A Word On Stress

Dropsy is an unusual retention of bodily fluids, it may be caused by bacteria but is more likely caused by problems within the toads metabolism, which in itself could be caused by an incorrect diet or low temperatures. Symptoms include bloating, abnormalities around the abdominal region, lethargy and reluctance to feed. It is not recommended that the average keeper attempt to try and drain the fluids himself, therefore a qualified veterinarian should be consulted.

Ameoba Infections (Internal) Amoeba infections are as simple as they sound; they are an infection caused by an invasion of parasitic amoebas. It is usually caused by unsanitary conditions or poor diet and the symptoms can be hard to detect. Faeces should be examined for blood, however to be sure of such infections a veterinarian should be consulted. Treatment for such infections should be left to the veterinarian due to the medicines required.

Worms Internal worms such as tapeworms, and flukes can prove very dangerous to fire bellied toads. They are generally caused by infected foods, poor hygiene and exposure to other infected individuals. They can be seen by increased appetite, lethargy (two conditions not normally associated and quite specific to an internal worm infestation). The worms or their eggs may also be seen in the faeces. Antibiotic treatment is required to control minor infestations. More serious infections can result in death. However whenever worms are suspected a vet should always be referred to.

A Quick Reference To Other Amphibian Diseases & AilmentsBumblefoot Bumblefoot is an infection usually found within the toes, especially where sores or lesions have developed. It may also be found on other parts of the body where lesions have occurred. Treatment – A wide spectrum antibiotic can be used (consult your vet), the solution usually requires dilution and involves soaking the animal twice each day for ten minuites until the condition has cleared.

Fungal Infections Due to the nature of warm moist environments one of the most common ailments affecting B.bombina are fungal infections. Symptoms – Inflammation and/or reddening of the skin. Yellow or white furry growths, sores, lesions and discoloration of the skin. Treatment -In the early stages, a fungal infection can be treated with a topical antiseptic, such as diluted hydrogen peroxide (75% strength for adults, 50% for young or small individuals) or fungicides. Apply the treatment daily until cleared, and address the cause of this secondary infection. Another treatment often used is one 5-minute dip in a 2% solution of malachite green. If there is no improvement, the dip may be repeated up to three times (once a day), but arrangements should be made to have a vet attend to the animal after that.

Sourced from – http://www.klsnet.com/sickamph.html Gas Bubble Disease Gas bubble disease is caused through a build up of gases, which have been taken in through the toads skin. This may be caused by excessive aeration of water, or the use of untreated tapwater. Symptoms – Bubbling on the webbed areas of the feet, and an inability to stay submerged, difficulty in eating, haemorrhaging and skin ulcers. Treatment – Altering the environmental influence, which is causing the problem. This may mean reducing the amount of air pumped into the tank, or by insuring tap water is treated (most easily done by allowing it to stand for twenty-four hours before being used).

Heat-related Muscle Spasm Syndrome Caused by prolonged exposure to excessive heat. Spasms occur mainly in the hind limbs. There is no known adequate cure. If the disease is noticed then temperatures in the enclosure should be checked, and lowered if necessary. Be careful not to lower temperatures too greatly. Low temperatures can decrease metabolism, lower immunity and even prove fatal. If one member of the collection shows symptoms of heat related muscle spasm syndrome it is likely that his tank mates will also show similar symptoms.

Mouth rot Mouth rot is caused by an infection of Flexibacter coulmnaris, Aeromonas hydrophilia or Pseudomonas vectors. Symptoms – Poor diet, difficulty in eating, visible puss around the mouth area, deformity of the skin surrounding the mouth, lethargy and signs of the infection on other parts of the body (especially where sores or lesions occur. Treatment – First, cleanse the affected area with povodine-iodine (betadine). Mix a bath solution of fin rot medication used for fish by mixing 5 drops to one pint of water. Soak the animal twice daily for 5 minutes at a time. Any material that comes loose during treatment should be gently removed and discarded before the animal accidentally ingested the infected material. Apply a topical antibiotic after the soak.

If the infection becomes severe, see a vet for antibiotic injections. A culture may have to be done to determine the exact bacteria causing the infection and the proper medication for it (usually baytril or gentamicin). – Sourced from – http://www.klsnet.com/sickamph.html Spindly Leg Syndrome (SLS) There is no known cure for this disease. It is caused by poor diet and irregular temperatures in larvae and newly metamorphisised toads. Animals suffering from the ‘disease’ are best euthanised.

Symptoms – Thin and/or fragile legs in developing larvae. Spring Disease Spring disease is found in many temperate species, and is caused by a bacteria called ranicidia, unfortunately this disease is usually fatal. Symptoms – Excessive yawning, skin discolouration (or colour loss) and lethargy. Treatment – Unknown, though a veterinarians are beginning experimentation with wide ranging antibiotics.

A Word On Stress Stress is one of the most common causes of disease and is almost always caused by mismanagement on the keeper behalf. Besides this stress itself can kill an animal, however if good husbandry and general care is maintained then the keeper should rarely if ever experience such problems. A list of possible causes of stress follows, however if one has thoroughly researched their toad and followed the suggestions in this guide there should be no such problems.

Outline and evaluate two physiological approaches to stress management. One physiological approach to stress management is drug therapy. Drug therapy targets the symptoms of stress, two such drugs are Benzodiazepines and Beta-blockers. Benzodiazepines reduce nervous system activity, this happens because the …

After the stressful crisis, the stress hormones drop and the different organ system of the body return to normal. The return is called the relaxation response (Brotman, et al. , 2007). However some people specifically those with history of depression …

1. 1 Define what is stress Stress may be defined as a response or reaction to something in the environment perceived as a threat or physical or mental change. The transitional model of stress most popular among psychologists is: A …

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1. Understand the causes of infection 2. 1 Identify the differences between bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. Bacteria – bacteria are extremely small singular organisms which are found almost everywhere. Viruses – it is a coated genetic material that invades …

This paper seeks to analyze stress as an abnormal bodily response to external or internal actions that may require the use of extra energy. It first gives a brief definition of stress, then the use of the several stresses, and …

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