over 200 guest. When the police stop by because David has blocked a public road to have room for the party, he flies into a rage. MOST likely, David is experiencing:
a manic phase of biopolar l disorder

The difference between bipolar disorder and biopolar disorder is:
the severity of manic episodes

milder forms of bipolar disorders are known as
cyclothymic disorders

Bipolar disorders have recently been linked to:
improper sodium transport

Rosita swings between periods of bottomless depressions and high flying enthusiasm. She never hits the middle. Her physician is MOST likely to recommend treatment using:
lithium

Studies show at LEAST____ of manic patients treated with lithium improve
60 percent

A person with bipolar disorder is taking a commonly used drug to stabilize mood in the manic episodes. What else might also happen as a result of taking this drug?
The person might experience at least partial relief from depressive episodes

A talented artist is experiencing severe bipolar disorder. In terms of artistic output only, the BESt thing that artist could do is:
seek treatment: psychological disturbance is not necessary for good artistic output

Lithium appears to affect
second messengers

Which of the following is an example of effective adjunctive therapy for bipolar disorder?
individual or group therapy

If we ultimately find that people with unipolar depression have certain biochemical characteristics, certain cognitive characteristics, and certain life stressors, then we will have evidence that:
an betwwen factos cause depression

Of the following statements, which is MOST accurate, based on current research?
Unipolar depression has several important factors; bipolar disorder has one major factor

A state in which one feels low and life seems bleak with overwhelming challenges is called
depression

Depressed people are usually less active and less productive. This is a ______ symptom.
behavioral

An individual may receive a diagnosis of _______ if she displays less disabling symptoms of unipolar depression over a period of at least two years.
dysthymic disorder

When a clear-cut stressful event appears to be responsible for the onset of a major depressive episode, clinicians refer to it as _______
reactive depression, exogenous depression

A person diagnosed with unipolar depression shows low activity of a neurotransmitter chemical. If activity of norepinephrine is normal, then the neurotransmitter showing low activity is MOST likely_____
serotonin

One concern about the use of ECT is that it may lead to problems with
memory

The type of antidepressant drug that works by interfering with the enzyme that normally destroys norepinephrine is a _____
monoamine oxidase inhibitor

People being treated for depression with MAO inhibitors should avoid food containing
tyramine

Antidepressant drugs that reduce depression by acting on neurotransmitter- reuptake mechanisms are called ____
tricylics

SSRI’s increase ____ activity in the synapse.
serotonin

Antidepressant drugs which target only one neurotransmitter are called
SSRIs or second generation antidepressants

A person taking antidepressant medicaton reports a dramatic decrease in sex drive and its gaining weight. MOST likely, that person is taking one of a group of drugs called____
second-generation antidepressants, SSRIs

Sending a stimulating current through a patient’s prefrontal cortex, whcih substantially reduces the patient’s symptoms of depression, is called
transcranial magnetic stimulation

To explain the relationship between loss and depression, Freud used the concept of____ in which a person unconsciously interprets negative experiences as the loss of a loved one.
symbolic loss, imagined loss

Harry Harlow’s infant monkey studies have been used to support the ___ explanation for the relationship between loss and depression.
psychodynamic

Peter Lewinsohn has developed a theory that depression results from a progressive decrease in the number of ____ that a person receives over a period of time.
positive reinforcements, social rewards

Determining what a patient truly likes to do is part of a therapy approach for depression based on _____ principles
behavior

I have no control over things in my life. The___ theory of depression MOST closely explains this statement
learned helplessness

People become depressed when they believe that they have no control over the events in their lives and that they cannot change this condition. This is known as the view of depression.
learned helplessness or attribution-helplessness, or hopelessness

The ideas that a person suffering from unipolar depression must correct a group of negative thought paterns is generally known as ___
the cognitive triad

The theorist responsible for focusing attention on the negative aspects of thinking as an explanation of depression is____
Aaron Beck

Aaron Beck’s work led him to believe that____ lies at the heart of unipolar depression.
negative thinking, maladaptive thinking, the cognitive triad

According to Beck, arbitrary inferences, minimizations, and magnifications are examples of ___ that lead to negativity.
errors in thinking

The fact that separated or divorced people are about three times as likely to experience depression than are married people provides support for ____ theory
sociocultural, social support

Margarette is not getting what she expected out of her new marriage. her husband is demanding but often absent. Because of the situation she has fallen into a depression. this is what interpersonal psychotherapist call a ____
interpersonal role transition

Women and men are equally prone to depression, but gender differences in the rate of diagnosing this disorder arise because clinicians often fail to detect this disorder in men. This is the ___
artifact theory

I’m going out to convince the drug dealers of the erros of their ways. the i’ll wirte a play about my work and put it on Broadway. But first, I need to go home and cook a gourment meal. The individual saying this is MOST likely experiencing a___ episode
manic

A person who exhibits mild euphoria, moderat feelings of well-being, and somewhat elevated levels of physical activity is
hypomanic, exhibiting hypomania

A milder pattern of mood swings that does not reach the severity of bipolar disorder but does include depressie and manic episodes has been identified as
cyclothymic disorder

After starting a drug treatment program for bipolar disorder, a patient showed substantial reduction in the severity and frequency of manic episodes. MOST likely, the patient is taking
lithium, or mood stabilizing drugs

Bipolar disorders respond better to a combination of lithium treatment and psychotherapy than to either treatment alone. This combination is called___
adjunctive therapy

A therapist using free association and dream interpretation discovers that as a small child her patient had been left alone by her mother on several occasions and concludes that the patient is experiencing unipolar depression. The therapist is most likely …

Unipolar Depression Mental disorder with only depression as a component (in contrast to bipolar in which depression and elation alternating predominate) Symptoms (Depression) 1. Emotional – -feeling sad and dejected – Anhedonia- excessive crying, no joy in anything, no pleasure. …

Although bipolar 1 disorder is described as “bipolar”, a depressed episode is not necessary for a diagnosis. Which of the following would eliminate a potential diagnosis of cyclothymia? Carol was absolutely convinced that her mother wanted to kill her, although …

Unipolar Depression Treatments: Psychological Approaches: PSYCHODYNAMIC THERAPY therapists here seek to help clients bring underlying issues to consciousness and work through them. they encourage the depressed client to associate freely during therapy; suggest interpretations of the client’s associations, dreams, and …

An important difference between mood disorders and normal mood fluctuation is… The severity and duration of the problem What is the current incidence of severe unipolar depression in the United States? 5-10% WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON …

At a workshop about multiple personality disorder, a therapist says, “In my experience, once integration begins, the need for therapy is practically over, and later dissociations just don’t happen.” This therapist’s experience is: Very unusual; most successful therapies last well …

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