* The scientific study of mental or behavioral disorders, diseases, illnesses, dysfunctions, abnormalities or problems. Deviance/Unusual – Impaired functioning with respect to expected performance (Danger to self and others) ELEMENTS OF ABNORMALITY DevianceIrrationality DistressObserver discomfort DangerViolation of moral and ideal standard HISTORICAL VIEWS OF ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR Pendulum between supernatural and natural (scientific) explanations GREEK AND ROMAN ERA.
Hippocrates – Mental disorders have biological causes, just like physical illness Humoral Theory – The body is composed of four fluids: Diseases develop as a result of an imbalance * Opened the way for medical involvement in the treatment of mental and behavioral disorders Cicero, Roman Philosopher – Mental disorder are just extreme cases of normal personal and emotional characteristic Witchcraft and Demonology (Supernatural) – Possessions and exorcism Modern Scientific view (Natural) – Humane treatment of the mentally ill ABNORMALITY DISORDERS.
1. Anxiety Disorders – The major characteristic or is experienced when one tries to control maladaptive behaviors a. General Anxiety or Panic Disorders Different views: Psychoanalysts – Trace anxiety disorders unresolved conflicts Behavioral Theorists – Anxiety is a response to the external environment Cognitive Theorists – People over estimate the degree of harm E. g: She experienced airplane crash, that’s why when she sees airplanes, she gets scared. b. Panic Attack Some symptoms: Palpitation Trembling Losing controlShortness of breath.
As if going crazyFear of dying c. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder – Shows perfectionism that interferes with task completion – Preoccupied with details, rules, lists, order, organization – Shows rigidity and stubborness E. g: Is unable to complete a project because his or her own overly stricts standards are not met – RITUALS d. Specific Phobias – Associated with a traumatic experience or a learned reaction E. g: Algophobia – Pain Hemaphobia – Blood Claustrophobia – Crowded 2. Mood Disorders Depressive – Sadness, Loss grief *Mood swings from overly high to over low.
Manic – HighLow – Depressed Bi polar (Mania) – Sadness and Euphoria *Person’s mood alternating between poles* Psychoanalysts – Depression is reaction to loss Behavioral Theorists – Reaction to the lack of positive reinforcements and too many negative experiences Cognitive Theorists – Result how people view themselves and the world around them *Some say that genetic disposition plays role* 3. Schizoprenia – These are when person seems to sense something is real when it’s not E. g: Seeing spider crawling up their body or seeing angels.
4. Personality Disorders – Those with a personality disorders possess several distinct psychological features including: – Disturbances in self-image – Ability to have successful interpersonal relationships – Appropriateness of range of emotion a. Anti-social Personality Disorder – Characterized by a long standing pattern of a disregard for other people’s sights, often crossing the line and violating those rights Symptoms: * Failure to conform to social norm DeceitfulnessIrritability and Aggressiveness ImpulsivityReckless Disregard b.
Avoidant Personality Disorder – Characterized by a long standing and complex pattern of feelings of inadequacy, extreme sensitivity to what other people think about them E. g: Loners, people who can stay alone Symptoms: Show restraintInhibited Preoccupied Socially inept c. Borderline Personality Disorder – Has interpersonal relationships characterized by instability – Relationships and the person’s affect may after be characterized as being shallow Symptoms: – Frantic efforts to avoid real or imagined abandonment -Pattern of unstable and intense interpersonal relationships d.
Dependent Personality Disorder – Has difficulty making everyday decisions without an excessive amount of advice and reassurance from others E. g: Will I buy this? Do I have to take a bath? Will I eat? 5. Histrionic Personality Disorder – A pervasive pattern of excessive emotionality and attention seeking beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts, as indicated by five (or more) of the ff: – Uncomfortable in situation in which he or she is not the center of attention interaction with others is often characterized by inappropriate sexually seductive or provocative behaviors 6.
Narcissistic Personality Disorder Symptoms – A pervasive patter of grandiosity (in fantasy or behavior) need for admiration, and lack of empathy, beginning by early adulthood and present in variety of contexts 7. Paranoid Personality Disorder – Pervasive distinct and suspiciousness of others such that their motives are interpreted as malevolent, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts, as indicated by form (or more) of the ff: SuspectsReluctant to confide in others.
Preoccupied by unjustified doubts 8. Schizotypal Personality – Pervasive pattern of social and interpersonal deficits marked by acute discomfort with, and seduced capacity for close relationships as well as by cognitive or perceptual distortions and eccentricities of behavior – Odd beliefs or magical thinking that influences behavior and is inconsistent with sub cultural norms – Unusual perceptual experiences – Odd thinking of speech.