AAOS Emergency Care and Transportation of the Sick and Injured, Tenth Edition, Chapter 5

Abdomen
The body cavity that contains the major organs of digestion and excretion. It is located below the diaphragm and above the pelvis.

abduction
Motion of a limb away from the midline.

acetabulum
The depression on the lateral pelvis where its three component bones join, in which the femoral head fits snugly.

Adam’s apple
The firm prominence in the upper part of the larynx formed by the thyroid cartilage. It is more prominent in men than in women.

adduction
Motion of a limb toward the midline

adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
The nucleotide involved in energy metabolism; used to store energy.

adrenal glands
endocrine glands located on top of the kidneys that release adrenaline when stimulated by the sympathetic nervous system.

adrenergic
pertaining to nerves that release the neurotransmitter norepinephrine, or noradrenaline (such as adrenergic nerves, adrenergic respones). The term also pertains to the receptors acted on by norephinephrine, that is, the adrenergic receptors.

aerobic metabolism
metabolism that can proceed only in the presence of oxygen.

agonal gasps
slow, gasping breaths, sometimes seen in dying patients.

alpha-adrenergic receptors
portions of the nervous system that when stimulated can cause constriction of blood vessels.

alveoli
The air sacs of the lungs in which the exchange of oygen and carbon dioxide takes place.

anaerobic metabolism
The metabolism that takes place in the absence of oxygen; the principal product is lactic acid.

anatomic position
the position of reference in which the patient stands facing you, arms at the side, with the palms of the hands forward.

anterior
The front surface of the body; the side facing you in the standard anatomic position.

aorta
the principal artery leaving the left side of the heart and carrying freshly oxygenated blood to the body.

apex (plural apices)
The pointed extremity of a conical structure.

apneustic center
portion of the pons that increases the length of inspiration and decreases the respiratory rate.

appendicular skeleton
the portion of the skeletal system that comprises the arms, legs, pelvis, and shoulder girdle.

appendix
a small tubular structure that is attatched to the lower border of the cecum in the lower right quadrant of the abdomen.

arterioles
the smallest branches of arteries leading to the vast network of capillaries.

atrium
One of the two upper chambers of the heart.

autonomic nervous system
the part of the nervous system that regulates functions, such as digestion and sweating, that are not controlled voluntarily.

axial skeleton
the part of the skeleton comprising the skull, spinal column, and rib cage.

ball-and-socket joint
a joint athta allows internal and external rotation as well as bending.

beta-adrenergenic receptors
portions of the nervous system that when stimulate can cause an increase in the force of contraction of the heart, an increased heart rate, and bronchial dilation.

biceps
The large muscle that covers the front of the humerus.

bilateral
In autonomy, a body part that appears on both sides of the midline.

bile ducts
The ducts that convey bile between the liver and the intestine.

blood pressure(BP)
The pressure that the blood exerts against the walls of the arteries as it passes through them.

brachial artery
The major vessel in the upper extremity that supplies blood to the arm.

brain
the controlling organ of the body and center of consciousness; functions incude perception, control of reactions of the environment, emotional responses, and judgement.

brain stem
the area of the brain between the spinal cord and cerebrum, surrounded by the cerebellum; controls functions that are necessary for life, such as respiration.

capillary vessels
the tiny blood vessels between the arterioles and venules that permit transfer of oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, and waste between body tissues and the blood.

cardiac muscle
the heart muscle

carotid artery
the major artery that supplies blood to the head and brain

cartilage
the support structure of the skeletal system that provides cushioning between bones; also forms the nasal septum and portions of the outer ear

cecum
the first part of the large intestine, into which the ileum opens.

central nervous system (CNS)
the brain and spinal cord

cerebellum
one of the three major subdivisions of the brain, sometimes called “little brain”; coordinates the various activities of the brain, particularly fine body movements

cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
fluid produced in the ventricles of the brain that flows in the subarachnoid space and bathes and the meninges.

cerebrum
the largest part of the three subdivisions of the brain, sometimes called the “gray matter”; made up of several lobes that control movement, hearing, balance, speech, visual perception, emotions, and personality.

cervical spine
the portion of the spinal column consisting of the first seven vertebrae that lie in the neck.

chordae tendineae
thin bands of fibrous tissue that attached to the valves in the heart prevent them from inverting.

chyme
the name of the substance that leaves the stomach. It is a combination of all of the eaten foods with added stomach acids.

circulatory system
the complex arrangement of connected tubes, including the arteries, arterioles, capillaries, carbon dioxide, and cellular wast throughout the body.

clavicle
the collarbone; it is lateral of the sternum and anterior to the scapula

coccyx
the last three or four vertebrae of the spine; tailbone

coronal plane
an imaginary plane where the body is cut into front and back parts.

cranium
the area of the head above the ears and eyes; the skull. The cranium contains the brain.

cricoid cartilage
A firm ridge of cartilage that forms the lower part of the larynx

cricothyroid membrane
a thin sheet of fascia that connects the thyroid and cricoid cartilages that make up larynx

dead space
any portion of the airway that does contain air and cannot participate in gas exchange, such as the trachea and bronchi.

deep
further inside the body and away from the skin.

dermis
the inner layer of the skin, containing hair follicles, sweat glands, nerve endings, and blood vessels.

diaphragm
A muscular dome that forms the undersurface of the thorax, separating the chest from the abdominal cavity. Contraction of the diaphragm(and the chest wall muscles) brings air into the lungs. Relaxation allows air to be expelled from the lungs.

diastole
The relaxation, or period of relaxation of the heart especially of the ventricles.

diffusion
movement of a gas from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.

digestion
the processing of food that nourishes the individual cells of the body.

distal
farther from trunk or nearer to the free end of the extremity

dorsal
the posteior surface of the body, including the back of the hand.

dorsalis pedis artery
the artery on the anterior surface of the foot between the first and second metatarsals.

dorsal respiratory group (DRG)
A PORTION OF THE MEDULLA OBLONGATA WHERE THE PRIMARY RESPIRATORY PACEMAKER IS FOUND.

endocrine system
The complex message and control system that integrates many body functions, including the release of hormones.

enzymes
substances catalysts designed to speed up the rate of specific biochemical reactions.

epidermis
the outer layer of the skin, which is made up of all cells that are sealed together to form a watertight protective covering for the body.

epiglottis
A thin, leaf-shaped valve that allows air to pass into the trachea but prevents food and liquid from entering.

epinephrine
A hormone produced by the adrenal medulla that has a vital role in the function of the sympathetic nervous system.

esophagus
A collapsible tube that extends from the pharynx to the stomach; contractions of the muscle in the wall of the esophagus propel food and liquids through it to the stomach.

expiratory reserve volume
The amount of air that can be exhaled following a normal exhalation; average volume is about 1,200 mL.

extend
to straighten

extension
straightening of a joint

fallopian tubes
Long, slender tubes that extend from the uterus to the region of the ovary on the same side and through which the ovum passes from the ovary to the uterus.

femoral artery
The principal artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery. It supplies blood to the lower abdominal wall, external genitalia, and legs. It can be palpated in the groin area.

femoral head
THE PROXIMAL END OF THE FEMUR, ARTICULATING WITH THE ACETABULUM TO FORM THE HIP JOINT.

femur
The thighbone; the longest and one of the strongest bones in the body.

flex
to bend

flexion
the bending a joint

foramen magnum
A large opening at the base of the skull through which the brain connects to the spinal cord.

gallbladder
A sac on the undersurface of the liver that collects bile from the liver and discharges it into the duodenum through the common bile duct.

genital system
The reproductive system in males and females.

germinal layer
The deepest layer of the epidermis where new skin cells are formed.

greater trochanter
a bony prominence on the proximal lateral side of the thigh, just below the hip joint.

hair follicles
small organs that produce hair

heart
a hollow, muscular organ that pumps blood throughout the body

heart rate
The number of heartbeats during a specific time.

Hering-Breuer reflex
A protective mechanism that terminates inhalation, thus preventing overexpansion of the lungs.

hinge joints
Joints that can bend and straighten but cannot rotate; they restrict motion to one plane.

hormones
Substances formed in specialized organs or glands and carried to another organ or group of cells in the same organism. Hormones regulate many body functions, including metabolism, growth, and body temperature.

humerus
The supporting bone of the upper arm

hydrostatic pressure
The pressure of water against the walls of its container

hypoxic drive
A “backup system” to control respiration; senses drops in the oxygen level in the blood.

ilium
One of three bones that fuse to form the pelvic ring.

inferior
below a body part or nearer to the feet.

inferior vena cava
One of the two largest veins in the body; carries blood from the lower extremities and the pelvic and the abdominal organs to the heart.

inspiratory reserve volume
the amount of air that can be inhaled after anormal inhalation; the amount of air that can be inhaled in addition to the normal tidal volume.

inteerstitial space
The space in between the cells.

involuntary muscle
The muscle over which a person has no conscious control. It is found in many automatic regulating system of the body.

ischium
One of three bones that fuse to form the pelvic ring

joint (articulation)
the place where two bones come into contact.

joint capsule
the fibous sac that encloses a joint.

kidneys
Two retroperitoneal organs that excrete the end products of metabolism as urine and regulate the body’s salt and water content.

labored breathing
The use of muscles of the chest, back, and abdomen to assist in expanding the chest; occurs when air movement is impaired.

lactic acid
A metabolic end product of the breakdown of glucose that accumulates when metabolism proceeds in the absence of oxygen.

large intestine
the portion of the digestive tube that encircles the abdomen around the small bowel, consisting of the cecum, the colon, and the rectum. It helps regulate water balance and eliminate solid waste.

lateral
In anatomy, parts of the body that lie farther from the midline. Also called outer structures

lesser trochanter
THE PROJECTION ON THE MEDIAL/SUPERIOR PORTION OF THE FEMUR.

ligament
A band of fibrous tissue that connects bones to bones. It supports and strengthens a joint.

liver
A large solid organ that lies in the right upper quadrant immediately below the diaphragm; it produces bile, stores glucose for immediate use by the body, and produces many substances that help regulate immune responses.

lumbar spine
The lower part of the back, formed by the lowest five nonfused vertebrae; also called the dorsal spine.

mandible
the bone of the lower jaw.

manubrium
upper quarter of the sternum

maxillae
The upper jawbones that assist in the formation of the orbit, the nasal cavity, and the palate and hold the upper teeth.

medial
parts of the body that lie closer to the midline; also called inner structures.

medulla oblongata
nerve tissue that is continuous inferiorly with the spinal cord; serves as a conduction pathway for ascending and descending nerve tracts; coordinates heart rate, blood vessel diameter, breathing, swallowing, vomiting, coughing, and sneezing.

midbrain
The part of the brain that is responsible for helping to regulate the level of consciousness.

midsagittal plane (midline)
An imaginary vertical line drawn from the middle of the forehead through the nose and the umbilicus (navel) to the floor.

minute volume
The amount of air that moves in and out of the lungs per minute minus the dead space. Also called minute ventilation.

motor nerves
Nerves that carry information from the central nervous system to the muscles of the body.

mucous membranes
The lining of body cavities and passages that communicate directly or indirectly with the environment outside the body.

mucus
The opaque, sticky secretion of the mucous membranes that lubricates the body openings.

musculoskeletal system
system of bones and skeletal muscles that support and protect the body

myocardium
heart muscle

nasopharynx
The part of the pharynx that lies above the level of the roof of the mouth, or palate

nervous system
The system that controls virtually all activities of the body, both voluntary and involuntary.

norepinephrine
a neurotransmitter and drug sometimes used in the treatment of shock; produces vasoconstriction through its alpha-stimulator properties

occiput
The most posterior portion of the cranium.

oncotic pressure
THE PRESSURE OF WATER TO MOVE, TYPICALLY INTO THE CAPILLARY, AS THE RESULT OF THE PRESENCE OF PLASMA PROTEINS.

orbit
The eye socket, made up of the maxilla and zygoma

oropharynx
A tubular structure that extends vertically from the back of the mouth to the esophagus and trachea

ovaries
The female sex glands that store the ova and produce female sex hormones

palmar
The forward facing part of the hand in the anatomic position.

pancreas
a flat, solid organ that lies below the liver and the stomach; it is a major source of digestive enzymes and produces the hormone insulin.

parasympathetic nervous system
A subdivision of the autonomic nervous system, involved in control of involuntary, vegetative functions, mediated largely by the vagus nerve through the chemical acetylcholine.

parietal regions
The areas between the temporal and occipital regions of the cranium.

patella
The kneecap; a specialized bone that lies within the tendon of the quadriceps muscle.

pathophysiology
The study of how normal physiologic processes are affected by disease.

perfusion
The circulation of oxygenated blood within an organ or tissue in adequate amounts to meet the cells’ current needs.

peripheral nervous system
The part of the nervous system that consists of 31 pairs of spinal nerves and 12 pairs of cranial nerves. These peripheral nerves may be sensory nerves, motor nerves, or connecting nerves.

peristalsis
The wavelike contraction of smooth muscle by which the ureters or other tubular organs propel their contents

plantar
The bottom surface of the foot.

plasma
A sticky, yellow fluid that carries the blood cells and nutrients and transports cellular waste material to the organs of excretion.

platelets
Tiny, disk-shaped elements that are much smaller than the cells; they are essential in the initial formation of a blood clot, the mechanism that stops bleeding.

pleura
The serous membranes covering the lungs and lining the thoracic cavity completely enclosing a potential space known as pleural space.

pleural space
The potential space between the parietal pleura and the visceral pleura. It is described as “potential” because under normal conditions, the space does not exist.

pneumotaxic (pontine) center
A portion of the pons that assists in creating shorter, faster respirations.

pons
an organ that lies below the midbrain and above the medulla and contains numerous important nerve fibers including those for sleep, respiration, and the medullary respiratory center

posterior
In anatomy, the back surface of the body; the side away from you in the standard anatomic position.

posterior tibial artery
The artery just behind the medial malleolus; supplies blood to the foot.

prostate gland
A small gland that surrounds the male urethra where it emerges from the urinary bladder; it secretes a fluid that is part of the ejaculatory fluid.

proximal
closer to the trunk

pubic symphysis
A hard bony cartilaginous prominence found at the midline in the lowermost portion of the abdomen where the two halves of the pelvic ring are joined by cartilage at a joint with minimal motion

pubis
One of three bones that fuse to form the pelvic ring.

pulmonary artery
The major artery leading from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs; it carries oxygen-poor blood.

pulmonary circulation
The flow of blood from the right ventricle through the pulmonary arteries and all of their branches and capillaries in the lungs and back to the left atrium through the venules and pulmonary veins; also called the lesser circulation.

pulmonary veins
The four veins that return oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart.

pulse
the wave of pressure created as the heart contracts and forces blood out the left ventricle and into the major arteries

quadrants
The way to describe the sections of the abdominal cavity. Imagine two lines intersecting at the umbilicus dividing the abdomen into four equal areas.

radial artery
The major artery in the forearm; it is palpable at the wrist on the thumb side.

radius
The bone on the thumb side of the forearm.

rectum
The lowermost end of the colon

red blood cells
Cells that carry oxygen to the body’s tissues; also called erythrocytes.

renal pelvis
A cone-shaped collecting area that connects the ureter and the kidney.

residual volume
THE AIR THAT REMAINS IN THE LUNGS AFTER MAXIMAL EXPIRATION.

respiration
the inhaling and exhaling of the air; the physiologic process that exchanges carbon dioxide from fresh air.

respiratory system
All the structures of the body that contribute to the process of breathing, consisting of the upper and lower airways and their component parts.

reticular activating system
Located in the upper brain stem; responsible for maintenance of consciousness, specifically one’s level of arousal.

retroperitoneal
Behind the abdominal cavity.

sacroiliac joint
The connection point between the pelvis and the vertebral column.

sacrum
One of three bones (sacrum and two pelvic bones) that make up the pelvic ring; consists of five fused sacral vertebrae.

sagittal (lateral) plane
An imaginary line where the body is cut into left and right parts.

salivary glands
The glands that produce saliva to keep the mouth and pharynx moist.

scalp
The thick skin covering the cranium, which usually bears hair.

scapula
shoulder blade

sebaceous glands
Glands tat produce an oily substance called sebum, which discharges along the shafts of the hairs.

semen
seminal fluid ejaculated from the penis and containing sperm

seminal vesicles
Storage sacs for sperm and seminal fluid, which empty into the urethra at the prostate.

sensory nerves
The nerves that carry sensations of touch, taste, heat, cold, pain, and other modalities from the body to the central nervous system.

shock
an abnormal state associated with inadequate oxygen and nutrient delivery to the metabolic apparatus of the cell.

shoulder girdle
The proximal portion of the upper extremity, made up of the clavicle, the scapula, and the humerus.

skeletal muscle
muscle that is attached to bones and usually crosses at least one joint; striated, or voluntary, muscle.

skeleton
The framework that gives the body its recognizable form; also designed to allow motion of the body and protection of vital organs.

small intestine
The portion of the digestive tube between the stomach and the cecum, consisting of the duodenum, jejunum, ilium

smooth muscle
Involuntary muscle; it constitutes the bulk of the gastrointestinal tract and is present in nearly every organ to regulate activity.

somatic nervous system
The part of the nervous system that regulates activities over which is voluntary control.

sphincters
Muscles arranged in circles that are able to decrease the diameters of tubes. Examples are found within the rectum, bladder, and blood vessels

sphygmomanometer
A device used to measure blood pressure

spinal cord
An extension of the brain, composed of virtually all the nerves carrying messages between the brain and the rest of the body. It lies inside of and is protected by the spinal canal.

sternum
The breastbone

stratum corneal layer
The outermost or dead layer of the skin

stroke volume (SV)
The volume of blood pumped forward with each ventricular contraction.

subcutaneous tissue
Tissue, largely fat, that lies directly under the dermis and serves as an insulator of the body.

superficial
Closer to or on the skin.

superior
Above a body part or nearer to the head.

superior vena cava
One of the two largest veins in the body; carries blood from the upper extremities, head, neck, and chest into the heart.

sweat glands
The glands that secrete sweat, located in the dermal layer of the skin.

smphysis
A type of joint that has grown together forming a very stable connection.

synovial fluid
The small amount of liquid within a joint used as lubrication.

synovial membrane
The lining of joint that secretes synovial fluid into the joint space.

systemic circulation
The portion of the circulatory system outside of the heart and lungs.

systemic vascular resistance (SVR)
The resistance that blood must overcome to be able to move within the blood vessels. SVR is related to the amount of dilation or constriction in the blood vessel.

systole
The contraction, or period of contraction, of the heart, especially that of the ventricles.

temporal regions
The laterals portions on each side of the cranium.

tendons
The fibrous connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone.

testicle
A male genital gland that contains specialized cells that produce hormones and sperm.

thoracic cage
The chest or rib cage.

thoracic cavity
The chest cavity that contains the heart, lungs, esophagus, and great vessels.

Thoracic spine
The 12 vertebrae that lie between the cervical vertebrae and lumbar vertebrae. One pair of ribs is attached to each of the thoracic vertebrae.

thorax
The chest cavity that contains the heart, lungs, esophagus, and greater vessels.

thyroid cartilage
A firm prominence of cartilage that forms the upper part of the larynx; the Adam’s apple.

tibia
The shin bone, the larger of the two bones of the lower leg.

tidal volume
The amount of air moved in and out of the lungs in one relaxed breath; about 500 mL for an adult.

topograhic anatomy
The superficial landmarks of the body that serve as guides to the structures that lie beneath them.

torso
The trunk without the head and limbs

trachea
the windpipe; the main trunk for air passing to and from the lungs.

transverse (axial) plane
An imaginary line where the body is cut into top and bottom parts.

triceps
The muscle in the back of the upper arm.

tunica media
THE MIDDLE AND THICKEST LAYER OF TISSUE OF A BLOOD VESSEL WALL, COMPOSED OF ELASTIC TISSUE AND SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS THAT ALLOW THE VESSEL TO EXPAND OR CONTRACT IN RESPONSE TO CHANGES IN BLOOD PRESSURE AND TISSUE DEMAND.

ulna
The inner bone of the forearm, on the side opposite of the thumb

ureter
A small, hollow tube that carries urine from the kidney to the bladder.

urethra
The canal that conveys urine from the bladder to outside the body.

urinary bladder
A sac behind the pubic symphysis made of smooth muscle that collects and stores urine.

urinary system
The organs that control the discharge of certain waste materials filtered from the blood and excreted as urine.

vagina
A muscular distensible tube that connects the uterus with the vulva (the external female genitalia); also called the birth canal

vasa deferential
the spermatic duct of the testicles; also called vas deferns.

ventilation
the movement of air in and out of the lungs and the environment

ventral
The anterior surface of the body.

ventral respiratory group (VRG)
A PORTION OF THE MEDULLA OBLONGATA THAT IS RESPONSIBLE FOR MODULATING BREATHING DURING SPEECH.

ventricle
one of two lower chambers of the heart

vertebrae
The 33 bones that make up the spinal column.

voluntary muscle
Muscle that is under direct voluntary control of the brain and can be contracted or relaxed at will; skeletal, or striated, muscle.

V/Q ratio
A MEASUREMENT THAT EXAMINES HOW MUCH GAS IS BEING MOVED EFFECTIVELY AND HOW MUCH BLOOD IS GAINING ACCESS TO THE ALVEOLI.

white blood cells
A blood cell that functions in defending the body against infections and cancer cells; also called leukocytes

xiphoid process
The narrow, cartilaginous lower tip of the sternum.

zygomas
The quadrangular bones of the cheek, articulating with the frontal bone, the maxillae, the zygomatic processes of the temporal bone, and the great wings of the sphenoid bone.

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